1,383 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, January 1, 1960

Description: From Abstract: "This report is one of the a sequence of quarterly reports, each designed to up-date its predecessor beginning with HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests." Herein are presented data accrued since HASL-69. Plutonium-239 and cesium-137 levels in human tissue and other biological materials are also presented."
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barrier Attenuation of Air-Scattered Gamma Radiation

Description: Report of a study that "was conducted to determine the attenuation provided by vertical and horizontal barriers exposed only to skyshine radiation from cobalt-60 and cesium-137 sources. Materials of steel, aluminum, concrete, and wood were used as barriers" (p. 5).
Date: December 1964
Creator: Burson, Z. G. & Summers, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of water from K west basin canisters (second campaign)

Description: Gas and liquid samples have been obtained from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters. The data will provide source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results for the gas and liquid samples of the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a; Trimble 1995b; Trimble 1996a; Trimble 1996b). An analysis of cesium-137 (137CS ) data from the second campaign samples was reported (Trimble and Welsh 1997), and the gas sample results are documented in Trimble 1997. This report documents the results of all analytes of liquid samples from the second campaign.
Date: March 6, 1997
Creator: Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MINERAL AND SEDIMENT AFFINITY FOR RADIONUCLIDES

Description: In determining radionuclide sorption by clay minerals, shortcomings in the filtration technique for solid separation and in the contact times selected for testing were noted. Filters were found to have a high affinity for cesium and strontium when these elements were present in tracerlevel concentrations. Sorption equilibrium was not established in 24 hr, and the contact time was extended to 7 days. The affinity of the clay minerals illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite for selected radionuclides was established after these shortcomings in the testing procedure were corrected. Illite exhibited a very high affinity for Cs/sup 137/ (K/sub d/ =200,000 after 7-day contact); none of the clay minerals demonstrated exceptionally high affinity for strontium (K/ sub d/ = 4000 for kaolinite, which was the highest measured value). The behavior of cobalt and zirconium-niobium was complicated by the colloidal nature of the elements. The uptake of the above radionuclides by a composited sample of Clinch River sediment showed that cesium and strontium behaved in accordance with the mineralogic character of the sediment. The sediment sorbed more cobalt than was accountable by the mineral composition; organic matter interactions with the cobalt are thereby suspected. (auth)
Date: July 25, 1960
Creator: Sorathesn, A; Bruscia, G; Tamura, T & Struxness, E G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

Description: In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.
Date: October 9, 2006
Creator: Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T & Michael Paller, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

Description: In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.
Date: April 4, 2007
Creator: Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T & Michael Paller, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EFFECTIVE DOSIMETRIC HALF LIFE OF CESIUM 137 SOIL CONTAMINATION

Description: In the early 1960s, an area of privately-owned swamp adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), known as Creek Plantation, was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs was deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--was initiated to characterize and trend the contaminated environment. The annual, potential, maximum doses to a hypothetical hunter were estimated by conservatively using the maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in the soil. The purpose of this report is to calculate an 'effective dosimetric' half-life for {sup 137}Cs in soil (based on the maximum concentrations) and compare it to the effective environmental half-life (based on the geometric mean concentrations).
Date: January 9, 2008
Creator: Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P & Michael Paller, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

Description: During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.
Date: November 5, 2006
Creator: Duff, M & Mary Ramsey, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES ON THE RETENTION OF CESIUM$sup 137$ BY MICE

Description: Three groups of 12 mice each were maintained at environmental temperatures of 34, 22, and 5 deg C for a period of about 7 weeks after an intraperitoneal injection of Cs/sup 137/. Periodic assay of the activity in the whole body and excreta showed that as environmental temperature decreases the excretion of Cs/sup 137/ increases, probably as a result of the increased metabolic rates associated with low temperatures. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Furchner, J.E. & Richmond, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a Carousel Process for Removing Cesium from SRS Waste Using Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchanger

