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Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Cocaine: Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance Characteristics

Description: Rats were trained to discriminate an injection of cocaine, 5.0 mg/kg, from an injection of saline, using a two-lever choice paradigm: one lever was correct after cocaine injection, the other lever was correct after a saline injection. After training, cocaine and methamphetamine were generalized to the cocaine lever, but phenethylamine (PEA) was only partially generalized. Cocaine was injected every 8 hrs, 20.0 mg/kg, and the discriminability of 5.0 mg/kg was tested every other day. Redetermination of the cocaine generalization curve after 6 days of chronic administration showed a shift to the right, from an ED50 of 4.1 mg/kg in the pre-chronic condition to 10.0 mg/kg. Tolerance did not develop to the behavioral effects of cocaine, measured by time to the first reinforcement and response rate. There was cross-tolerance to methamphetamine; however, no evidence for cross-tolerance to PEA was obtained. Following the acquisition of tolerance, chronic administration of cocaine was terminated, and the discriminability of 5.0 mg/kg was tested every other day for loss of tolerance. After 8 days the ED50 returned to 5.0 mg/kg.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Wood, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neuropharmacological Characteristics of Tolerance for Cocaine Used as a Discriminative Stimulus

Description: The main purpose of this research was to investigate the phenomenon of tolerance to cocaine. Tolerance is operationally defined as a decreased drug effect due to prior history of drug administration. The animal model that was chosen to investigate tolerance to cocaine was the drug discrimination model, which is an animal analogue of human subjective drug effects. In the drug discrimination procedure, animals are trained to emit one behavior when injected with saline. In the present experiments, rats were trained to press one lever when injected with cocaine, 10 mg/kg, and a different lever when injected with saline for food reinforcement. Once rats are trained, they can accurately detect the cocaine stimulus greater than 95% of the time.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Wood, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Federal Cocaine Sentencing Disparity: Sentencing Guidelines, Jurisprudence, and Legislation

Description: This report discusses legislation and several court cases to examine the changing nature of Crack Cocaine penalties in comparison to powder cocaine. Until 2005, the Guidelines were binding on federal courts: the judge had discretion to sentence a defendant, but only within the narrow sentencing range that the Guidelines provided. In its 2005 opinion United States v. Booker, the Supreme Court declared that the Guidelines must be considered advisory rather than mandatory, in order to comply with the Constitution. Instead of being bound by the Guidelines, sentencing courts must treat the federal guidelines as just one of a number of sentencing factors (which include the need to avoid undue sentencing disparity).
Date: August 5, 2010
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gene by Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

Description: Chronic cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. We therefore examined variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype in cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy controls.
Date: December 5, 2010
Creator: Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.; Maloney, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Coca Reduction Strategies in the Andean Region

Description: This report identifies opportunities for and constraints to reducing Andean coca production through: 1) improving U.S. alternative development efforts and 2) applying biological control technology (bio-control) to eradicate illegally produced coca.
Date: July 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a portable preconcentrator/ion mobility spectrometer system for the trace detection of narcotics

Description: This project was supported by LDRD funding for the development and preliminary testing of a portable narcotics detection system. The system developed combines a commercial trace detector known as an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator originally designed by Department 5848 for the collection of explosives molecules. The detector and preconcentrator were combined along with all necessary accessories onto a push cart, thus yielding a fully portable detection unit. Preliminary testing with both explosives and narcotics molecules shown that the system is operational, and that it can successfully detect drugs as marijuana, methamphetamine (speed), and cocaine based on their characteristics IMS signatures.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Parmeter, J.E. & Custer, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

“Wolf Man”

Description: This creative nonfiction dissertation is a memoir that probes the complex life and death of the author’s father, who became addicted in his late forties to crack cocaine. While the primary concerns are the reasons and ways in which the father changed from a family man into a drug addict, the memoir is also concerned with themes of family life, childhood, and grief. After his father’s death, the author moves to Las Vegas and experiences similar addiction issues, which he then explores to help shed light on his father’s problems. To enrich the investigation, the author draws from eclectic sources, including news articles, literature, mythology, sociology, religion, music, TV, interviews, and inherited objects from his father. In dissecting the life of his father, the author simultaneously examines broader issues surrounding modern fatherhood, such as cultural expectations, as well as the problems of emptiness, isolation, and spiritual deficiency.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Flanagan, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment Effects Related to EEG-Biofeedback for Crack Cocaine Dependency: Changes in Personality and Attentional Variables

Description: EEG biofeedback (neurotherapy) has been demonstrated as effective in the treatment of alcoholism, as evidenced by Peniston and Kulkosky's research efforts. These neurotherapy pioneers evaluated the efficacy of alpha-theta brain wave biofeedback as a treatment for chronic alcohol abuse, citing 80% abstinence rates as measured by improvements in psychopathology, serum beta endorphin levels, and long-term alcohol abstinence. Most research with alpha-theta EEG biofeedback has addressed alcohol addiction. Cocaine is now considered to be the most common drug problem of patients entering treatment for drug abuse. To date, only one controlled study has been published that researched alpha-theta neurofeedback in the treatment of "crack" cocaine addiction. The present study was an extension of a 4-year EEG-biofeedback treatment outcome project underway at a faith-based homeless mission in Houston, Texas, with male "crack" cocaine addicts. Changes in personality, attention, and impulsivity were measured following 30 sessions of a non-individualized EEG -biofeedback protocol. Experimental subjects received a variant of the Peniston-Kulkosky alpha-theta protocol for 30 sessions while controls received all elements of the experimental protocol except the EEG biofeedback. Assessment measures included the MMPI-2 and the IVA. Although experimental subjects showed greater mean improvement on most MMPI basic scales and all IVA Attention related measures, results indicated no significant differences between control and experimental groups. The present study did not result in significant differences between control and experimental groups on attentional or personality variables in crack cocaine addicts. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Burkett, Virginia Shannon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Habit-Forming Agents: Their Indiscriminate Sale and Use a Menace to the Public Welfare

