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DETERMINATION OF CORROSION INHIBITOR CRITERIA FOR TYPE III/IIIA TANKS DURING SALT DISSOLUTION OPERATIONS INTERIM REPORT

Description: Preparation of high level waste for vitrification involves in part the dissolution of salt cake from the carbon steel storage tanks. During dissolution, a point is reached in which the corrosion inhibitors, hydroxide and nitrite, are diluted below established guidelines, and nitrate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is possible. Because the addition of inhibitors may be counterproductive to process efficiency and waste minimization, corrosion testing was initiated to revisit and possibly revise the guidelines for inhibitor limits. The bases for the work summarized in this status report are results from previously-completed phases of study. In the first two phases of study, several reduced-inhibitor levels were tested in HLW simulants with nitrate concentrations ranging from 4.5 M to 8.5 M. The first two phases of work determined, among other things, the reduced-inhibitor levels and solution chemistries in which heat-treated and non-heat-treated A537 carbon steel is susceptible to SCC, crevice corrosion, and pitting. The work covered in this current task both builds on and verifies the conclusions of the previous work. The current work involves testing of low levels of inhibitors in HLW simulants with 5.5 M to 8.5 M nitrate concentrations. Stressed U-bend specimens, both polarized and non-polarized, were tested. Non-polarized U-bend testing is ongoing, with the U-bends currently in test for 100 days. The purpose of the testing is to determine SCC susceptibility in the vapor space (VS) and liquid air interface (LAI) regions of the HLW tanks under conditions expected during salt dissolution, and also to verify previous accelerated testing. The simulated wastes being tested have nitrate concentrations of 5.5 M and 8.5 M and inhibitor levels of 0.01 M/0.01 M hydroxide/nitrite and 0.1 M/ 0.1 M hydroxide/nitrite. The open circuit potential measurements being monitored and the corrosion morphology of the U-bends are in agreement with results and observations of …
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Counts, K; Bruce Wiersma, B & John Mickalonis, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiochemical Analyses for Fe, Cr, Ni, and Co Corrosion Products

Description: Abstract: Radiochemical and carrier techniques have been applied to the determination of minute amounts of Fe, Cr, Ni, and Co which appear as corrosion products of Inconel. The results are as follows: Fe, 0.061 per cent; Cr, 0.15 per cent; Ni, 0.037 per cent; and Co, .0005 per cent.
Date: September 9, 1955
Creator: Smith, R. R.; Passell, T. O. & Reeder, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes

Description: Corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production plants due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes have been shown to operate in high temperature gaseous environments that are similar to those found in fossil fuel combustors. ECR probes are rarely used in energy production plants at the present time, but if they were more fully understood, corrosion could become a process variable at the control of plant operators. Research is being conducted to understand the nature of these probes. Factors being considered are values selected for the Stern-Geary constant, the effect of internal corrosion, and the presence of conductive corrosion scales and ash deposits. The nature of ECR probes will be explored in a number of different atmospheres and with different electrolytes (ash and corrosion product). Corrosion rates measured using an electrochemical multi-technique capabilities instrument will be compared to those measured using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. In future experiments, electrochemical corrosion rates will be compared to penetration corrosion rates determined using optical profilometry measurements.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R. & Ziomek-Moroz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effect of Radiation on the Corrosion of Metals by Water

Description: Technical report. Long-time tests have been made on the effect of various types of radiation on the corrosion of 2S aluminum in simulated W water. In no case was any acceleration of corrosion by the radiation observed; the effect of radiation, if any, appeared to be a protective one. Deuteron irradiation did accelerate the corrosion of mild steel at low flow rates in hot water of pH 6 to 7, but no appreciable effect was observed with copper, stainless steel, or tuballoy. The general theory of the effect of radiation on corrosion is discussed, with the conclusion that no acceleration of corrosion by radiation is to be expected in most cases of practical interest.
Date: July 6, 1944
Creator: Allen, A. O. (Augustine O.); Bowman, M. C.; Goldowski, Nathalie; Larson, R. G. & Treiman, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prediction of Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Fabricated Components

