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Effects of the Drought of 1980-81 on Streamflow and on Ground-Water Levels in Georgia

Description: From purpose and scope: This report examines and discusses the severity, areal extent, and duration of the 1980-81 drought in Georgia. This drought produced the lowest rates of streamflow since 1954 in most areas of the State and the lowest since 1925 in some areas.
Date: 1983
Creator: Carter, Robert F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potentiometric Surface of the Floridian Aquifer and Its Use in Management of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida

Description: "The purpose of this report is to explain potentiometric surface maps and their value in assessing the resource, particularly during drought conditions. It is intended to convey a lay understanding of the process by which gains or losses of freshwater storage in the aquifer are determined."
Date: 1983
Creator: Rodis, H. G. & Munch, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limnological Study of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California, with Emphasis on the Effects of the 1977 Drought

Description: From purpose and scope: The purpose of this study is to describe water-quality conditions in Shasta Lake and in major tributaries to the lake. The study involved the collection and interpretation of historical, hydrologic, and water-quality data collected during intensive and routine monitoring efforts.
Date: April 1983
Creator: Rettig, Stephen A. & Bortleson, Gilbert C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drought: Construction of a Social Problem

Description: Drought is a complex subject that has varied definitions and perspectives. Although drought has historically been characterized as an environmental problem from both the meteorological and agricultural communities, it is not considered a sociological disaster despite its severe societal impacts. Utilizing the framework developed by Spector and Kitsuse (2011) and Stallings (1995), this research examines the process through which drought is defined as a social problem. An analysis of the data revealed drought was well covered in Africa, India, China, Australia, and New Zealand, yet very little coverage focused on the United States. There were less than 10 articles discussing drought and drought impacts in the United States. The workshops/meetings examined also were lacking in the attention to drought, although their overall theme was focused on hazards and resilience. Six sessions in over 16 years of meetings/workshops focused on the topic of drought, and one session was focused on the condition in Canada. The interviews uncovered five thematic areas demonstrating drought understanding and awareness: Use of outreach to get the message out; agricultures familiarity with drought; the role of drought in media; the variability of what drought is; and water conservation. Drought's claims-makers who are dedicated to providing outreach and education to impacted communities. Drought is often overlooked due to its slow onset and evolving development makes it difficult to determine when to engage in recovery efforts. Drought defined as a social problem also expands theoretical conversations regarding what events or issues should be included within the sociological disaster list of topics.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Parham, Antoinette D
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of the Response of the Big Sioux Aquifer to Extreme Drought Conditions in Minnehaha County, South Dakota

Description: From purpose and approach of study: The purpose of this study was to use the digital-computer model developed from the previous study (Koch, 1982) to examine the effects on the aquifer of a pumping rate of 25 million gallons a day under the worst-drought conditions that occurred during 1974-78. A frequency rating was determined for the most severe low-flow condition in the Big Sioux River.
Date: 1983
Creator: Koch, Neil C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparing for Drought in the 21st Century: Report of the National Drought Policy Commission.

Description: In 1998, Congress passed the National Drought Policy Act. The Act stated that this nation would benefit from national drought policy based on preparedness and mitigation to reduce the need for emergency relief. It acknowledged that this country has no consistent, comprehensive policy driving the federal role to help reduce the impacts of drought. The Act also created the National Drought Policy Commission to advise Congress on how best to: Integrate federal drought laws and programs with ongoing state,local, and tribal programs into a comprehensive national policy to mitigate the impacts of and respond to drought. Improve public awareness of the need for drought mitigation. Achieve a coordinated approach to drought mitigation and response by governments and nongovernmental entities, including academic, private, and nonprofit interests. This document constitutes the report of the National Drought Policy Commission. (Commission members were chosen according to provisions in the Act, which required representation of federal and nonfederal government entities and the private sector.) The report presents the basis for national drought policy and calls for commitment and resolve in providing sufficient resources to achieve the policy goals.
Date: May 2000
Creator: United States. Department of Agriculture. Office of Communications.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3rd African Drought Adaptation Forum report, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 September 2008

Description: The Third African Drought Adaptation Forum was held in September 2008 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Forum was organized so that participants could exchange practical experiences, findings and ideas on how to adapt to the increasing threat of drought and climate change in the drylands of Africa. The report contains a summary of sessions and outlines key themes that emerged from the discussions.
Date: September 2008
Creator: UNDP Drylands Development Centre; United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction & Economic Commission for Africa
Partner: UNT Libraries

OTA Special Report: Continuing the Commitment: Agricultural Development in the Sahel