Description: Report discussing the growth of drug addiction in the United States due chiefly to the consumption of drugs originally intended for medicinal purposes. Soothing syrups, soft drinks, medications for the nose and lungs, and remedies for headaches and epilepsy are the primary sources of habit-forming substances. In addition, medicines purporting to cure tobacco and drug addiction have, in many cases, also been found to contain addictive agents.
Date: 1910
Creator: Kebler, Lyman F. (Lyman Frederic), b. 1863
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New developments in APSTNG neutron probe diagnostics

Description: The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) show potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray dector and neutron generator can be located on the same side of the interrogated object, so spaces behind walls and other confirmed areas can be inspected. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed, the neutron generator is relatively simple and small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. A complete system could be transported in an automotive van. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Inspection applications have been investigated for presence of cocaine in propane tanks, uranium and plutonium smuggling, and radioactive and toxic waste characterization. An advanced APSTNG tube is being designed and constructed that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Rhodes, E. & Dickerman, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

Description: There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement ...
Date: January 29, 2001
Creator: Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Ding, Y. S.; Logan, J. & Wang, G. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Hayes]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6:00 P.M.
Date: March 22, 1979
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Brain imaging studies of the cocaine addict: Implications for reinforcement and addiction

Description: These studies document dopaminergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. They also suggest a regulatory role of Dopamine (DA) in frontal metabolism. The correlation of striatal D{sub 2} receptor availability with metabolism was strongest for orbital frontal cortex (OFC) cingulate and prefrontal cortices. In cocaine abusers tested during early withdrawal (<1 week) the OFC was found to be hypermetabolic and metabolism in OFC and prefrontal cortices were found to be significantly associated with cocaine craving . Thus, we postulate that repeated and intermittent DA stimulation, as seen during a cocaine binge, activates the prefrontal and OFC cortices increasing the drive to compulsively self-administer cocaine. During cocaine discontinuation and protracted withdrawal and with decreased DA stimulation, these frontal cortical regions become hyponietabolic. Dopaminergic stimulation by a DA-enhancing drug and/or environmental conditioning will reactivate these frontal regions resetting the compulsion to self-administer cocaine and the inability to terminate this behavior. The pharmacokionetic studies with [11C]cocaine are consistent with behavioral and pharmacological studies in animals as well as in vitro studies which have revealed that while the mechanisms for cocaine`s reinforcing properties are complex, they partly involve the brain`s dopamine system and also highlight the importance of cocaine`s pharmacokinetic on its unique reinforcing properties.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Volkow, N.D. & Fowler, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

Description: A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogated containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J.; Schmor, P.; Altman, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MicroCantilever (MC) based nanomechanical sensor for detection of molecular interactions

Description: Specific aims of this study are to investigate the mechanism governing surface stress generation associated with chemical or molecular binding on functionalized microcantilevers. Formation of affinity complexes on cantilever surfaces leads to charge redistribution, configurational change and steric hindrance between neighboring molecules resulting in surface stress change and measureable cantilever deformation. A novel interferometry technique employing two adjacent micromachined cantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) was utilized to measure the cantilever deformation. The sensing principle is that binding/reaction of specific chemical or biological species on the sensing cantilever transduces to mechanical deformation. The differential bending of the sensing cantilever respect to the reference cantilever ensures that measured response is insensitive to environmental disturbances. As a proof of principle for the measurement technique, surface stress changes associated with: self-assembly of alkanethiol, hybridization of ssDNA, and the formation of cocaine-aptamer complexes were measured. Dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for each molecular reaction was utilized to estimate the surface coverage of affinity complexes. In the cases of DNA hybridization and cocaine-aptamer binding, measured surface stress was found to be dependent on the surface coverage of the affinity complexes. In order to achieve a better sensitivity for DNA hybridization, immobilization of receptor molecules was modified to enhance the deformation of underlying surface. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) strands with thiol-modification on both 3-foot and 5-foot ends were immobilized on the gold surface such that both ends are attached to the gold surface. Immobilization condition was controlled to obtain similar receptor density as single-thiolated DNA strands. Hybridization of double-thiolated DNA strands leads to an almost two orders of magnitude increase in cantilever deformation. In both DNA hybridization and the conventional mode for cocaine detection, the lowest detectable concentration was determined by binding activity between the ligand and receptor molecules. In order to overcome this limitation for cocaine detection, a novel ...
Date: May 11, 2011
Creator: Kang, Kyung
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple Fully Automated Group Classification on Brain fMRI

Description: We propose a simple, well grounded classification technique which is suited for group classification on brain fMRI data sets that have high dimensionality, small number of subjects, high noise level, high subject variability, imperfect registration and capture subtle cognitive effects. We propose threshold-split region as a new feature selection method and majority voteas the classification technique. Our method does not require a predefined set of regions of interest. We use average acros ssessions, only one feature perexperimental condition, feature independence assumption, and simple classifiers. The seeming counter-intuitive approach of using a simple design is supported by signal processing and statistical theory. Experimental results in two block design data sets that capture brain function under distinct monetary rewards for cocaine addicted and control subjects, show that our method exhibits increased generalization accuracy compared to commonly used feature selection and classification techniques.
Date: April 14, 2010
Creator: Honorio, J.; Goldstein, R.; Honorio, J.; Samaras, D.; Tomasi, D. & Goldstein, R.Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Mosley PKG]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6:00 P.M.
Date: October 17, 1997
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

Description: Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Rhodes, E. & Dickerman, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Cheech and Chong]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 5:00 P. M.
Date: June 30, 1980
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections