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open access

Lean on Me: Social Support Compensation and Risk of Death in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Description: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has an estimated incidence of nearly 11 million US adults aged 65 years and older. Evidence suggests that the quality of the marital relationship is an important factor for diabetes related health outcomes affecting self-management and adherence (Kiecolt-Glaser & Newton, 2001). However, an individual in need may compensate for primary support that is unavailable or not optimal by looking for other sources of support, which may be important for health outcomes (Rini, et al., 2008). The present study examined compensation for poor spousal support through other social relationships. A total of 12,640 participants reported they had diabetes and were married (Male = 6,317 and Female = 6,323), and of this group 1,084 men and 583 women had died over the course of the study period. Women reported lower spousal support, but significantly more aggregated social support across relationships than men. Few persons reported low spousal support and low support compensation, rendering the cell sizes highly unequal and the associated data uninterpretable. Ancillary analyses were conducted with the idea that some variance in total compensation support may moderate mortality risk finding that higher aggregated social support across non-spousal relationships was associated with lower risk of death accounting for ~3% of the variance in the final model. The current findings demonstrate how an individual can compensate for a poor primary support relationship through a broader support network. These findings should guide future research to focus on how individuals build, maintain, and seek support from social relationships.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Smith, Lauren Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Toxicological Evaluation for the Ocular Administration of Tolrestat: An Aldose Reductase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Diabetes

Description: Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI's) have been shown to attenuate or prevent several complications of diabetes in animals. Tolrestat is a potent and unique ARI from Ayerst Laboratories, New York, NY. The efficacy and toxicology of tolrestat via topical ocular administration was examined. Tolrestat effectively enhanced corneal reepithelialization and was efficacious in the prevention of cataracts in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Ocular tissues were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Liver and kidney tissue was also examined. The presence of tolrestat was confirmed in urine, feces, and eye specimens, and quantitated in serum. There was no evidence of local or systemic tolrestat induced toxicity. Tolrestat prevented cataract formation at less than one-third the reported oral dose and at approximately one-fiftieth the associated serum concentration in rats. ED-50 and TD-50 calculations indicate that tolrestat is a relatively safe drug by topical ocular administration.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Carney, Gerald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Study of Diabetes in Children, with Special Emphasis upon Camp Sweeney, a Summer Camp for Diabetic Boys and Girls, Gainesville, Texas

Description: The purpose set forth for this study was that of making a critical investigation of the program of Camp Sweeney, a summer camp for diabetic children located in Cooke County, Texas, near Gainesville, in order to determine whether this camp is providing an effective and beneficial program for such children.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Campbell, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes inmale runners

Description: We examined the dose-response relationship between changes in reported vigorous exercise (running distance, {Delta}km/wk) and self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes in 25,988 men followed prospectively for (mean {+-} SD) 7.8 {+-} 1.8 years. Logistic regression analyses showed that the log odds for diabetes declined significantly in relation to men's {Delta}km/wk (coefficient {+-} SE: -0.012 {+-} 0.004, P < 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for BMI (-0.018 {+-} 0.003, P < 0.0001). The decline in the log odds for diabetes was related to the distance run at the end of follow-up when adjusted for baseline distance, with (-0.024 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) or without (-0.027 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) adjustment for BMI. Baseline distance was unrelated to diabetes incidence when adjusted for the distance at the end of follow-up. Compared to men who ran <8 km/wk at the end of follow-up, incidence rates in those who ran {ge} 8 km/wk were 95% lower between 35-44 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 92% lower between 45-54 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 87% lower between 55 and 64 years old (P < 0.0001), and 46% lower between 65-75 yrs old (P = 0.30). For the subset of 6,208 men who maintained the same running distance during follow-up ({+-}5 km/wk), the log odds for diabetes declined with weekly distance run (-0.024 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.02) but not when adjusted for BMI (-0.005 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.65). Conclusion: Vigorous exercise significantly reduces diabetes incidence, due in part to the prevention of age-related weight gain and in part to other exercise effects. Physical activity decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes [1-10]. Moderate and vigorous exercise are purported to produce comparable reductions in diabetes risk if the energy expenditure is the same [3,10]. The optimal physical activity dose remains unclear, however, with some …
Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Williams, Paul T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Efficacy of Intensive Individual Play Therapy for Children Diagnosed with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Description: This study was design to determine the efficacy of intensive individual play therapy as a method of intervention for children diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was designed to study the effectiveness of an intensive play therapy intervention in: a) reducing symptoms of childhood depression in children with IDDM; b) reducing symptoms of anxiety in children with IDDM; c) reducing the overall behavior difficulties in children with IDDM; d) increasing healthy adjustment in children with IDDM; e) increasing diabetic's children's adherence to their diabetic regime; and f) impacting these emotional and behavioral symptoms over time. The 15 children in the experimental group received 12, daily play therapy sessions while attending a summer camp for children with diabetes. The control group, consisting of 15 children who attended the diabetic summer camp, received no play therapy. Children and parents in both groups completed pretest, post-test and three-month follow-up data, consisting of: the Children's Depression Inventory, the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Filial Problems Checklist and the Diabetes Adaptation Scale. Analysis of covariance revealed that the children in the experimental group significantly improved their adaptation to their diabetes following intensive play therapy as reflected by the Diabetes Adaptation Scale. No other hypothesis were retained, although statistical trends noted increased improvement in the experimental group in the areas of behavior difficulties and adherence behavior. Possible explanations for these results include a lack of symptoms reported at the time of pretesting and the validity of these instruments for a chronically ill population. The results of this study indicate that intensive play therapy may be an effective intervention for children diagnosed with IDDM. Qualitative observations and progress noted in therapy reveal that young children with IDDM have the capability to address and resolve issues of anxiety, depression and other emotional issues …
Date: August 2000
Creator: Jones, Elizabeth Murphy
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Programs and Metaprograms for the Control of Diabetic Symptomatology: A Comparative Treatment Study