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the record of assistance to nine nations of the Sahel in West Africa, explores the lessons learned in a decade of efforts, and suggests policy implications for more effective U.S. assistance there and elsewhere in Africa" (p. iii).
Date: August 1986
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of Stream Fish Metacommunities in Response to Drought and Re-connectivity

Description: This dissertation investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of intermittent stream fish metacommunities in response drought-induced fragmentation and re-connectivity using both field and experimental approaches. A detailed field study was conducted in two streams and included pre-drought, drought, and post-drought hydrological periods. Fish assemblages and metacommunity structure responded strongly to changes in hydrological conditions with dramatic declines in species richness and abundance during prolonged drought. Return of stream flows resulted in a trend toward recovery but ultimately assemblages failed to fully recover. Differential mortality, dispersal, recruitment among species indicates species specific responses to hydrologic fragmentation, connectivity, and habitat refugia. Two manipulative experiments tested the effects of drought conditions on realistic fish assemblages. Fishes responded strongly to drought conditions in which deeper pools acted as refugia, harboring greater numbers of fish. Variability in assemblage structure and movement patterns among stream pools indicated species specific habitat preferences in response predation, resource competition, and desiccation. Connecting stream flows mediated the impacts of drought conditions and metacommunity dynamics in both experiments. Results from field and experimental studies indicate that stream fish metacommunities are influenced by changes in hydrological conditions and that the timing, duration, and magnitude of drought-induced fragmentation and reconnecting stream flows have important consequences metacommunity dynamics.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Driver, Lucas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico

Description: The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.
Date: 2002
Creator: Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K. & Therrell, Matthew D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ecology and Recolonization of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in a Groundwater-dependent Stream in North Central Texas During a Supra-seasonal Drought

Description: Extreme climatic events such as droughts are known to eliminate aquatic biota and alter community structure and function. Perennial headwater springs provide important drought refugia to benthic macroinvertebrates and an important source of colonists via drift or aerial adults to intermittent streams post-drought. During a supra-seasonal drought in North-central Texas summer and fall 2006, benthic macroinvertebrates from persistent groundwater-dependent macrohabitats of varying hydrological connectivity and riparian shading were studied: perennial riffles, connected pools, shaded disconnected pools, and full sun disconnected pools. Riffles were a distinct habitat with significantly higher taxa richness, proportion of lotic taxa, diversity and evenness than other macrohabitats. Macrohabitats were found to be important refugia for 106 benthic macroinvertebrates and 4 microcrustacean taxa. Throughout the extreme drought, perennially flowing habitats were refugia to 19 taxa (17.9% total taxa) not collected in disconnected pools. Shaded disconnected pools contained lotic taxa not previously known to be able to complete their lifecycles in lentic habitats, emphasizing the importance of groundwater effluent and shading. With the resumption of flow at a downstream intermittent site of Ash Creek in mid-October 2006, an annual recolonization study was conducted comparing the perennial headwaters’ benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities and community ecology with the downstream intermittent site. The headwaters supported higher mean taxa richness than the intermittent site over the duration of the study (ANOVA P < 0.001). However, the unexpected result of overall decreasing taxa richness at the perennial headwater site from August 2006 to April 2008 appears to reflect lag effects of the supra-seasonal drought combined with effects of multiple spates of 2007, which are factors confounding the point of recovery for taxa richness. Recovery of taxa richness at the intermittent site took 9 months compared to 1 to 2 months reported in other arid and semi-arid streams in the United States recovering ...
Date: May 2012
Creator: Burk, Rosemary A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Corn Growing Under Droughty Conditions

Description: "For 50 years new settlers from the East[of the United States] have attempted to grow corn in the semiarid West. The seed used and the methods employed were often those with which the settlers had had experience in the East. They were not adapted to western conditions, and many failures resulted... It is the purpose of this bulletin to show in a general way some of the causes of these failures and how failures may be made less frequent or less intense. Particular varieties of corn and particular methods of cultivation are not applicable to the whole of any large area. Nevertheless, there are certain fundamental requirements of moisture, heat, and fertility which everywhere govern corn yields. A change in the supply of one may make a change in another advisable. Thus, the moisture requirement varies with the amount of heat available. In short, the secret of successful corn culture is to maintain a proper balance of moisture, heat, and fertility." -- title page
Date: 1916
Creator: Hartley, C. P. (Charles Pinckney), 1870- & Zook, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interplay between Climate Change, Forests, and Disturbances

Description: Climate change affects forests both directly and indirectly through disturbances. Disturbances are a natural and integral part of forest ecosystems, and climate change can alter these natural interactions. When disturbances exceed their natural range of variation, the change in forest structure and function may be extreme. Each disturbance affects forests differently. Some disturbances have tight interactions with the species and forest communities which can be disrupted by climate change. Impacts of disturbances and thus of climate change are seen over a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Future observations, research, and tool development are needed to further understand the interactions between climate change and forest disturbances.
Date: March 25, 2000
Creator: Dale, Virginia H.; Joyce, Linda A.; McNulty, Steve & Neilson, Ronald P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sense of Place

