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An Electro- Magneto-static Field for Confinement of Charged Particle Beams and Plasmas

Description: A system is presented that is capable of confining an ion beam or plasma within a region that is essentially free of applied fields. An Artificially Structured Boundary (ASB) produces a spatially periodic set of magnetic field cusps that provides charged particle confinement. Electrostatic plugging of the magnetic field cusps enhances confinement. An ASB that has a small spatial period, compared to the dimensions of a confined plasma, generates electro- magneto-static fields with a short range. An ASB-lined volume thus constructed creates an effectively field free region near its center. It is assumed that a non-neutral plasma confined within such a volume relaxes to a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Space charge based confinement of a second species of charged particles is envisioned, where the second species is confined by the space charge of the first non-neutral plasma species. An electron plasma confined within an ASB-lined volume can potentially provide confinement of a positive ion beam or positive ion plasma. Experimental as well as computational results are presented in which a plasma or charged particle beam interact with the electro- magneto-static fields generated by an ASB. A theoretical model is analyzed and solved via self-consistent computational methods to determine the behavior and equilibrium conditions of a relaxed plasma. The equilibrium conditions of a relaxed two species plasma are also computed. In such a scenario, space charge based electrostatic confinement is predicted to occur where a second plasma species is confined by the space charge of the first plasma species. An experimental apparatus with cylindrical symmetry that has its interior surface lined with an ASB is presented. This system was developed by using a simulation of the electro- magneto-static fields present within the trap to guide mechanical design. The construction of the full experimental apparatus is discussed. Experimental results that show the characteristics of ...
Date: May 2014
Creator: Pacheco, Josè L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

Description: To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.
Date: May 23, 2010
Creator: Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F. & Roser, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benchmarking ICRF simulations for ITER

Description: Abstract Benchmarking of full-wave solvers for ICRF simulations is performed using plasma profiles and equilibria obtained from integrated self-consistent modeling predictions of four ITER plasmas. One is for a high performance baseline (5.3 T, 15 MA) DT H-mode plasma. The others are for half-field, half-current plasmas of interest for the pre-activation phase with bulk plasma ion species being either hydrogen or He4. The predicted profiles are used by seven groups to predict the ICRF electromagnetic fields and heating profiles. Approximate agreement is achieved for the predicted heating power partitions for the DT and He4 cases. Profiles of the heating powers and electromagnetic fields are compared.
Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Budny, R. V.; Berry, L.; Bilato, R.; Bonoli, P.; Brambilla, M.; Dumont, R. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

Description: Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a "pull-back" (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution -- although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.
Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Krommes, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Algorithm for Computation of Electromagnetic Fields of An Accelerated Short Bunch Inside a Rectangular Chamber

Description: We discuss the feasibility of an application of an implicit finite-difference approximation to calculate the fields of a relativistic bunch moving with no restriction inside a vacuum chamber. We assume that a bunch trajectory is not straight but is inside a vacuum chamber or its branch. The bunch can be deflected by the fields of bending magnets. The bunch can be short enough to produce coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Accelerator physicists believe that electromagnetic phenomena of charged beams are governed by Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations for particle dynamics. To understand the behavior of the beams and radiated fields we just need to find a solution to these equations for the case, which can fully describe the real accelerator environment. So, at first we make a model, which contains all the necessary components, but at the same time can be easily 'inserts' into the equations. Sometimes, it is possible to find analytical solutions, but usually they are only work for one-dimensional cases and rarer for two-dimension cases. To find a solution in general we may transform the equations into a equivalent finite-difference form and solve them using computers. We can find a lot of finite-difference schemes, which approximate Maxwell's equations since the first one that was published in 1966. Most of them are so called explicit schemes. That means that the value of the field at the new time step is calculated only by the field values at the previous time step. Stability conditions for these schemes do not allow a time step to be greater than or equal to a space (mesh) step. This limitation brings an additional troublesome effect for short wavelengths compared a mesh step. We state that this effect works like a frequency dispersion media, which is 'hidden' in the finite-difference equation.
Date: September 14, 2010
Creator: Novokhatski, Alexander & Sullivan, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full Electromagnetic Fel Simulation via the Lorentz-Boosted Frame Transformation

