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DENITRATION OF PUREX WASTES WITH SUGAR

Description: A process was developed for the destruction of HNO/sub 3/ in Purex-type waste solutions using sugar. Polyhydroxy compounds such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and crude syrups such as black strap molasses rapidly and controllably decompose HNO/sub 3/ in aqueous solutions at temperatures above approximately 85 deg C. The number of moles of HNO/sub 3/ destroyed per mole of sugar fed is a function of the temperature of reaction and the moles of dissolved multivalent metal cations (such as iron and chromium). The efficiency of HNO/sub 3/ destruction does not vary with acid concentration over the range of 0.5 to 8 M. However, destruction of acid does vary with iron concentration. Approximately 12 to 20 moles of HNO/sub 3/ are destroyed per mole of sucrose fed as the iron concentration increases from 0 to 1 M. Products of the denitration reaction are all gaseous, consisting of oxides of carbon and nitrogen. The process was successfully tested in the high level hot cells, the cold pilot plant denitration unit, and in the Purex plant. (P.C.H.)
Date: April 1, 1963
Creator: Bray, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

South Loop New Town Urban Pollutant Study: Status Report. Comparison of Two Proposed Franklin St. Connector Alternatives

Description: Preliminary results are given of a study of probable carbon monoxide pollution concentrations in the South Loop area that may arise from either of two alternative Franklin Street Connector plans proposed by the Chicago Bureau of Street Traffic and by Alan M. Voorhees and Associates.
Date: 1975
Creator: Santini, Danillo J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WATER TEST DEVELOPMENT OF THE FUEL PUMP FOR THE MSRE

Description: A vertical centrifugal sump-type pump utilizing commercially available impeller and volute designs was selected to circulate the fuel salt in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). Tests were conducted in water to determine the adequacy of the pump design, to assist design of the prototype fuel pump, and to investigate the effectiveness of xenon removal with high velocity liquid jets contacting sweep gas in thc pump tank. Hydraulic head characteristics were within +1 to -3 ft of manufacturers data for a given constant speed. Adequate and neccssary provisions were devised to control the liquid and gas bubble behavior in the pump tank. The results of priming and coastdown tests are reported. During the gas removal tests, the fuel, xenon, and helium in the MSRE were simulated with distilled water, carbon dioxide, and air, respectively. The best configuration removed carbon dioxide from water at approximately 99% of the ideal removal rate when the stripping flow was 65 gpm and the sweep gas flow rate was 4 scfm. (auth)
Date: March 27, 1962
Creator: Smith, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-201: Results from samples collected on 06/19/96

Description: This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-201 (Tank C-201) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary, of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S. & Silvers, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-202: Results from samples collected on 06/25/96

Description: This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-202 (Tank C-202) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S. & Silvers, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-BX-110: Results from samples collected on 04/30/96

Description: This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-110 (Tank BX-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S. & Silvers, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A LARGE-SCALE GETTER PUMPING EXPERIMENT USING VAPOR DEPOSITED TITANIUM FILMS

Description: BS> The use of titanium getter pumping for large vacuum systems is described. Techniques were developed which give sorption rates approaching the maximum theoretically possible for many of the chemically active gases. A simple method of determining sticking fractions is descrnkbed. Sticking fractions for hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon nknonoxnkde, carbon dioxide, and methane are given for various films. The capacity and sorption characteristics for these films are shown. Simple and reliable resistance-heated titanium evapdorators are described. lt was demonstrated that the pumping methods described provide outstanding performance and are both reliable and practical. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1961
Creator: Clausing, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

Description: Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO/sub 2/ induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Nuckolls, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Key statistics related to CO/sub 2/ emissions: Significant contributing countries