Description: Stress has long been reported to play a prominent role in the onset and course of diabetes mellitus. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the impact of stress on this disease, the physiological mechanisms and pathways the stress response might utilize, and psychotherapeutic tacts taken to date to ameliorate this response. A stress management package was then assembled, comprised of relaxation training, hypnosis, stress inoculation training, and imagery induction.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Stevens, Larry Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Neurocognitive implications of diabetes on dementia as measured by an extensive neuropsychological battery.

Description: Diabetes is a disease with a deleterious pathology that currently impacts 4.5 million individuals within the United States. This study examined the ability of a specific neuropsychological battery to identify and classify dementia type, investigated the impact of diabetes on cognition and analyzed the ability of the memory measures of the 7 Minute Screen (7MS) and the Rey-Osterrieth Recall to correctly categorize dementia type when not used in combination with a full battery. The battery in addition to exhaustive patient history, medical chart review and pertinent tests were used in initial diagnosis. Results indicated the battery was sufficient in the identification and classification of dementia type. Within the sample, diabetes did not appear to significantly impact overall battery results whereby only two measures were minimally affected by diabetes. Finally, the memory measures of the 7MS and the Rey-Osterrieth Recall were sufficient to predict membership into the Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) groups with 86.4% accuracy. The classification percentage dropped to 68.3% with addition of the mild cognitive impairment category. The full battery correctly classified AD and VD dementia 87.5% and appeared to be the most robust.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Harris, Rebekah Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries
captions transcript

Diabetes Treatment with Sunshine

Description: Video from the Fall 2018 3 Minute Thesis (3MT®) Final Competition. In this video, Sujata Argawal presents her research methods, findings, and its significance in non-technical language.
Date: November 17, 2018
Duration: 2 minutes 54 seconds
Creator: Argawal, Sujata
Partner: UNT College of Science
open access

Investigation of the Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Subgingival Plaque Microbiota by High-Throughput 16S rDNA Pyrosequencing

Description: Article discussing the bacterial composition of subgingival plaque among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects to determine the effect that diabetes mellitus has on dental health.
Date: April 22, 2013
Creator: Zhou, Mi; Rong, Ruichen; Munro, Daniel; Zhu, Chunxia; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Qi et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
open access

Dementia, Diabetes, and Depression: Relationship to Cognitive Functioning

Description: The number of adults in the United States who are age 65 or older is rapidly increasing. With longer lifespan comes an increase in chronic diseases such as dementia, diabetes, and depression. This study used archival data from a larger study conducted at the Memory Clinic at John Peter Smith County Hospital in Ft. Worth, Texas to examine several hypotheses and research questions related to the influence of type of dementia, presence of Type II diabetes, and presence of depression on neuropsychological test performance. First, this study attempted to identify specific patterns of performance on neuropsychological measures for those with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The results indicated that those with MCI perform better than those with AD or VaD on all neuropsychological measures, and that those with VaD perform better than those with AD on a measure of verbal memory. Another purpose of the study was to determine how the presence of Type II diabetes affects this pattern of functioning; the overall finding in this study was that the presence or absence of diabetes did not affect performance on measures of cognitive functioning. Additionally, the study attempted to add to literature examining the influence of depression on older adults with diabetes and/or dementia; no significant differences emerged.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Jackson, Lauren Innes
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Religiosity As a Coping Resource for Depression and Disease Management Among Older Diabetic Patients

