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Transportation Security: Issues for the 112th Congress

Description: This report discusses how best to construct and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and response that effectively reduces the possibility and consequences of another terrorist attack without unduly interfering with travel, commerce, and civil liberties.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Randall Peterman, David; Elias, Bart & Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation Security: Issues for the lllth Congress

Description: This report discusses how best to construct and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and response that effectively reduces the possibility and consequences of another terrorist attack without unduly interfering with travel, commerce, and civil liberties.
Date: May 15, 2009
Creator: Peterman, David R.; Elias, Bart & Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation Security: Issues for the 111th Congress

Description: This report discusses how best to construct and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and response that effectively reduces the possibility and consequences of another terrorist attack without unduly interfering with travel, commerce, and civil liberties.
Date: January 28, 2009
Creator: Peterman, David R.; Elias, Bart & Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEMA's Community Disaster Loan Program: History, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

Description: This report compares and analyzes three different categories of loans issued in different time periods in the program's history: "traditional" loans issued between 1974 and 2005, in 2007, and between 2009 and 2011 (TCDLs); "special" (SCDLs) loans issued in 2005-2006 following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; and loans issued under unique provisions in 2008 (2008 CDLs).
Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Brown, Jared T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: Improved Planning and Coordination Necessary for Modernization and Integration of Public Alert and Warning System

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "A comprehensive system to alert the American people in times of hazard allows people to take action to save lives. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is responsible for the current Emergency Alert System (EAS) and the development of the new Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). In this requested report, GAO examined (1) the current status of EAS, (2) the progress made by FEMA in implementing an integrated alert and warning system, and (3) the challenges involved in implementing an integrated alert and warning system. GAO conducted a survey of states, reviewed FEMA and other documentation, and interviewed industry stakeholders and officials from federal agencies responsible for public alerting."
Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: Agencies Need Coordinated Guidance on Incorporating Telework into Emergency and Continuity Planning

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "When historic snowstorms forced lengthy closings of federal offices in the National Capital Region in 2010, thousands of employees continued to work from their homes, making clear the potential of telework in mitigating the effects of emergencies. GAO was asked to (1) describe the guidance lead agencies have issued pertaining to the use of telework during emergencies; (2) describe Office of Personnel Management (OPM) and other assessments related to agencies' incorporation of telework into emergency or continuity planning, and the extent to which the lead agencies have provided definitions and practices to support agency planning; and (3) assess the extent to which OPM and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) coordinated with other agencies on recent guidance documents. To address these objectives, GAO reviewed relevant statutes, regulations, guidance documents, and OPM's telework survey methodology, and interviewed key officials of agencies providing telework and telework-related emergency guidance."
Date: July 22, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: FEMA Faces Challenges Integrating Community Preparedness Programs into Its Strategic Approach

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Individuals can reduce their need for first responder assistance by preparing for a disaster. By law, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to develop a National Preparedness System (NPS) that includes community preparedness programs. These programs account for less than 0.5 percent of FEMA's budget. They include the Citizen Corps Program (CCP) and partner programs, e.g., Fire Corps, which provide volunteers to assist first responders. FEMA's Ready Campaign promotes preparedness through mass media. GAO was asked to review federal efforts to promote community preparedness. GAO was asked to address (1) challenges, if any, FEMA faces in measuring the performance of CCP, its partner programs, and the Ready Campaign, and (2) actions, if any, FEMA has taken to develop a strategy to encompass how these programs are to operate within the context of the NPS. GAO analyzed documents on preparedness plans and strategies and compared reported performance data with observations during 12 site visits, selected primarily on the basis of major disasters. While not projectable, the results add insight."
Date: January 29, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness and Response: Some Issues and Challenges Associated with Major Emergency Incidents