Description: This country selection task report describes and applies a methodology for identifying a set of countries responsible for significant present and anticipated future emissions of CO/sub 2/ and other radiatively important gases (RIGs). The identification of countries responsible for CO/sub 2/ and other RIGs emissions will help determine to what extent a select number of countries might be capable of influencing future emissions. Once identified, those countries could potentially exercise cooperative collective control of global emissions and thus mitigate the associated adverse affects of those emissions. The methodology developed consists of two approaches: the resource approach and the emissions approach. While conceptually very different, both approaches yield the same fundamental conclusion. The core of any international initiative to control global emissions must include three key countries: the US, USSR, and the People's Republic of China. It was also determined that broader control can be achieved through the inclusion of sixteen additional countries with significant contributions to worldwide emissions.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Kellogg, M.A.; Edmonds, J.A.; Scott, M.J. & Pomykala, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate research priorities in the DOE CO/sub 2/ program

Description: A four-pronged approach to considering the climate aspects of the CO/sub 2/ issue has been developed. First, a variety of climate models are being improved, particularly in terms of their representation of the oceans, so that their simulation of the regional and temporal response to increasing CO/sub 2/ can be made more realistic. Second, past climatic situations, particularly warm periods, are being studied as possible analogs for the warmer conditions that increased CO/sub 2/ concentrations are expected to induce. Third, the results of model and past climate studies will be combined so that comprehensive scenarios can be assembled for use in assessment studies. Finally, a research program is being developed that will seek early evidence to determine whether the climate is responding to increasing CO/sub 2/. Present results indicate that the climatic change from doubled CO/sub 2/ will be greater than 1.5/sup 0/K, but that identifying evidence of such changes in the next twenty years will be difficult unless past climate variations and their causes are better understood.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: MacCracken, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A two dimensional modeling study of the sensitivity of ozone to radiative flux uncertainties

Description: Radiative processes strongly effect equilibrium trace gas concentrations both directly, through photolysis reactions, and indirectly through temperature and transport processes. We have used the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model to investigate the net sensitivity of equilibrium ozone concentrations to several changes in radiative forcing. Doubling CO/sub 2/ from 300 ppmv to 600 ppmv resulted in a temperature decrease of 5 K to 8 K in the middle stratosphere along with an 8% to 16% increase in ozone in the same region. Replacing our usual shortwave scattering algorithms with a simplified Rayleigh algorithm led to a 1% to 2% increase in ozone in the lower stratosphere. Finally, modifying our normal CO/sub 2/ cooling rates by corrections derived from line-by-line calculations resulted in several regions of heating and cooling. We observed temperature changes on the order of 1 K to 1.5 K with corresponding changes of 0.5% to 1.5% in O/sub 3/. Our results for doubled CO/sub 2/ compare favorably with those by other authors. Results for our two perturbation scenarios stress the need for accurately modeling radiative processes while confirming the general validity of current models. 15 refs., 5 figs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Grant, K.E. & Wuebbles, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR ROLLING URANIUM METAL

Description: Uranium can be rolled from cast metal or forged ingot to sheet satisfactory for cupping, deep drawing, and similar fabrication procedures by a combination of hot breakdown in the neighborhood of 600 deg C and warm finishing at 225 to 325 deg C. Sheet may also be obtained by hot rolling alone and by warm rolling alone, but the combination of hot and warm rolling afforded the best and most practical method to secure good quality sheet in the quantity required. The percent reduction by hot working does not appear to be critical, but at least 60% warm reduction is desirable to obtain complete and controlled grain size by recrystallization with high ductility and strength properties. Except for research investigation, rolling of uranium below 225 deg C is not recommended. Hot rolling of unplated uranium from the as-cast or as-forged surface is recommended, using a bath of 35% Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ plus 65% K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ for a heating medium. No further preparation other than washing the salt from the hot rolled surface is required before warm rolling, and a bath of Meltemp No. 7 oil is recommended for warm rolling. Starting with an as-cast tensile strength averaging 60,000 psi, as-rolled sheet up to 230,000 psi was produced, with elongation averaging 5--8% and tensile to yield strength ratios averaging 75%. Uniform, equi-axed grains are produced upon annealing, and grain sizes can be controlled by choice of annealing temperature and time. (P.C.H.)
Date: November 15, 1950
Creator: Deutsch, D.E.; Hanks, G.S.; Taub, J.M. & Doll, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