Description: Numerical electromagnetic simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. A particularly good application for calculation in a boosted frame isthat of short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) where a high energy electron beam with small fractional energy spread interacts with a static magnetic undulator. In the optimal boost frame (i.e., the ponderomotive rest frame), the red-shifted FEL radiation and blue-shifted undulator field have identical wavelengths and the number of required longitudinal grid cells and time-steps for fully electromagnetic simulation (relative to the laboratory frame) decrease by factors of gamma^2 each. In theory, boosted frame EM codes permit direct study of FEL problems for which the eikonal approximation for propagation of the radiation field and wiggler-period-averaging for the particle-field interaction may be suspect. We have adapted the WARP code to apply this method to several electromagnetic FEL problems including spontaneous emission, strong exponential gain in a seeded, single pass amplifier configuration, and emission from e-beams in undulators with multiple harmonic components. WARP has a standard relativistic macroparticle mover and a fully 3-D electromagnetic field solver. We discuss our boosted frame results and compare with those obtained using the ?standard? eikonal FEL simulation approach.
Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Fawley, William & Vay, Jean-Luc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update on multipactoring in coaxial waveguides using CST Particle Studio

Description: CST Particle Studio combines electromagnetic field simulation, multi-particle tracking, adequate post-processing and advanced probabilistic emission model, which is the most important new capability in multipactor simulation. The emission model includes in simulation the stochastic properties of emission and adds primary electron elastic and inelastic reflection from the surfaces. The simulation of multipactor in coaxial waveguides have been performed to study the effects of the innovations on the multipactor threshold and the range over which multipactor can occur. The results compared with available previous experiments and simulations as well as the technique of MP simulation with CST PS are presented and discussed.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Romanov, Gennady
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

Description: In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Stupakov, Gennady
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CSR Fields: Direct Numerical Solution of the Maxwell___s Equation

Description: We discuss the properties of the coherent electromagnetic fields of a very short, ultra-relativistic bunch in a rectangular vacuum chamber inside a bending magnet. The analysis is based on the results of a direct numerical solution of Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations. We use a new dispersion-free time-domain algorithm which employs a more efficient use of finite element mesh techniques and hence produces self-consistent and stable solutions for very short bunches. We investigate the fine structure of the CSR fields including coherent edge radiation. This approach should be useful in the study of existing and future concepts of particle accelerators and ultrafast coherent light sources. The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) fields have a strong action on the beam dynamics of very short bunches, which are moving in the bends of all kinds of magnetic elements. They are responsible for additional energy loss and energy spread; micro bunching and beam emittance growth. These fields may bound the efficiency of damping rings, electron-positron colliders and ultrafast coherent light sources, where high peak currents and very short bunches are envisioned. This is relevant to most high-brightness beam applications. On the other hand these fields together with transition radiation fields can be used for beam diagnostics or even as a powerful resource of THz radiation. A history of the study of CSR and a good collection of references can be found in [1]. Electromagnetic theory suggests several methods on how to calculate CSR fields. The most popular method is to use Lienard-Wiechert potentials. Other approach is to solve numerically the approximate equations, which are a Schrodinger type equation. These numerical methods are described in [2]. We suggest that a direct solution of Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations can describe the detailed structure of the CSR fields [3].
Date: June 22, 2011
Creator: Novokhatski, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromagnetic and Other Environmental Effects Following Near-Death Experiences: A Primer

Description: Article describing the results of informal and formal research regarding electromagnetic (EM) effects of near-death experiences (NDEs); it reviews cases in which a person acts on his environment and those in which a person reacts to the environment. The paper also proposes more precise terminology regarding EM phenomena based on the research and literature review.
Date: Summer 2015
Creator: Blalock, Sarah; Holden, Janice Miner & Atwater, P. M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

Description: In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Li, Rui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Quadrature Methods for Re-Weighting in Lattice QCD

Description: Re-weighting is a useful tool that has been employed in Lattice QCD in different contexts including, tuning the strange quark mass, approaching the light quark mass regime, and simulating electromagnetic fields on top of QCD gauge configurations. In case of re-weighting the sea quark mass, the re-weighting factor is given by the ratio of the determinants of two Dirac operators D{sub a} and D{sub b}. A popular approach for computing this ratio is to use a pseudofermion representation of the determinant of the composite operator {Omega} = D{sub a}(D{sub b}{sup {dagger}}D{sub b}){sup -1} D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}. Here, we study using quadrature methods together with noise vectors to compute the ratio of determinants. We show that, with quadrature methods each determinant can be computed separately using the operators {Omega}{sub a} = D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}D{sub a} and {Omega}{sub b} = D{sub b}{sup {dagger}} D{sub b}. We also discuss using bootstrap re-sampling to remove the bias from the determinant estimator.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Abdou Abdel-Rehim, William Detmold, Kostas Orginos
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benchmarking ICRF Full-wave Solvers for ITER