Description: Designs of a three-column carousel process based on crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchanger have been developed for removing radioactive 137Cs+ from Savannah River Site's (SRS) nuclear wastes. A multicomponent ion exchange equilibrium model (Zheng et al., 1997) from Texas A&M University, which is based on batch data obtained from CST powder, is used to generate cesium loading data at different cesium concentrations for various types of SRS wastes. These loading data are fit to the Langmuir equation to obtain effective single-component cesium isotherm parameters. The predictions are in reasonable agreement with batch test data obtained from CST powder, an early CST pellet batch (38B), and a later batch (IE911) using two SRS waste simulants. The ratios between experimental cesium distribution coefficients and predicted values are between 0.56 and 1.0. The variation appears to be due to inadequate equilibration time in some of the batches. Mass transfer parameters are estimated by analyzing column data of a simulated SRS waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank W29 (MVST-W29) waste. The intraparticle diffusivity estimated for the two wastes can be well correlated by means of the Stokes-Einstein equation.Simulations are performed to determine the length of the mass transfer zone for given feed compositions, Cs+ concentrations, and linear velocities. In order to ensure high column utilization during both the transient and cyclic steady state periods, the length of a single segment in the carousel process is chosen to be the mass transfer zone length after the concentration wave achieves a constant pattern. Analysis of the dimensionless groups in the differential mass balance equations reveals that the normalized mass transfer zone length is linearly proportional to the particle Peclet number. The proportionality constant is a function of the waste composition and the Cs+ concentration in the waste. The higher the effective Cs+ capacity and the higher ...
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Walker, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicting Sediment and Cesium-137 Transported to Offsite During Extreme Floods

Description: This paper presents the methods and results of a research project for predicting contaminated sediment transport from Oak Ridge Reservation to offside under potential extreme flood conditions. A computer model, Hydrologic Simulation Program--FORTRANE (HSPF), was calibrated and validated for White Oak Creek watershed using a five-year data. The model was then used to quantify the effects of a potential 100-year flood event in terms of the sediment transport and {sup 137}Cs movement. Results from computer simulation showed that during a 100-year flood event the watershed and channel bed became the major sources of the {sup 137}Cs. A 100-year flood event may result in 3.2 Ci of the total annual release of {sup 137}Cs which is six times of the averaged annual release observed during a five-year time period.
Date: April 12, 1999
Creator: Bao, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide contaminated soil: Laboratory study and economic analysis of soil washing. Final report

Description: The objective of the work discussed in this report is to determine if soil washing is a feasible method to remediate contaminated soils from the Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The contaminants are predominantly Cs-137 and Sr-90. The authors have assumed that the target activity for Cs-137 is 50 pCi/g and that remediation is required for soils having greater activities. Cs-137 is the limiting contaminant because it is present in much greater quantities than Sr-90. This work was done in three parts, in which they: estimated the volume of contaminated soil as a function of Cs-137 content, determined if simple removal of the fine grained fraction of the soil (the material that is less than 0.063 mm) would effectively reduce the activity of the remaining soil to levels below the 50 pCi/g target, assessed the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical (as well as combinations of the two) methods of soil decontamination. From this analysis the authors were then able to develop a cost estimate for soil washing and for a baseline against which soil washing was compared.
Date: May 20, 1996
Creator: Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Patel, B.; Bowerman, B. & Brower, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

Description: The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste ...
Date: December 7, 1998
Creator: Langton, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cesium-137 in K west basin canister water

Description: Liquid and gas samples were taken from 50 K West Basin fuel storage canisters in 1996. The cesium-137 data from the liquid samples and an analysis of the data are presented. The analysis indicated that the cesium-137 data follow a lognormal distribution. Assuming that the total distribution of the K West canister water was predicted, the total K West Basin canister water was estimated to contain about 8,150 curies. The mean canister contains about 2.14 curies with as many as 5% or 190 of the canisters exceeding 19 curies. Opening ten canisters per shift could include a hot canister (cesium-137 > 25 curies) in one out of eight shifts.
Date: January 24, 1997
Creator: Trimble, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Hanford K basin fuel and sludge: A second look