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This testimony discusses the challenges of effective emergency preparedness for, response to, and recovery from major emergencies, including catastrophic incidents. Effective emergency preparedness and response for major events requires the coordinated planning and actions of multiple players from multiple first responder disciplines, jurisdictions, and levels of government as well as nongovernmental entities. Effective emergency preparedness and response requires putting aside parochialism and working together prior to and after an emergency incident. September 11, 2001 fundamentally changed the context of emergency management preparedness in the United States, including federal involvement in preparedness and response. The biggest challenge in emergency preparedness is getting effective cooperation in planning, exercises, and capability assessment and building across first responder disciplines and intergovernmental lines. DHS has developed several policy documents designed to define the federal government's role in supporting state and local first responders in emergencies, implement a uniform incident command structure across the nation, and identify performance standards that can be used in assessing state and local first responder capabilities. Realistic exercises are a key component of testing and assessing emergency plans and first responder capabilities, and the Hurricane PAM planning exercise demonstrated their value. With regard to the status of emergency preparedness across the nation, we know relatively little about how states and localities (1) finance their efforts in this area, (2) have used their federal funds, and (3) are assessing the effectiveness with which they spend those funds. Katrina has raised a host of questions about the nation's readiness to respond effectively to catastrophic emergencies. Effective emergency preparedness is a task that is never done, but requires continuing commitment and leadership because circumstances change and continuing trade-offs because we will never have the funds to do everything we might like to ...
Date: February 23, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: Federal Funds for First Responders

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, highlighted the critical role first responders play at the state and local level when a disaster or emergency strikes. In fiscal years 2002 and 2003, Congress appropriated approximately $13.9 billion for domestic preparedness. A large portion of these funds were for the nation's first responders to enhance their ability to address future emergencies, including potential terrorist attacks. These funds are primarily to assist with planning, equipment purchases, training and exercises, and administrative costs. They are available to first responders mainly through the State Homeland Security Grant Programs and Urban Area Security Initiative grants. Both programs are administered through the Department of Homeland Security's Office for Domestic Preparedness. In this testimony, GAO addressed the need to balance expeditious distribution of first responder funds to states and localities with accountability for effective use of those funds and summarized major findings related to funding distribution delays and delays involving funds received by local governments, as presented in reports issued by the Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General and the House Select Committee on Homeland Security. The testimony incorporated supporting evidence on first-responder funding issues based on ongoing GAO work in selected states."
Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: Improved Planning and Coordination Necessary for Development of Integrated Public Alert and Warning System

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "A comprehensive system to alert the American people in times of hazard allows people to take action to save lives. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) responsible for the current Emergency Alert System (EAS) and the development of the new Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). In this testimony, based on its report released today, GAO discusses (1) the current status of EAS, (2) the progress made by FEMA in implementing an integrated alert and warning system, and (3) coordination issues involved in implementing an integrated alert and warning system. GAO conducted a survey of states, reviewed FEMA and other documentation, and interviewed industry stakeholders and officials from federal agencies responsible for public alerting."
Date: September 30, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Exploratory Study of the Comprehension, Retention and Action of the Denton County Older Population in Regards to Disaster Preparedness Education

Description: The purpose of this exploratory study was to operationalize the responses from a sample of the community dwelling older population from Denton County, Texas on disaster preparedness education given by Denton County Health Department (DCHD) personnel. The goals and objectives were drawn from the Texas Public Health and Medical Emergency Management 5-Year Strategic Plan 2012-2016. It was hypothesized that after the disaster preparedness education was received, then comprehension, retention, and application of the information would increase and the goals set forth by the DCHD would be reached. Thirteen sites were used to educate the 224 participants between August 2011 and April 2012. The data were received using a pre-test survey before the training, a post-test immediately after the training, and a follow-up survey call approximately 30 days later. Using Cronbach's alpha, logistic regression and regression analysis through SAS, the data revealed that all DCHD goals were met by this training method and outcome which include the sample population increasing comprehension, retention, and action on the information learned.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Knight, Rebekah P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Affecting Household Disaster Preparedness: A Study of the Canadian Context