Description: A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.
Date: December 24, 2002
Creator: O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C. & Addison, G.W. (AJT Enterprises, Inc.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO/sub 2/-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1. 06. mu. m

Description: Bare fused silica surfaces were prepared by subjecting the mechanically polished surface to a rastered cw CO/sub 2/ laser beam. Analysis shows that this processing causes: (a) removal of a uniform layer of fused silica; and (b) a probable re-fusing or healing of existing subsurface fractures. The fused silica removal rate is found to be a function of the laser intensity and scan rate. These surfaces are seen to have very low scatter and to be very smooth. In addition, they have exhibited entrance surface damage thresholds at 1.06 ..mu..m, and 1 nsec, which are substantially above those seen on the mechanically polished surface. When damage does occur, it tends to be at a few isolated points rather than the general uniform damage seen on the mechanicaly polished part. In addition to the damage results, we will discuss an observational technique used for viewing these surfaces which employs dark-field illumination.
Date: April 3, 1980
Creator: Temple, P.A.; Milam, D. & Lowdermilk, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detailed conceptual design of a high temperature CO/sub 2/ sensor for geothermal brine. Final report, Task II

Description: The Task I pCO/sub 2/ sensor was evaluated in the laboratory and improvements incorporated. Of special note was the redesign of the internal reference electrode which offered greater stability, and improved reliability - a design both smaller and more simple. The ISFET sensor was improved by using a new sensing material which afforded better speed of response. The H/sub 2/S getter was redesigned to overcome seal problems encountered in early Task II tests. The improved probe was thoroughly tested in the laboratory at both moderate and elevated temperatures. This version was also tested at the Magma Electric Company geothermal plant in California. Whereas the laboratory tests were encouraging, the field tests were disappointing, in part due to problems not directly attributable to probe design limitations. In both tests, however, evidence showed that the polymeric seal in the internal ISFET element limited probe life unacceptably in the hot aqueous environment. Electrostatic bonding of silicon to glass for three critical seals is included in the Task II recommended design. All elements of the design were tested successfully in the laboratory.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Phelan, D.M.; Taylor, R.M. & Kugler, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemical and geophysical models of the fossil-fuel CO/sub 2/ climate problem. Semiannual progress report, February 2, 1981-August 31, 1981

Description: Efforts were directed towards development of a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model. An important discovery was made with far-reaching implications for the CO/sub 2/ problem: the evaporative constraint on tropical ocean temperature described by Newell and Dopplick (1979), when put into a climate model, yields much more realistic simulations than the current generation of energy-balance climate models have been able to achieve. A summary of the model is presented. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Hoffert, M. & Wiscombe, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field verification of CO sub 2 -foam

Description: In September 1989, the Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC), a division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, received a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a project entitled Field Verification of CO{sub 2} Foam.'' The grant provided for an extension of the PRRC laboratory work to a field testing stage to be performed in collaboration with an oil producer actively conducting a CO{sub 2} flood. The objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct reservoir studies, laboratory tests, simulation runs, and field tests to evaluate the use of foam for mobility control or fluid diversion in a New Mexico CO{sub 2} flood, and (2) evaluate the concept of CO{sub 2}-foam in the field by using a reservoir where CO{sub 2} flooding is ongoing, characterizing the reservoir, modeling the process, and monitoring performance of the field test. Seven tasks were identified for the successful completion of the project: (1) evaluate and select a field site, (2) develop an initial site- specific plan, (3) conduct laboratory CO{sub 2}-foam mobility tests, (4) perform reservoir simulations, (5) design the foam slug, (6) implement a field test, and (7) evaluate results.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Martin, F.D.; Heller, J.P. & Weiss, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional complexity and ecosystem stability: an experimental approach