Description: The goal of this project is to provide materials engineers, chemical engineers and plant operators with a software tool that will enable them to predict localized corrosion of process equipment including fabricated components as well as base alloys. For design and revamp purposes, the software predicts the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and assists the user in selecting the optimum alloy for a given environment. For the operation of existing plants, the software enables the users to predict the remaining life of equipment and help in scheduling maintenance activities. This project combined fundamental understanding of mechanisms of corrosion with focused experimental results to predict the corrosion of advanced, base or fabricated, alloys in real-world environments encountered in the chemical industry. At the heart of this approach is the development of models that predict the fundamental parameters that control the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environmental conditions and alloy composition. The fundamental parameters that dictate the occurrence of localized corrosion are the corrosion and repassivation potentials. The program team, OLI Systems and Southwest Research Institute, has developed theoretical models for these parameters. These theoretical models have been applied to predict the occurrence of localized corrosion of base materials and heat-treated components in a variety of environments containing aggressive and non-aggressive species. As a result of this project, a comprehensive model has been established and extensively verified for predicting the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and temperature by calculating the corrosion and repassivation potentials.To support and calibrate the model, an experimental database has been developed to elucidate (1) the effects of various inhibiting species as well as aggressive species on localized corrosion of nickel-base alloys, stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys and (2) the effects of heat treatment on localized …
Date: September 29, 2007
Creator: Anderko, A.; Engelhardt, G.; Lencka, M. M.; Jakab, M. A.; Tormoen, G. & Sridhar, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atmospheric Corrosion of Aluminum Alloy 3105 in Coastal Environments: Interim Report After 15 Months Exposure

Description: In May of 1994, racks of corrosion samples were installed along the Oregon coast. The aluminum alloy 3105 samples were mounted on utility poles in Astoria, Manzanita, Lincoln City, Gold Beach, Brookings, Portland, and Albany. At each coastal location, samples were placed on four different poles at various distances from the coast (from as near as 50 feet to as far as 5 miles). The inland sites (Portland and Albany) have only one pole per site and are used as control sites. Besides the 3105 alloys, 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys were placed at all sites. Since installation, one rack was lost due to the pole being taken down by the phone company (in Lincoln City), but the rest of the poles and racks are still in place.<br> <br> In August of 1995, the aluminum samples were visually inspected, and the remaining six 3105 aluminum samples in Lincoln City were removed for laboratory examination. Non-destructive x-ray analysis was used on the Lincoln City samples to obtain information a bout the nature of the corrosion products. Because the analysis was performed while the corrosion products remained on the surface, aluminum peaks dominated the diffraction pattern, and relative peak-heights were different from normal. Nevertheless, some minerals were identified as part of the corrosion products.
Date: April 19, 1996
Creator: Holcomb, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sodium Mass Transfer - I: Test Loop Design

Description: From abstract: "This report presents the design, fabrication, assembly, operating procedures, and start-up data for six experimental test loops to examine the effect of steel exposed to sodium at temperatures as high as 1300 F."
Date: June 1962
Creator: Lockhart, R. W.; Billuris, G. & Lane, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Metal Corrosion Associated with Thermal Cycling of Inhibited and Uninhibited Propylene Glycol/Water Solution in Solar DHW Systems

Description: As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, metal corrosion associated with thermal cycling at 82 C circulating and 176 C stagnating temperatures of propylene glycol and ASTM corrosive water mixture (50% v/o) was investigated. Preliminary data indicate that in a mixed metal system of copper, steel, and aluminum specimens stagnating together in a glycol solution, the copper randomly pits and the pitting stops when the pit depth extends to about 1-1/2 mil. The addition of 1% molybdate as an inhibitor to the glycol solution is slightly beneficial for steel, but the added expense of adding and maintaining the concentration of an inhibitor may not be warranted. Dissolved copper rapidly deposits on the aluminum surface and promotes severe galvanic corrosion.
Date: April 1983
Creator: Cheng, Craig F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

Description: The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Mon, K.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interfaces of High-Protection Performance Polyaryls-Coated Zinc Phosphated Steels

Description: To evaluate the ability of polyaryl thermoplastic coatings such as polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) and polyphenyletheretherketone (PEEK), to protect zinc phosphate (Zn{center_dot}Ph)-treated steels from corrosion in a wet, harsh environment (1.0 wt % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 3.0 wt % NaCl and 96.0 wt % water at temperature from 250 to 200 C), we exposed them in autoclave to determine performance in heating-cooling cyclic fatigue tests (1 cycle = 12 hr at 200 C + 12 hr at 25 C) for up to 90 cycles. Although no changes in appearance were seen in the PEEK specimens after 60 cycles, extension to 90 cycles caused delamination of the coating film from the Zn{center_dot}Ph; the major reason was the degradation of the PEEK polymer caused by its hydrothermalcatalyzed esterification. In urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP)-modified PPS-coating systems, chemical reactions at the interfaces between the PPS and Zn in the Zn{center_dot}Ph layer led to the formation of a ZnS reaction product, which enhanced the Zn{center_dot}Ph-to-PPS adhesive bond; correspondingly, there were no signs of peeling nor separation of the coating after 90 cycles. In addition, because these intermediate reaction products are insoluble at high pH, they minimized the rate of delamination of the PPS coating caused by the cathodic reaction, H{sub 2}O + 1/2O{sub 2} + 2e{sup {minus}} {yields} 2OH{sup {minus}}, at the corrosion side of a defect in the film. In contrast, PEEK coatings containing non-reactive Zn{center_dot}Ph underwent cathodic delamination because of the susceptibility of Zn{center_dot}Ph to alkali dissolution.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Sugama, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (MCEL)