Description: This study addresses the issue of household disaster preparedness. This work contributes two elements to disaster research. The first contribution improve the knowledge of the factors that affect household disaster preparedness. The review of literature yielded three categories of variables that can jointly explain household disaster preparedness: household structure, demographics, and risk-perception factors. In this study 19 variables compose these factors. A second contribution constitutes a theoretical exploration of the concept of disaster preparedness. In this work, four different constructs of disaster preparedness were tested. These constructs include material preparedness, preparedness activities, a combined index, and a weighted and combined index. The study presents the logic and methodology of the index construction and validation. The data used in this study came from households in the Montreal Urban Community (MUC) in Canada. A random sample of 1,003 English- and French-speaking heads of households adequately represents the 1.8 million persons within the MUC. An independent survey firm conducted the interviews in 1996. Results show that the weighted combined household disaster preparedness index constitutes the best construct to represent the concepts under study. Study results also reveal that risk-perception variables (attitudinal factors) offered the strongest explanatory power. Household structure and demographic variables collectively explained less than 8% of the dependent variable. The model used in this study yielded a coefficient of determination of .320, explaining 32% of the variance in the household disaster preparedness level. Concluding this study, the discussion offers implications for both disaster managers and researchers. Researchers should add to their analysis the household perspective as a complement to the organizational one. Also, it is clear that many other conceptual issues must be explored in understanding and measuring disaster preparedness. Disaster managers should base their efforts on sound research rather than on misconceptions about social behavior. Such implications can contribute to ...
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Date: December 2000
Creator: Doré, Michel C
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effective Disaster Warnings - Report by the Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction

Description: This report describes and recommends ways to improve alert systems in order to reduce loss of lives, property, and economic activity caused by natural and man-made disasters.
Date: November 2000
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Emergency Preparedness: NRC Needs to Better Understand Likely Public Response to Radiological Incidents at Nuclear Power Plants

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) are collectively responsible for providing radiological emergency preparedness oversight and guidance to commercial nuclear power plant licensees and local and state authorities around the plants. In general, NRC is responsible for overseeing licensees' emergency preparedness at the plant (on-site), and FEMA is responsible for overseeing preparedness by local and state authorities around the plant (off-site). NRC and FEMA have also established a 10-mile emergency planning zone around nuclear power plants. Licensees are responsible for managing on-site radiological emergency preparedness and developing and maintaining plans that define activities that the nuclear power plant must take to prepare for and respond to a potential incident at the plant. Participating local and state authorities within the 10-mile zone must develop protective actions for responding to a radiological incident, including plans for evacuations and sheltering in place. A recent NRC task force considered the adequacy of the zone size and concluded that no change was currently needed but will be re-evaluated as part of its lessons learned efforts for the Fukushima incident."
Date: March 11, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: States Are Planning for Medical Surge, but Could Benefit from Shared Guidance for Allocating Scarce Medical Resources

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Potential terrorist attacks and the possibility of naturally occurring disease outbreaks have raised concerns about the "surge capacity" of the nation's health care systems to respond to mass casualty events. GAO identified four key components of preparing for medical surge: (1) increasing hospital capacity, (2) identifying alternate care sites, (3) registering medical volunteers, and (4) planning for altering established standards of care. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the primary agency for hospital preparedness, including medical surge. GAO was asked to examine (1) what assistance the federal government has provided to help states prepare for medical surge, (2) what states have done to prepare for medical surge, and (3) concerns states have identified related to medical surge. GAO reviewed documents from the 50 states and federal agencies. GAO also interviewed officials from a judgmental sample of 20 states and from federal agencies, as well as emergency preparedness experts."
Date: June 13, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Health and Hospital Emergency Preparedness Programs: Evolution of Performance Measurement Systems to Measure Progress

