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Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD and VA Need to Improve Efforts to Identify and Notify Individuals Potentially Exposed during Chemical and Biological Tests

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Tens of thousands of military personnel and civilians were potentially exposed to chemical or biological substances through Department of Defense (DOD) tests since World War II. DOD conducted some of these tests as part of its Project 112 test program, while others were conducted as separate efforts. GAO was asked to (1) assess DOD's efforts to identify individuals who were potentially exposed during Project 112 tests, (2) evaluate DOD's current effort to identify individuals who were potentially exposed during tests conducted outside of Project 112, and (3) determine the extent to which DOD and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have taken action to notify individuals who might have been exposed during chemical and biological tests. GAO analyzed documents and interviewed officials from DOD, VA, the Department of Labor, and a veterans service organization."
Date: February 28, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Program Planning and Evaluation Should Follow Results Act Framework

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Department of Defense's (DOD) application of the Government Performance and Results Act in its Chemical and Biological Defense Program."
Date: May 24, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Observations on Nonmedical Chemical and Biological R&D Programs

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed its recent reports on the coordination of federal nonmedical research and development programs that address chemical and biological threats, focusing on: (1) the similarities among nonmedical research and development programs; and (2) how coordination mechanisms may ineffectively address potential duplication, research gaps, and opportunities for collaboration."
Date: March 22, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The possibility that an adversary may use chemical or biological weapons against U.S. forces makes it important for a weapon system to be able to survive such attacks. In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005, Congress mandated that the Department of Defense submit a plan to address weapon system chemical and biological survivability by February 28, 2005. This plan was to include developing a centralized database with information about the effects of chemical and biological agents on materials used in weapon systems. DOD did not submit its plan as mandated. GAO was asked to evaluate (1) the extent to which DOD addresses weapon system chemical and biological survivability during the acquisition process, and (2) DOD's internal controls for maintaining a comprehensive database that includes chemical and biological survivability research and test data for weapon system design and development."
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Updated Intelligence, Clear Guidance, and Consistent Priorities Needed to Guide Investments in Collective Protection

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For the military to operate in environments contaminated by chemical and biological warfare agents, the Department of Defense (DOD) has developed collective protection equipment to provide a protected environment for group activities. GAO previously reported persistent problems in providing collective protection for U.S. forces in high threat areas overseas. In this report, GAO examined (1) current intelligence assessments of chemical and biological threats, (2) the extent to which DOD has provided collective protection at critical overseas facilities and major expeditionary warfighting assets, and (3) DOD's framework for managing installation protection policies and prioritizing critical installations for funding. In conducting this review, GAO developed criteria to identify critical sites in the absence of a DOD priority listing of such sites in overseas high threat areas--areas at high risk of terrorist or missile attack."
Date: January 19, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Management Actions Are Needed to Close the Gap between Army Chemical Unit Preparedness and Stated National Priorities

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review Report states that the Department of Defense (DOD) must be prepared to respond to and mitigate the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks at home or overseas. Moreover, the Secretary of Defense directed the U.S. military to define the nature and potential requests for military capabilities needed to respond to 15 National Planning Scenarios issued by the Homeland Security Council. The Army's chemical units are key players in this mission. GAO was asked to evaluate the preparedness of the Army's chemical and biological units, including the extent to which (1) units tasked with providing chemical and biological defense support to combat units and commands are adequately staffed, equipped, and trained and (2) units also tasked with a homeland defense mission--especially National Guard and Reserve units--are adequately prepared for this mission. During this review, we analyzed readiness data and other preparedness indicators for 78 Army chemical units."
Date: January 19, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical And Biological Defense: Army and Marine Corps Need to Establish Minimum Training Tasks and Improve Reporting for Combat Training Centers

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) believes that it is increasingly likely that an adversary will use nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) weapons against U.S. forces. Consequently, DOD doctrine calls for U.S. forces to be sufficiently trained to continue their missions in an NBC-contaminated environment. Given longstanding concerns about the preparedness of DOD's servicemembers in this critical area, GAO has undertaken a body of work covering NBC protective equipment and training. For this review, GAO was asked to determine the following: (1) To what extent do Army and Marine Corps units and personnel attending combat training centers participate in NBC training, and to what extent do these units and personnel perform NBC tasks at the centers to service standards? (2) Do the Army and the Marine Corps report NBC training at the centers in a standardized format that allows the services to identify lessons learned and to do cross-unit and cross-center comparisons?"
Date: January 28, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program for Oregon and Washington

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) for the Oregon and Washington communities surrounding the Umatilla Chemical Depot, focusing on: (1) the progress communities have made since GAO's 1997 report on their CSEPP efforts; and (2) strategies for enhancing the program's implementation in Oregon."
Date: October 26, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Improved Risk Assessment and Inventory Management Are Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) believes it is increasingly likely that an adversary will use chemical or biological weapons against U.S. forces to degrade superior U.S. conventional warfare capabilities, placing servicemembers' lives and effective military operations at risk. To reduce the effects of such an attack on military personnel, DOD has determined the quantity of chemical and biological protective suits, masks, breathing filters, gloves, boots, and hoods that are needed based on projected wartime requirements. DOD's assessment process is unreliable for determining the risk to military operations. DOD's 2000 report is inaccurate because it includes erroneous inventory data and wartime requirements. Inadequate inventory management is an additional risk factor because readiness can be compromised by DOD's inventory management practices, which prevent an accurate accounting of the availability or adequacy of its protective equipment."
Date: September 10, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Program Planning and Evaluation Should Follow Results Act Framework