Description: Characterization of N Reactor metal spent fuel and associated sludge stored in the two Hanford K Basins has entered a more mature stage. Previous campaigns had consisted of top-view visual surveys of-open fuel canisters, limited collection of gas and liquid from sealed canisters, detailed examinations of only a few-fuel elements and collection of sludge from the floor of only one basin. More recent work has included lifting fuel elements from both Basins to ascertain bottom end and circumferential cracks. Sludge collection has now been performed for material residing inside of spent fuel canisters in both Basins. Finally the number of gas and liquid samples from sealed canisters has been greatly expanded leading to a maximum observed cesium-137 content ten times higher than previous reports. Characterization has been a challenge because of the age of the fuel materials, the water environment, and the radiation field.
Date: January 31, 1997
Creator: Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

137Cs(90Sr) and Pu isotopes in the Pacific Ocean sources & trends

Description: The main source of artificial radioactivity in the world`s oceans can be attributed to worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Measurements of selected artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean were first conducted in the 1960`s where it was observed that fallout radioactivity had penetrated the deep ocean. Extensive studies carried out during the 1973-74 GEOSECS provided the first comprehensive data on the lateral and vertical distributions of {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes in the Pacific on a basin wide scale. Estimates of radionuclide inventories in excess of amounts predicted to be delivered by global fallout alone were attributed to close-in fallout and tropospheric inputs from early U.S. tests conducted on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Equatorial Pacific. In general, levels of fallout radionuclides (including {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes) in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean have decreased considerably over the past 4 decades and are now much more homogeneously distributed. Resuspension and the subsequent deposition of fallout radionuclides from previously deposited debris on land has become an important source term for the surface ocean. This can be clearly seen in measurements of fallout radionuclides in mineral aerosols over the Korean Peninsula (Yellow dust events). Radionuclides may also be transported from land to sea in river runoff-these transport mechanisms are more important in the Pacific Ocean where large quantities of river water and suspended sands/fluvial sediments reach the coastal zone. Another unique source of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is derived from the slow resolubilization and transport of radionuclides deposited in contaminated lagoon and slope sediments near U.S. and French test sites. Although there is a small but significant flux of artificial radionuclides depositing on the sea floor, > 80% of the total 239, {sup 240}Pu inventory and > 95% of the ...
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Hamilton, T.F., Millies-Lacrox, J.C. & Hong, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crystalline silicotitanate gate review analysis

Description: Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is an ion-exchange method for removing radioactive cesium from tank waste to allow the separation of the waste into high- and low-level fractions. The CST, originally developed Sandia National Laboratories personnel in association with Union Oil Products Corporation, has both a high affinity and selectivity for sorbing cesium-137 from highly alkaline or acidic solutions. For several years now, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded work to investigate applying CST to large-scale removal of cesium-137 from radioactive tank wastes. In January 1997, an expert panel sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area met to review the current state of the technology and to determine whether it was ready for routine use. The review also sought to identify any technical issues that must be resolved or additional CST development that must occur before full implementation by end-users. The CST Gate Review Group concluded that sufficient work has been done to close developmental work on CST and turn the remaining site-specific tasks over to the users. This report documents the review group`s findings, issues, concerns, and recommendations as well as responses from the Tanks Focus Area expert staff to specific pretreatment and immobilization issues.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Schlahta, S.N.; Carreon, R. & Gentilucci, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling atmospheric deposition using a stochastic transport model

Description: An advanced stochastic transport model has been modified to include the removal mechanisms of dry and wet deposition. Time-dependent wind and turbulence fields are generated with a prognostic mesoscale numerical model and are used to advect and disperse individually released particles that are each assigned a mass. These particles are subjected to mass reduction in two ways depending on their physical location. Particles near the surface experience a decrease in mass using the concept of a dry deposition velocity, while the mass of particles located within areas of precipitation are depleted using a scavenging coefficient. Two levels of complexity are incorporated into the particle model. The simple case assumes constant values of dry deposition velocity and scavenging coefficient, while the more complex case varies the values according to meteorology, surface conditions, release material, and precipitation intensity. Instantaneous and cumulative dry and wet deposition are determined from the mass loss due to these physical mechanisms. A useful means of validating the model results is with data available from a recent accidental release of Cesium-137 from a steel-processing furnace in Algeciras, Spain in May, 1998. This paper describes the deposition modeling technique, as well as a comparison of simulated concentration and deposition with measurements taken for the Algeciras release.
Date: December 17, 1999
Creator: Buckley, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department