Description: The complexity-stability hypothesis was experimentally tested using intact terrestrial microcosms. Functional complexity was defined as the number and significance of component interactions (i.e., population interactions, physical-chemical reactions, biological turnover rates) influenced by nonlinearities, feedbacks, and time delays. It was postulated that functional complexity could be nondestructively measured through analysis of a signal generated from the system. Power spectral analysis of hourly CO/sub 2/ efflux, from eleven old-field microcosms, was analyzed for the number of low frequency peaks and used to rank the functional complexity of each system. Ranking of ecosystem stability was based on the capacity of the system to retain essential nutrients and was measured by net loss of Ca after the system was stressed. Rank correlation supported the hypothesis that increasing ecosystem functional complexity leads to increasing ecosystem stability. The results indicated that complex functional dynamics can serve to stabilize the system. The results also demonstrated that microcosms are useful tools for system-level investigations.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Van Voris, P.; O'Neill, R.V.; Shugart, H.H. & Emanuel, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Novel Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

Description: This report summarizes the objectives, technical barrier, approach, and accomplishments for the development of a novel water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor for hydrogen enhancement and CO reduction. We have synthesized novel CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with high CO{sub 2} permeabilities and high CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO selectivities by incorporating amino groups in polymer networks. We have also developed a one-dimensional non-isothermal model for the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor. The modeling results have shown that H{sub 2} enhancement (>99.6% H{sub 2} for the steam reforming of methane and >54% H{sub 2} for the autothermal reforming of gasoline with air on a dry basis) via CO{sub 2} removal and CO reduction to 10 ppm or lower are achievable for synthesis gases. With this model, we have elucidated the effects of system parameters, including CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity, CO{sub 2} permeability, sweep/feed flow rate ratio, feed temperature, sweep temperature, feed pressure, catalyst activity, and feed CO concentration, on the membrane reactor performance. Based on the modeling study using the membrane data obtained, we showed the feasibility of achieving H{sub 2} enhancement via CO{sub 2} removal, CO reduction to {le} 10 ppm, and high H{sub 2} recovery. Using the membrane synthesized, we have obtained <10 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product in WGS membrane reactor experiments. From the experiments, we verified the model developed. In addition, we removed CO{sub 2} from a syngas containing 17% CO{sub 2} to about 30 ppm. The CO{sub 2} removal data agreed well with the model developed. The syngas with about 0.1% CO{sub 2} and 1% CO was processed to convert the carbon oxides to methane via methanation to obtain <5 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product.
Date: December 29, 2004
Creator: Ho, W. S. Winston
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular interactions in dilute supercritical mixtures: Molecular dynamics investigation

Description: We performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations aimed at investigating the nature of the microstructure around solute molecules in a supercritical solvent, in the limit of infinite dilution (no solute-solute interactions). The choice of model system (pyrene in supercritical carbon dioxide) and state conditions (5--20 moles/liter; 37{degrees}C and 75{degrees}C) was done so as to match corresponding fluorescence experiments performed at Georgia Tech. 18 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Debenedetti, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

Description: Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Hanson, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of non-condensible gas in geothermal reservoirs with steam-water counterflow

Description: A mathematical model is developed for fluid and heat flow in two-phase geothermal reservoirs containing non-condensible gas (CO{sub 2}). Vertical profiles of temperature, pressures and phase saturations in steady-state conditions are obtained by numerically integrating the coupled ordinary differential equations describing conservation of water, CO{sub 2}, and energy. Solutions including binary diffusion effects in the gas phase are generated for cases with net mass throughflow as well as for balanced liquid-vapor counterflow. Calculated examples illustrate some fundamental characteristics of two-phase heat transmission systems with non-condensible gas. 14 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: McKibbin, R. & Pruess, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department