Description: Abstract Benchmarking of full-wave solvers for ICRF simulations is performed using plasma profiles and equilibria obtained from integrated self-consistent modeling predictions of four ITER plasmas. One is for a high performance baseline (5.3 T, 15 MA) DT H-mode. The others are for half-field, half-current plasmas of interest for the pre-activation phase with bulk plasma ion species being either hydrogen or He4. The predicted profiles are used by six full-wave solver groups to simulate the ICRF electromagnetic fields and heating, and by three of these groups to simulate the current-drive. Approximate agreement is achieved for the predicted heating power for the DT and He4 cases. Factor of two disagreements are found for the cases with second harmonic He3 heating in bulk H cases. Approximate agreement is achieved simulating the ICRF current drive.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: R. V. Budny, L. Berry, R. Bilato, P. Bonoli, M. Brambilla, R. J. Dumont, A. Fukuyama, R. Harvey, E. F. Jaeger, K. Indireshkumar, E. Lerche, D. McCune, C. K. Phillips, V. Vdovin, J. Wright, and members of the ITPA-IOS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The theoretical study of passive and active optical devices via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method and other approaches

Description: In this thesis, we theoretically study the electromagnetic wave propagation in several passive and active optical components and devices including 2-D photonic crystals, straight and curved waveguides, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and etc. Several optical designs are also presented like organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and solar concentrators. The first part of the thesis focuses on theoretical investigation. First, the plane-wave-based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is briefly described with a short review of photonic crystals and other numerical methods to study them (Chapter 1 and 2). Next TMM, the numerical method itself is investigated in details and developed in advance to deal with more complex optical systems. In chapter 3, TMM is extended in curvilinear coordinates to study curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In chapter 4, a new set of localized basis orbitals are introduced to locally represent electromagnetic field in photonic crystals as alternative to planewave basis. The second part of the thesis focuses on the design of optical devices. First, two examples of TMM applications are given. The first example is the design of metal grating structures as replacements of ITO to enhance the optical absorption in OPV cells (chapter 6). The second one is the design of the same structure as above to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 7). Next, two design examples by ray tracing method are given, including applying a microlens array to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 5) and an all-angle wide-wavelength design of solar concentrator (chapter 8). In summary, this dissertation has extended TMM which makes it capable of treating complex optical systems. Several optical designs by TMM and ray tracing method are also ...
Date: May 15, 2011
Creator: Zhuo, Ye
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL AND HIGHER-ORDER MODES FOR 7-CELL CAVITY OF PETRA-II

Description: The booster synchrotron for NSLS-II will include a 7-cell PETRA cavity, which was manufactured for the PETRA-II project at DESY. The cavity fundamental frequency operates at 500 MHz. In order to verify the impedances of the fundamental and higher-order modes (HOM), which were calculated by computer code, we measured the magnitude of the electromagnetic field of the fundamental acceleration mode and HOM using the bead-pull method. To keep the cavity body temperature constant, we used a chiller system to supply cooling water at 20 degrees C. The bead-pull measurement was automated with a computer. We encountered some issues during the measurement process due to the difficulty in measuring the electromagnetic field magnitude in a multi-cell cavity. We describe the method and apparatus for the field measurement, and the obtained results.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Kawashima, Y.; Blednykh, A.; Cupolo, J.; Davidsaver, M.; Holub, B.; Ma, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of coupler for the NSLS-II storage ring superconducting RF cavity

Description: NSLS-II is a 3GeV, 500mA, high brightness, 1 MW beam power synchrotron facility that is designed with four superconducting cavities working at 499.68 MHz. To operate the cavities in over-damped coupling condition, an External Quality Factor (Qext) of {approx}65000 is required. We have modified the existing coupler for the CESR-B cavity which has a Qext of {approx}200,000 to meet the requirements of NSLS-II. CESR-B cavity has an aperture coupler with a coupler 'tongue' connecting the cavity to the waveguide. We have optimized the length, width and thickness of the 'tongue' as well as the width of the aperture to increase the coupling using the three dimensional electromagnetic field solver, HFSS. Several possible designs will be presented. We have modified the coupler of the CESR-B cavity to be used in the storage ring at the NSLS-II project using HFSS and verified using CST Microwave Studio. Using a combination of increasing the length and width of the coupler tongue and increasing the width of the aperture, the external Q of the cavity coupler was decreased to {approx}65000 as required for the design of the NSLS-II storage ring design.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Yeddulla, M. & Rose, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities

Description: A realistic approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities is developed. It is based on joint solution of equations of longitudinal and transverse motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field of the linac. This field is a given by distribution (measured or calculated) of the component of the longitudinal electric field on the axis of the linac. New approach is compared with other matrix methods to solve the same problem. The comparison with code ASTRA has been carried out. Complete agreement for tracking results for a TESLA-type cavity is achieved. A corresponding algorithm will be implemented into the MARS15 code. A realistic approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities is developed. Complete agreement for tracking results with existed code ASTRA is achieved. New algorithm will be implemented into MARS15 code.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Eidelman, Yu.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Mokhov, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation

