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Apology and Forgiveness in Couples

Description: Following a transgression, interpersonal forgiveness is one strategy used to restore harmony between the victim and offender. Research also suggests that forgiveness can promote psychological and physical health. Research has shown that an apology from the offender may facilitate the forgiveness process. The majority of studies suggest that when a victim receives an apology, they experience higher levels of forgiveness toward their offender. The purpose of this thesis was to explore the association between apology and forgiveness in a sample of adults and undergraduate students (N = 803). The results are organized in three sections. First, I found a positive relationship between apology and forgiveness, replicating prior research. Second, I created a new measure of transgression severity, and provided evidence of internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion-related validity for this measure. Third, I tested two variables hypothesized to moderate the association between apology and forgiveness. First, there was some evidence that perceived offender humility moderated the association between simple apology and forgiveness. Offenders who were perceived as being more humble when providing a simple apology were granted more forgiveness than their less humble counterparts. Second, there was some evidence that transgression severity moderated the association between a complete apology and forgiveness, but the effect was in the opposite direction as hypothesized. For individuals who reported a transgression of high severity, there was a stronger association between the completeness of an apology and forgiveness than for individuals who reported a transgression of low severity. I conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Reyna, Samuel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

[A couple from San Antonio]

Description: Photograph of a couple sitting on a couch. The woman is sitting on the man's left and she is wearing a long sleeve crochet dress with a beaded necklace and a matching belt. Her short hair is curled and pulled back from her face. The man is wearing a suit with a patterned tie and glasses. He is sitting with his legs crossed at the knee and has his hands in his lap. The couch is velvet and there is a crochet blanket draped across the back. The rood has a floral wallpaper and a shelf that is hung in the corner of the room is visible in the top left of the image.
Date: [1940..1960]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple in suits, 2]

Description: Photograph of an elderly couple. They sit close together and look towards the camera with a smile. The woman sits on the left and has short, dark hair. She wears a pinstriped suit with a beaded necklace. The man wears eyeglasses, a dark suit jacket, and a patterned necktie. A solid curtain hangs behind them.
Date: [1940..1960]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple posing in front of a floral-print background]

Description: Photograph of a man and a woman posing together in front of a wall covered in floral-print wallpaper. The woman drapes an arm over the man's shoulders and they look towards each other with wide smiles. The woman sits on the left. Her dark hair is neatly styled and she wears a collared dress with vertical stripes running down the front. The man's hair is combed back and he wears a dress shirt with dark pants.
Date: [1930..1960]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple posing in front of a floral-print background, 2]

Description: Photograph of a man and a woman posing together in front of a wall covered in floral-print wallpaper. The woman sits on the left and drapes an arm over the man's shoulders. They look towards each other and smile. Her dark hair is neatly styled and she wears a collared dress with vertical stripes running down the front. The man's hair is combed back and he wears a dress shirt with dark pants.
Date: [1930..1950]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple in suits]

Description: Photograph of an elderly couple. They sit close together and look towards each other with a smile. The woman sits on the left and has short, dark hair. She wears a pinstriped suit with a beaded necklace. The man wears eyeglasses, a dark suit jacket, and a patterned necktie. A solid curtain hangs behind them.
Date: [1940..1960]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple in suits, 3]

Description: Photograph of an elderly couple sitting close together. The woman sits on the left and has short, dark hair. She looks towards the camera with a wide smile. She wears a pinstriped suit with a beaded necklace. The man wears eyeglasses, a dark suit jacket, and a patterned necktie. He looks off towards the left with a smile. A solid curtain hangs behind them.
Date: [1940..1960]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple in suits, 4]

Description: Photograph of an elderly couple sitting close together. The woman sits on the left and has short, dark hair. She looks off to the right with a wide smile. She wears a pinstriped suit with a beaded necklace. The man wears eyeglasses, a dark suit jacket, and a patterned necktie. He smiles at the camera. A solid curtain hangs behind them.
Date: [1940..1960]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Photograph of a couple posing in front of a floral-print background, 3]

Description: Photograph of a man and a woman posing together in front of a wall covered in floral-print wallpaper. The woman sits on the left on a low, cushioned chair and holds onto the man who kneels down next to her. She looks at the camera with a smile, while he looks towards her. Her dark hair is neatly styled and she wears a patterned dress. The man's hair is combed back and he wears a grid checked dress shirt with dark pants. A door with sheer curtains hanging over its window is visible on the right.
Date: [1930..1950]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), III
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Couple at the Beach]

Description: Photograph of a couple at the beach in Mexico. The couple is visible in the foreground on a hammock holding glass bottles. Other hammocks are visible behind the couple. The beach is visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Couple in Bamboo]

Description: Photograph of Ray and Georgia Gough in Japan. The couple is visible in the center of the frame posing on a stone pathway. The pathway runs through the middle of a bamboo grove.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Couple]

Description: Photograph of a couple in front of a stone wall in England. Trees and a tower are visible behind the couple.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Young couple sitting together]

Description: Photograph of a young couple sitting together outside on a porch. The two sit in the center of the image, the man on the left and the woman on the right, and look at each other with adoration. It is dark outside and they sit in front of a wooden well. Fencing with vines growing along it can be seen in the background.
Date: [1939..1989]
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Couple taking a night stroll]

Description: Photograph of a young couple taking a stroll outside at night. The couple has their backs turned to the camera walking away, with their arms wrapped around each other's backs. They are walking past a tree on their right in the image, and the area in front of the couple is pitch black.
Date: [1939..1989]
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[A couple sitting close together]

Description: Photograph of a young couple sitting close together on a pile of twigs at night, neither of their faces are visible. They are in each other's arms, and it appears that the man is whispering something in the woman's ear. The woman is wearing a plaid long sleeve shirt, skirt and heeled sandals; the man is wearing a dark jacket and pants, and leather boots.
Date: [1939..1989]
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
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