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined the extent to which the Department of Defense (DOD) has applied the Government Performance and Results Act's outcome-oriented principles to the Chemical and Biological (CB) Defense Program, focusing on whether: (1) CB Defense Program goals are explicit and measurable; (2) the CB Defense Program has performance measures that assess outcomes and impacts rather than outputs and activities; and (3) organizations executing the CB Defense research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities have incorporated Results Act principles in their program planning and evaluation."
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Coordination of Nonmedical Chemical and Biological R&D Programs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined the coordination of federal research and development (R&D) efforts to develop nonmedical technology related to chemical and biological (CB) defense, focusing on: (1) federal programs that conduct nonmedical CB defense-related R&D; and (2) the existing mechanisms for coordinating these programs."
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Units Better Equipped, but Training and Readiness Reporting Problems Remain

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Pentagon believes that chemical and biological weapons are likely to be used early in a conflict to disrupt U.S. operations and logistics and to potentially offset the overwhelming conventional warfare capabilities of U.S. forces; however, studies have confirmed that U.S. forces are not fully prepared to defend against chemical or biological weapons and could suffer significant casualties if they are used. A study of Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps divisions showed that recent changes to the system are a step in the right direction to improving chemical and biological defense readiness reporting, but the changes do not require units to report on the condition of their chemical and biological defense equipment; thus, these reports could provide incomplete or misleading information on the status of equipment, a key element in assessing overall unit readiness."
Date: November 14, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Should Clarify Expectations for Medical Readiness

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "A 1995 Presidential Decision Directive gave the highest priority to developing the capabilities to detect, prevent, defeat, and manage the consequences of a nuclear, biological, or chemical attack. In addition, the former Secretary of Defense emphasized at his 1997 confirmation hearing the threat that U.S. forces abroad face from chemical and biological weapons. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, the joint staff, and the armed services play distinct but interrelated roles in ensuring medical readiness. Defense planning is led by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, which sets policy and develops defense planning guidance. On the basis of this guidance, the Joint Chiefs issue a biannual Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan for the nation's unified combat commands. These commands are responsible for fighting and winning wars within a particular area, usually defined by geographical boundaries. The commanders-in-chief develop war plans and requirements that specify the combat troops and support that will be needed to meet the threat and mission assigned by the Capabilities Plan. The services, in turn, train and equip the forces, including medical personnel, to meet the needs of the commanders-in-chief. So far, neither DOD nor the services have systematically examined the current distribution of medical personnel across specialties for adequacy in chemical and biological defense. This testimony summarizes an October report (GAO-02-38)."
Date: November 7, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Observations on DOD's Risk Assessment of Defense Capabilities

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) believes it is increasingly likely that an adversary of the United States will use chemical or biological weapons against U.S. forces to degrade superior U.S. conventional warfare capabilities, placing service members' lives and effective military operations at risk. During the past 6 years, GAO has identified many problems with DOD's capabilities to defend against chemical and biological weapons and sustain operations in the midst of their use. Although GAO has found that DOD has made some improvements--in equipment, training, and reporting, and in the coordination of research and development activities--it has continuing concerns in each of these areas. One particular issue is the supply of chemical protective clothing and the way associated risk is assessed. Due to the upcoming expiration of existing protective suits, the slower rate at which new suits are entering the inventory, and DOD's method of assessing risk for individual items rather than complete protective ensembles, GAO believes that the risk for protective clothing shortages may increase dramatically from now through 2007. GAO is also concerned that certain management weaknesses, such as program organizational complexity and prolonged vacancies in key leadership positions, may have sent a message throughout the department about the relative priority and importance of the Chemical and Biological Defense Program."
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs to Continue to Collect and Provide Information on Tests and on Potentially Exposed Personnel

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In the 1962-74 time period, the Department of Defense (DOD) conducted a classified chemical and biological warfare test program--Project 112--that might have exposed service members and civilian personnel to chemical or biological agents. In 2000 the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) began obtaining information from DOD about the program. Concerned that veterans and others might have health problems from exposure during Project 112 and similar DOD tests, Congress required DOD in the 2003 Defense Authorization Act to identify Project 112 tests and personnel potentially expose--service members and the number of civilian personnel--and other chemical and biological tests that might have exposed service members. GAO was required by the act and subsequent guidance from the congressional requesters to evaluate (1) DOD's process to identify the Project 112 tests and the service members and the number of civilian personnel potentially exposed, (2) DOD's progress in identifying similar tests outside Project 112, and (3) VA's progress in notifying DOD identified veterans."
Date: May 14, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs to Clarify Expectations in Medical Readiness

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Public assessments by Department of Defense (DOD) officials have emphasized the seriousness of the military threat from chemical and biological (CB) weapons. However, neither DOD nor the services have systematically examined the adequacy of the current specialty mix of medical personnel for CB defense. Although some of the services have begun to review the adequacy of staffing of deployable medical units that would manage the consequences of chemical warfare scenarios, they have not done so for biological warfare scenarios. Joint protocols for treating CB casualties have recently been completed, but the services have not yet agreed on which health care providers should provide treatment. Relatively few military health care providers are trained to a standard of proficiency in providing care to CB casualties. The service surgeons general have begun integrating chemical and a few biological scenarios into their medical exercises, but no realistic field exercise of medical support for CB warfare had been concluded. DOD and the services have not fully addressed weaknesses and gaps in modeling, planning, training, tracking, or proficiency testing for the treatment of CB casualties. The resulting medical structure has not been rigorously tested for its capacity to deliver the required medical support. As a result, medical readiness for CB scenarios cannot be ensured."
Date: October 19, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological Defense: Observations on Actions Taken to Protect Military Forces

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Department of Defense's (DOD) continuing efforts to protect U.S. military forces against chemical and biological weapons."
Date: October 20, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department