Description: A new materials corrosion laboratory has been set up, based primarily in the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the laboratory is to conduct basic and applied research in order to rapidly evaluate the durability and useful life of materials considered for use in severe environments. The laboratory serves and provides facilities for industry and universities, and researchers from the present and future DOE complex. The primary customers within the DOE complex are those concerned with materials compatibility or durability problems associated with the safety and long term storage of nuclear weapons and waste, transmutation of nuclear waste, and high temperature corrosion and compatibility in energy systems. The general technical objective of MCEL is to identify the causes and mechanisms of corrosion processes or component failures, quantitatively determine corrosion rates or mechanisms, and help the customer adopt appropriate strategies (such as new materials selection, process modification, new inspection methods, anodic or cathodic protection, or the use of coatings or inhibitors) for effective corrosion prevention. To accomplish its technical objectives, MCEL provides both experimental and theoretical analytical approaches to solving corrosion problems. The following is a description of some of the capabilities of the laboratory and personnel.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Butt, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tank 241-AZ-101 prototype corrosion probe four month status report

Description: High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks. The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring system into double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 was completed in August, 1996. The system monitors fluctuations in corrosion current and potential (electrochemical noise) occurring on three electrode arrays immersed in the waste liquid and in the vapor space above the waste. The system also supports the use of Tafel and linear polarization resistance testing. By monitoring and analyzing the data from these techniques, changes in the corrosive characteristics of the waste have been rapidly detected and correlated with operational changes in the tank.
Date: December 12, 1996
Creator: Edgemon, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Microclimate Corrosion Effects in Coastal Environments

Description: The Albany Research Center is conducting atmospheric corrosion research in coastal environments to improve the performance of materials in the Nation's infrastructure. The corrosion of bare metals, and of painted, thermal-sprayed, and galvanized steels are presented for one-year exposures at sites located on bridges and utility poles along the Oregon coast. The effects of microclimates (for example distance from the ocean, high wind zones, and salt-fog prone regions) are examined in conjunction with sample orientation and sheltered/unsheltered comparisons. An atmospheric corrosion model examines the growth and dissolution of corrosion product layers to arrive at a steady-state thickness and corrosion rate.
Date: March 24, 1996
Creator: Holcomb, G. R.; Covino, B. S., Jr.; Bullard, S. J. & Cramer, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

Description: Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes were constructed and exposed along with mass loss coupons in a N2/O2/CO2/H2O environment to determine ECR probe operating characteristics. Temperatures ranged from 450 to 600 C and both ECR probes and mass loss coupons were coated with ash. Results are presented in terms of the probe response to temperature, the measured zero baseline, and the quantitative nature of the probes. The effect of Stern-Geary constant and the choice of electrochemical technique used to measure the corrosion rate are also discussed. ECR probe corrosion rates were a function of time, temperature, and process environment and were found to be quantitative for some test conditions. Measured Stern-Geary constants averaged 0.0141 V/decade and the linear polarization technique was found to be more quantitative than the electrochemical noise technique.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Eden, David A. (Intercorr International Inc.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Localized Corrosion of Stainless Steels and High-Nickel Alloys in Simulated Superheat Reactor Environment

Description: Abstract. A program was instituted to study and reproduce the in-reactor intergranular failures of Type-304 stainless steel fuel cladding found in superheated steam. The program was directed toward finding ways to eliminate the cause of failure or to use improved alloys that would be less susceptible to failure. A materials screening test was developed in the out-of-pile superheat facilities with 1.5 ppm chloride added as sodium chloride to the recirculating water in the presence of typical boiling water reactor quantities of oxygen and hydrogen. During the test, the heater sheaths were exposed through several cycles to saturated steam (with its accompanying moisture carryover) and superheated steam. Failure of Type-304 stainless steel was obtained in periods of less than two weeks; the failures were predominantly transgranular. Type-347 and vacuum-melted Type-304 stainless steels failed in this NaCl-cycle test while Inconel-600, Incoloy-800, Hastelloy-X, Type-406 stainless steel, and vacuum-melted Type-310 stainless steel were acceptable. An improved chloride cycle test with 0.5 ppm chloride added as ferric chloride to the recirculating water was developed. An intergranular failure was obtained similar to that experienced in the superheat fuel cladding failures in the superheat in-pile loops in the Vallecitos Boiling-Water Reactor. Sensitized Type-304 and Type-316 stainless steels failed intergranularly in this test. Inconel-600, Incoloy-800, and vacuum-melted Type-310 stainless steel did not fail when exposed to the test for much longer time periods. During the development and performance of the cycle runs, the superheat facilities were exposed to a myriad of conditions within the extremes of the test parameters involved. Intergranular chemical attack was experienced essentially independent of stress, but the attack was generally distributed. In the presence of high stress, the intergranular attack was more localized and advanced normal to the stress. It is hypothesized that definite interplay exists between chemical attack and stress, and that the …
Date: February 1964
Creator: Pearl, W. L.; Gaul, G. G. & Wozadlo, G. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High Temperature Corrosion of Some Metals and Ceramics in Fluorinating Atmospheres

Description: Abstract: The results of this investigation leave little doubt that diffusion of the fluorinating gas along the grain boundaries of the nickel fluoride film to react at the metal-scale interface is the primary mechanism of attack upon pure nickel and its more promising alloys.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Hale, C. F.; Barber, E. J.; Bernhardt, H. A. & Rapp, Karl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effect of Fluoride on the Corrosion of Stainless Steel in the Presence of Excess Al+3 Ion

Description: Technical report detailing corrosion tests of Type 347 stainless steel for two weeks in boiling uranyl nitrate, sulfuric acid media, with and without additions of Al+3 and F-1 in a 2:1 mole ratio. The results of these tests show that although the presence of aluminum greatly reduces the deleterious effect of fluoride, the corrosion rates are still three to four times greater than when no fluoride is present. [From Abstract]
Date: March 27, 1951
Creator: Olsen, Arnold R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Corrosion of Metals in Sea Water

Description: Report issued by the Office of Saline over the corrosive properties of sea water on metals. As stated in the report, "the following paragraphs outline the major factors which influence corrosion reactions" (p. 2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: December 1960
Creator: Fink, Frederick W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fundamental Studies of Copper Bimetallic Corrosion in Ultra Large Scale Interconnect Fabrication Process

Description: In this work, copper bimetallic corrosion and inhibition in ultra large scale interconnect fabrication process is explored. Corrosion behavior of physical vapor deposited (PVD) copper on ruthenium on acidic and alkaline solutions was investigated with and without organic inhibitors. Bimetallic corrosion screening experiments were carried out to determine the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments yielded information on the galvanic couples and also corrosion rates. XPS and FTIR surface analysis gave important information pertaining inhibition mechanism of organic inhibitors. Interestingly copper in contact with ruthenium in cleaning solution led to increased corrosion rate compared to copper in contact with tantalum. On the other hand when cobalt was in contact with copper, cobalt corroded and copper did not. We ascribe this phenomenon to the difference in the standard reduction potentials of the two metals in contact and in such a case a less noble metal will be corroded. The effects of plasma etch gases such as CF4, CF4+O2, C4F8, CH2F2 and SF6 on copper bimetallic corrosion was investigated too in alkaline solution. It was revealed that the type of etching gas plasma chemistry used in Cu interconnect manufacturing process creates copper surface modification which affects corrosion behavior in alkaline solution. The learning from copper bimetallic corrosion studies will be useful in the development of etch and clean formulations that will results in minimum defects and therefore increase the yield and reliability of copper interconnects.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Koskey, Simon Kibet
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

Description: The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M. & Sorensen, Neil Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

Description: There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision …
Date: July 17, 2011
Creator: Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J. & Tschudi, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Rotogenerative Detection of Corrosion Currents

Description: Note presenting a new technique for studying corrosion phenomena. The method permits the detection of the presence of currents produced by local cells on the surface of a corroding metal specimen. The method can be applied to the study of stress corrosion; in this case a hollow specimen if subjected to sufficient hydraulic pressure to produce the desired stress level.
Date: November 1951
Creator: McAndrew, Joseph B.; Colner, William H. & Francis, Howard T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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