Description: Compared to the general population, diabetic patients experience a higher prevalence of depression, which can often exacerbate diabetic symptoms and complicate treatment. Studies show that religion is associated with both better physical health and better psychological functioning; however, studies incorporating religion and depression among diabetic individuals are scarce. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by examining archival data from the 2008 and 2010 data waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Cross-sectional findings confirmed that stronger religiosity was positively correlated with perceived diabetes control and positive diabetes change, and negatively correlated with total number of depressive symptoms and total number of weeks depressed. Longitudinal findings confirmed that stronger religiosity in 2008 was positively correlated with perceived diabetes change in 2010 and negatively correlated with total number of depressive symptoms in 2010. Logistic regression and multiple regression analyses were performed to test four moderation models. Results showed that religiosity significantly moderated the relationship between perceived diabetes control and total number of weeks depressed. More specifically, for diabetics with low levels of religiosity, whether they believed their diabetes was under control or not did not make a significant difference in the total number of weeks depressed. However, high levels of religiosity served as a buffer against the duration of depressive symptoms but only for diabetics who perceived to have their diabetes under control. Understanding how these constructs jointly influence diabetes management and psychological functioning is critical in that medical professionals may utilize such knowledge to enhance treatment outcomes.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Dzivakwe, Vanessa G.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Evaluating Social Factors in Diabetes Management by Mexican American Ethnicity

Description: Differences in Mexican American ethnicity, family and friend social support, and importance of diabetes self-management as related to diabetes management in the older adult population were evaluated with the University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2003 Diabetes Study. Comparisons were made between Mexican Americans with Type II diabetes and similar non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American individuals with Type II diabetes. Neither family/friend social support nor importance of diabetes self-management were significant predictors of HbA1c levels. Results did not support the idea that perception of receiving support from family/friends or placing importance on diabetes self-management covaried with lower HbAlc level (family/friend: beta = -.13, t = -1.47, p = .143; self management: beta = .08, t = .55, p = .584).
Date: December 2010
Creator: Huerta, Serina
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

P02.123. The anti-diabetic and cholesterol-lowering effects of common and cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and C. aromaticum): a randomized controlled trial

Description: This paper accompanies a poster presentation on the anti-diabetic and cholesterol-lowering effects of common and cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and C. aromaticum).
Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Perri, Dan; Seely, Dugald; Ardilouze, J.; Ridout, Rowena; Bowers, K. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Type II Diabetes Prevention

Description: Poster presentation for the 2011 University Scholars Day at the University of North Texas discussing research on type II diabetes prevention.
This item is restricted from view until April 14, 2013.
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Chazhikat, Emlynn & Keith, Edward
Partner: UNT Honors College
open access

Examination of the Relationship Between Glucuronic Acid and Vascular Damage in Rats

Description: The goal of this experiment was to examine the role of glucuronic acid in the development of vascular damage in the kidneys and retinas of diabetic individuals. Glucuronic acid was provided to rats in their water at various concentrations in order to increase plasma levels of the compound. Kidneys and retinas were excised and compared to control specimens using microscopy to determine the effect of elevated blood glucuronic acid levels on the occurrence of microaneurysms in renal capillary networks. No differences were seen between the treatment and control groups. Further study needs to be conducted to determine a more suitable time frame for this experiment.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Moore, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Diabetes Status of Mexican Americans: Impact of Country of Birth