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the anthrax incidents during the fall of 2001, Hurricane Katrina, and concerns about the possibility of an influenza pandemic have raised public awareness and concerns about the nation's public health and medical systems' ability to respond to bioterrorist events and other public health emergencies. From 2002 to 2006, the Congress appropriated about $6.1 billion to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to support activities to strengthen state and local governments' emergency preparedness capabilities under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Preparedness and Response Act). HHS has distributed funds annually to 62 recipients, including all 50 states and 4 large municipalities, through cooperative agreements under two programs--the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Public Health Emergency Preparedness Program, and the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program. The common goal of CDC's and HRSA's preparedness programs is to improve state and local preparedness to respond to bioterrorism and other large-scale public health emergencies, such as natural disasters or outbreaks of infectious disease. Annually, both CDC and HRSA develop and issue program guidance for recipients that describes activities necessary to improve their ability to respond to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies and sets out requirements for measuring their performance. Each recipient is required to submit periodic reports that track progress in improving their preparedness. As a result of the nation's ineffective response to Hurricane Katrina and the need to prepare for a possible influenza pandemic, members of the Congress have raised questions about CDC's and HRSA's efforts to monitor the progress of their preparedness programs. Because of these questions, we are reporting on (1) how CDC's and HRSA's performance measurement ...
Date: March 23, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Preparedness: Current Emergency Alert System Has Limitations, and Development of a New Integrated System Will Be Challenging

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "During emergencies, the public needs accurate and timely information. Through the Emergency Alert System (EAS), the media play a pivotal role, assisting emergency management personnel in communicating to the public. GAO reviewed (1) the media's ability to meet federal requirements for participating in EAS, (2) stakeholder views on the challenges facing EAS and potential changes to it, and (3) the progress made toward developing an integrated alert system. GAO reviewed the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) proposed rulemaking on EAS and interviewed media outlets, state emergency management officials, and federal agencies responsible for EAS, including FCC and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)."
Date: March 30, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEMA's Community Disaster Loan Program: History, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

Description: This report compares and analyzes three different categories of loans issued in different time periods in the program's history: "traditional" loans issued between 1974 and 2005, in 2007, and between 2009 and 2011 (TCDLs); "special" (SCDLs) loans issued in 2005-2006 following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; and loans issued under unique provisions in 2008 (2008 CDLs).
Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: Brown, Jared T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

Description: Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.
Date: September 28, 2005
Creator: Stenner, Robert D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tsunami Risk Reduction for the United States: A Framework for Action

Description: This document describes proposals for making communities better prepared and more resilient to catastrophic natural disasters like the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2006. Methods described include warning systems, data sharing, and land use decisions.
Date: December 2005
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Preparedness for Emergency Conditions of Public Schools in Texas

Description: A survey of Texas public schools was conducted to determine the state of their emergency preparedness programs with particular interest in hazard analysis, disaster experience, chain of command of responsibility, personnel training, and inter-agency cooperation. A model emergency management plan was proposed. A stratified random sample of all Texas public school districts was drawn from the twenty education service center regions and university interscholastic league district size classifications. Of the 275 districts sampled, 214 questionnaires were completed for a 78% return. The strong return justified a generalization to the entire population.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Warlick, James S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Emergency Preparedness: State Efforts to Plan for Medical Surge Could Benefit from Shared Guidance for Allocating Scarce Medical Resources

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Potential terrorist attacks and the possibility of naturally occurring disease outbreaks have raised concerns about the "surge capacity" of the nation's health care systems to respond to mass casualty events. The statement GAO is issuing today summarizes a June 2008 report, Emergency Preparedness: States Are Planning for Medical Surge, but Could Benefit from Shared Guidance for Allocating Scare Medical Resources (GAO-08-668). In that report, GAO was asked to examine the assistance the federal government had provided to help states prepare for medical surge and what states had done to prepare for medical surge. To do this GAO reviewed documents from the 50 states and federal agencies and interviewed officials from a judgmental sample of 20 states and from federal agencies, as well as emergency preparedness experts."
Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

Description: This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E. & Roop, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement

Description: This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, D.N. & Wesley, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department