Description: Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.
Date: May 17, 2012
Creator: Bui, Thuc; Read, Michael & ives, Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Static and Variable Magnetic Fields on Freshwater Fish

Description: There is considerable interest in the development of marine and hydrokinetic energy projects in rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters of the United States. Hydrokinetic (HK) technologies convert the energy of moving water in river or tidal currents into electricity, without the impacts of dams and impoundments associated with conventional hydropower or the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) maintains a database that displays the geographical distribution of proposed HK projects in inland and tidal waters (FERC 2012). As of March 2012, 77 preliminary permits had been issued to private developers to study HK projects in inland waters, the development of which would total over 8,000 MW. Most of these projects are proposed for the lower Mississippi River. In addition, the issuance of another 27 preliminary permits for HK projects in inland waters, and 3 preliminary permits for HK tidal projects (totaling over 3,100 MW) were under consideration by FERC. Although numerous HK designs are under development (see DOE 2009 for a description of the technologies and their potential environmental effects), the most commonly proposed projects entail arrays of rotating devices, much like submerged wind turbines, that are positioned in the high-velocity (high energy) river channels. The many diverse HK designs imply a diversity of environmental impacts, but a potential impact common to most is the effect on aquatic organisms of electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by the projects. The submerged electrical generator will emit an EMF into the surrounding water, as will underwater cables used to transmit electricity from the generator to the shore, between individual units in an array (inter-turbine cables), and between the array and a submerged step-up transformer. The electric current moving through these cables will induce magnetic fields in the immediate vicinity, which may affect the behavior or viability of ...
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Cada, Glenn F.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Fortner, Allison M.; Riemer, Kristina P. & Schweizer, Peter E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF Choke for Standing Wave Structures and Flanges

Description: SLAC participates in the U.S. High Gradient collaboration whose charter includes basic studies of rf breakdown properties in accelerating structures. These studies include experiments with different materials and construction methods for single cell standing wave accelerating structures. The most commonly used method of joining cells of such structures is the high temperature bonding and/or brazing in hydrogen and/or vacuum. These high temperature processes may not be suitable for some of the new materials that are under consideration. We propose to build structures from cells with an rf choke, taking the cell-to-cell junction out of the electromagnetic field region. These cells may be clamped together in a vacuum enclosure, the choke joint ensuring continuity of rf currents. Next, we propose a structure with a choke joint in a high gradient cell and a view port which may allow us microscopic, in-situ observation of the metal surface during high power tests. And third, we describe the design of a TM01 choke flange for these structures.
Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Yeremian, Anahid; /SLAC; Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gravitomagnetism and Spinor Quantum Mechanics

Description: We give a systematic treatment of a spin 1=2 particle in a combined electromagnetic field and a weak gravitational field that is produced by a slowly moving matter source. This paper continues previous work on a spin zero particle, but it is largely self-contained and may serve as an introduction to spinors in a Riemann space. The analysis is based on the Dirac equation expressed in generally covariant form and coupled minimally to the electromagnetic field. The restriction to a slowly moving matter source, such as the earth, allows us to describe the gravitational field by a gravitoelectric (Newtonian) potential and a gravitomagnetic (frame-dragging) vector potential, the existence of which has recently been experimentally verified. Our main interest is the coupling of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the particle to the gravitomagnetic field. Specifically we calculate the gravitational gyromagnetic ratio as g{sub g} = 1 ; this is to be compared with the electromagnetic gyromagnetic ratio of g{sub e} = 2 for a Dirac electron.
Date: September 14, 2012
Creator: Adler, Ronald J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /San Francisco State U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Varani, Elisa & /Unlisted
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wake potentials of the ILC Interaction Region

Description: The vacuum chamber of the ILC Interaction Region (IR) is optimized for best detector performance. It has special shaping to minimize additional backgrounds due to the metal part of the chamber. Also, for the same reason this thin vacuum chamber does not have water cooling. Therefore, small amounts of power, which may be deposited in the chamber, can be enough to raise the chamber to a high temperature. One of the sources of 'heating' power is the electromagnetic field of the beam. This field diffracts by non-regularities of the beam pipe and excites free-propagating fields, which are then absorbed by the pipe wall. In addition we have a heating power of the image currents due to finite conductivity of the metallic wall. We will discuss these effects as updating the previous results. The conclusions of this report are: (1) The amount of the beam energy loss in IR is almost equal to the energy loss in one ILC (TESLA) accelerating cryo-module; (2) Addition energy spread at IR is very small; (3) Spectrum of the wake fields is limited 300 GHz; (4) Average power of the wake fields excited in IR is 30 W for nominal ILC parameters; and (5) Pulse power in this case is 6 kilowatts.
Date: August 16, 2011
Creator: Novokhatski, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department