Description: Lesson plan containing a collection of activities and resources regarding sense of place that meet state education standards and national sustainability standards for the 2nd grade level.
Date: August 29, 2014
Creator: Treadway, Heather
Partner: UNT Office of Sustainability

Kafir Corn: Characteristics, Culture, and Uses

Description: Report discussing the cultivation of kafir corn. The U.S. Department of Agriculture had recently introduced kafir corn from South Africa as an alternative to native varieties of corn because of its drought-resistant qualities and success in semiarid portion of the United States.
Date: 1896
Creator: Georgeson, C. C. (Charles Christian), 1851-1931
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wildfires

Description: "This indicator tracks the frequency, extent, and severity of wildfires in the United States."
Date: August 2016
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method to Study Response of Large Trees to Different Amounts of Available Soil Water

Description: A method was developed to study the effects of changes in precipitation amounts by intercepting water with PVC gutters and redirecting the water to adjacent plots. The net effect over two years was to redirect about 25% of the available water to one plot and restrict it to another. Additional precipitation increased diameter growth, litterfall and fine tootbiomass.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Marx, Donald H.; Cunningham, James S.; Thompson, Michael D. & White, Linda M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

Description: The effects of global climate change from greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are diverse and potentially very large, and probably constitute the most serious long-term environmental issue currently facing the world. This paper is prepared as task 1 of the project 'Modelling support for Future Actions - Benefits and Cost of Climate Change Policies and Measures', ENV.C.2/2004/0088, led by K.U.Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The paper provides a rapid review and analysis of the impacts and economic costs from climate change. The objective is to provide estimates of the benefits of climate change policy, i.e. from avoided impacts, for support to the Commission in considering the benefits and costs of mitigation efforts, and to support DG Environment in its report to the Spring Council 2005 and in future international negotiations on climate change.
Date: September 2005
Creator: Watkiss, Paul; Downing, Tom; Handley, Claire & Butterfield, Ruth
Partner: UNT Libraries

REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW STRATEGICALLY LOCATED AMERIFLUX TOWER SITE IN MISSOURI

Description: by June 14, 2004, the MOFLUX site was fully instrumented and data streams started to flow. A primary accomplished deliverable for the project period was the data streams of CO{sub 2} and water vapor fluxes and numerous meteorological variables (from which prepared datasets have been submitted to the AmeriFlux data archive for 2004-2006, Additionally, measurements of leaf biochemistry and physiology, biomass inventory, tree allometry, successional trends other variables were obtained.
Date: April 19, 2013
Creator: Pallardy, Stephen G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality Aspects of an Intermittent Stream and Backwaters in an Urban North Texas Watershed

Description: Pecan Creek flows southeast through the City of Denton, Texas. Characterized as an urban watershed, the basin covers approximately 63.5 km2. Pecan Creek is an intermittent stream that receives nonpoint runoff from urban landuses, and the City of Denton's wastewater treatment plant, Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant, discharges effluent to the stream. Downstream from the City of Denton and the wastewater treatment plant, Pecan Creek flows about 6,000 m through agricultural, pasture, and forested landscapes into Copas Cove of Lake Lewisville, creating backwater conditions. Pecan Creek water quality and chemistry were monitored from August 1997 to October 2001. Water quality was influenced by seasonal, spatial, climatic, and diurnal dynamics. Wastewater effluent discharged from the Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant had the greatest influence on water quality of the stream and backwaters. Water quality monitoring of Pecan Creek demonstrated that dissolved oxygen standards for the protection of aquatic life were being achieved. Water quality modeling of Pecan Creek was completed to assess future increases in effluent flow from the Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant. Water quality modeling indicated that dissolved oxygen standards would not be achieved at the future effluent flow of 21 MGD and at NPDES permitted loadings. Model results with application of a safety factor indicated that the maximum allowable concentrations for a 21 MGD discharge would be 2.3 mg/L of ammonia and 7.0 mg/L of biochemical oxygen demand at summer conditions. Drought conditions that occurred from 1998 to 2001 reduced water levels in Lake Lewisville and impacted dissolved oxygen water quality in Pecan Creek. Water quality observations made during the period of drought allowed for the development of a model to estimate the zone of the dissolved oxygen sag in Pecan Creek based on reservoir elevation. Finally, monitoring results were analyzed with nonparametric statistical procedures to detect water ...
Date: August 2002
Creator: Taylor, Ritchie Don
Partner: UNT Libraries