Description: In order to better tailor treatment to specific populations, factors which contribute to health disparities among different racial/ethnic groups must be examined. Among Mexican American individuals, the high rate of diabetes represents a significant contributor to overall health. The present study focuses on factors affecting diabetes status among Mexican Americans born in either Mexico or the United States using the 2007 – 2008 NHANES data set. Comparisons were made between diabetes status based on self-report and clinical classification using HbA1c. Results indicated that within the diabetic subsample, Mexican Americans born in Mexico were twice as likely to be incorrectly classified as non-diabetic, when they actually were diabetic, when using a self-report method. In contrast, nativity did not result in differences in diabetes incidence using the HbA1c clinical cut-score diagnostic classification. Age, BMI, gender, nativity, and health insurance coverage were found to have varying relationships to diabetes prevalence and HbA1c levels, but time in the U.S. for Mexico-born individuals was not found to uniquely predict diabetes incidence. Analyses also demonstrated that Mexico-born males, as compared to the other groups, had significantly higher HbA1c levels. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationships among these factors. However, findings do demonstrate a need for more objective disease classification, particularly when examining immigration status and diabetes. Additionally, the complexity of these interactions establishes a need for specific health intervention for foreign-born populations which might be missed by self-report screening asking about presence of disease and exacerbated by an oversimplification of the “healthy immigrant effect”.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Douglas, Megan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Role of Acculturation in the Health Belief Model for Mexican-Americans with Type II Diabetes

Description: Diabetes has alarming prevalence rates not only in the U.S., but also worldwide. Ethnicity plays a large role with Hispanic-Americans having one of the highest prevalence rates. Diabetes is a complicated disease that requires significant lifestyle modifications. The health belief model (HBM) has been investigated as a theory to explain behavior change. However, little research has been done to determine its utility to Mexican-Americans. In the current study, participants were Mexican-American adults (N = 66) with type II diabetes who were recruited from family medicine clinics. Self-report questionnaires included the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ). Participants had the option to complete them in either Spanish or English. Laboratory values were collected from medical charts. A MANCOVA indicated that two variables were significant, perceived severity (PS) and misguided support behaviors (MSB), p < .05. With respect to the HBM, PS was identified as a component of an individual's perception, acculturation was a modifying factor, and MSB was a component of the likelihood to change factors. These three affected glycemic control. Odds ratios determined that individuals with better glycemic control had less perceived severity and less misguided supportive behavior. Individuals with the least acculturation were more likely to have best glycemic control. Significant results were found for each of the three main columns of the model suggesting that the HBM has utility for the Hispanic-American population with type II diabetes. Results suggest that health care personnel should be aware of the ramifications of patients' perceived severity of their illness as well as the amount the "nagging" type support they receive from friends and family on glycemic control. This awareness can lead to the development of interventions aimed at improving glycemic control and the quality of life in Mexican-Americans with diabetes. Specifically, programs focused on incorporating the family …
Date: August 2007
Creator: Bereolos, Nicole Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Diabetic Ketosis

Description: This technical report examines the recent findings, of Brookhaven National Laboratory and others, on the relation between diabetic ketosis and intermediary metabolism. This report compares new findings with past knowledge and considers new trends in research, theory, and the management of diabetic ketosis.
Date: 1962
Creator: Shreeve, Walton W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Investigating the Effects of Polypharmacy Among Elderly Patients with Diabetes on Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes in Home Health Care

Description: The focus of this research study is glycemic control in the presence of multiple morbidities and polypharmacy in homebound individuals with Type 2 diabetes aged 65 years and older. The research method is a quantitative retrospective cohort study of discharged patients of a nonprofit community-based home health agency from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, using OASIS data. Glycemic control is assessed using the hA1C laboratory test following the recommendation of the American Diabetes Association. The study documents a moderate significant association between glycemic control, polypharmacy and comorbid conditions, indicating that homebound individuals with Type 2 diabetes aged 65 years and older are less likely to have optimal glycemic control in the presence of multiple morbidities and polypharmacy. There continues to be a need for scientific research in this population cohort; and the dose-response association between antidiabetic therapy interventions designed to lower blood glucose levels in the presence of chronic disease and polypharmacy.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Bernier, Shelia Alathia
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Spousal Support and Diabetes Management: the Role of Gender and Religion

Description: One in four adults over the age of 60 suffers from diabetes. Around 85%-90% of individuals who have diabetes suffer from Type II diabetes. The prevalence of individuals with diabetes is expected to increase. This paper addresses the influence spousal support, friend support, and religion all have on diabetes mellitus. Gender difference in relation to spousal support benefits has also received limited attention. The limited amount of studies that have examined gender differences in relation to spousal support and diabetes management indicate that diabetic men benefit the most from spousal support due to their wives active involvement in meal preparation and grocery shopping. The results showed that neither spousal support nor religious salience was significantly related to diabetes management. There were observed gender differences in religious salience (males = 4.84, females = 5.36, p < .001) and positive spousal support (males = 3.19, females = 3.02, p <.001), but none of the major hypotheses were supported.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Estevez, Rosemary
Partner: UNT Libraries
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