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New England's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for World Wild life Fund

Description: This report presents a detailed analysis of the energy impacts, carbon and pollutant emissions reductions, and economic benefits in New England of the national policies and measures analyzed in America’s Global Warming Solutions. That study indicated that the region would reap about one sixth of the net national employment created. As two years have passed since that study was begun, time has been lost for pursuing and implementing the policies and measures evaluated along the same temporal path. Now, achieving such benefits by 2010 would require an even more aggressive set and schedule of policies, or else the benefits would occur somewhat later in time. Nonetheless, these results show that a truly aggressive national policy commitment to the problem of climate change could achieve large near-term carbon emissions reductions along with environmental and economic gains.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Bernow, Stephen; Dougherty, William; Page, Tom; Dunbar, Jana & Goldberg, Marshall
Partner: UNT Libraries

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

Description: Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Blasing, T J & Schroeder, Dana
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Florida's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for: World Wildlife Fund

Description: This report assesses how the set of national actions presented in America’s Global Warming Solutions would affect Florida’s energy systems, carbon emissions and economy. This study finds that by 2010, the set of national actions to reduce global warming would decrease Florida’s primary energy use by 26 percent and its carbon emissions by 36 percent. They would also provide increasing annual savings reaching about $300 per-capita in 2010 and averaging about $110 per-capita per year between now and 2010. Thus, the State would cumulatively save about $17 billion over that period. The set of national actions would also create approximately 39,000 net additional jobs in Florida by 2010. They would reduce emissions of other pollutants and begin to shift the basis of the State’s economy towards more advanced, energy-efficient technologies and cleaner resources. The table below summarizes these results.
Date: November 1999
Creator: Bernow, Stephen; Cory, Karlynn; Dougherty, William; Kartha, Sivan; Duckworth, Max; Ruth, Michael et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S.energy and carbon intensity

Description: A recent (1996-2000) acceleration of declines in energy andcarbon intensity in the U.S. remains largely unexplained. This study usesDivisia decomposition and regression to test two candidate explanations -fuel mix and weather. The Divisia method demonstrates that fuel mix doesnot explain the declines in carbon intensity. The fuel mix, both overalland for electricity generation, became slightly more carbon intensiveover the study period (though the slight trend reversed before the end ofthe period). A regression-based correction to the Divisia indices,accounting for variation in heating- and cooling-degree-days, indicatesthat warmer weather accounts for about 30 percent ofthe total declines.This leaves declines of more than 2 percent per year (and an accelerationof more than 1 percent over previous decade) remaining to beexplained.
Date: October 20, 2002
Creator: Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H. & Koomey, Jonathan G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols

Description: Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.
Date: September 26, 2002
Creator: Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Valuing the climate change impacts of tropical deforestation

Description: According to a footnote, this paper was commissioned by the [United Kingdom] Office of Climate Change as background work to its report 'Climate Change: Financing Global Forests' (otherwise known as the Eliasch Review). This paper discusses research valuing the impacts of tropical deforestation, and the effects of deforestation on global greenhouse gas emissions.
Date: unknown
Creator: Hope, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries

OCC Household Emissions project: Analysis pack

Description: The United Kingdom's Office of Climate Change reports that a number of barriers inhibit households from reducing carbon emissions, even though reducing carbon emissions generally results in reducing household costs. In this paper, the Office of Climate Change identifies policies to overcome barriers to carbon savings.
Date: September 2007
Creator: Great Britain. Office of Climate Change
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mapping vulnerability of tropical forest to conversion, and resulting potential CO2 emissions: A rapid assessment for the Eliasch Review

Description: This report is a rapid assessment analysis undertaken to inform the UK's Eliasch Review on the role of international finance mechanisms to preserve global forests in tackling climate change. The results should be used with an understanding of the caveats specified at the end of the report.
Date: May 27, 2008
Creator: Miles, Lera; Kapos, Valerie; Lysenko, Igor; Campbell, Alison & Gibbs, Holly
Partner: UNT Libraries

Making choices over China: EU-China co-operation on energy and climate

Description: Effective EU-China co-operation is critical to delivering a good deal at Copenhagen and to ensuring ongoing progress towards global decarbonisation. Europe and China are economically and politically interdependent, and have strikingly similar energy and climate change policies. As its largest investor, trade partner and provider of technology, Europe has a strong stake in China’s success.The EU and China should increase the status of energy and climate change in their bilateral relationship. This will require the progressive alignment of the EU’s and the individual member-states climate policies towards China, behind a common European strategy. The 2009 EU-China summit must deliver agreement on some key flagship co-operation projects in order to build China’s trust in the EU as an effective partner.
Date: November 2009
Creator: Nick Mabey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

Description: Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money.
Date: July 11, 2001
Creator: Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G. & Brown, Marilyn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating carbon emissions avoided by electricity generation and efficiency projects: A standardized method (MAGPWR)

Description: This paper describes a standardized method for establishing a multi-project baseline for a power system. The method provides an approximation of the generating sources that are expected to operate on the margin in the future for a given electricity system. It is most suitable for small-scale electricity generation and electricity efficiency improvement projects. It allows estimation of one or more carbon emissions factors that represent the emissions avoided by projects, striking a balance between simplicity of use and the desire for accuracy in granting carbon credits.
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Meyers, S.; Marnay, C.; Schumacher, K. & Sathaye, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

Description: Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L. & Mark, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the cost of building capacity in rainforest nations to allow them to participate in a global REDD mechanism

Description: This report provides an estimation of the funds that will be needed to build carbon sink capacity in 25 rain forest nations to enable them to participate in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation mechanism, an instrument proposed under the UN Convention on Climate Change that rewards countries for avoiding the removal or degradation of forests. This paper was commissioned by the Office of Climate Change as background work to its report "Climate Change: Financing Global Forests" (the Eliasch Review).
Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Hoare, Alison; Legge, Thomas; Nussbaum, Ruth & Saunders, Jade
Partner: UNT Libraries

Updating Carbon Density and Opportunity Cost Parameters in Deforesting Regions in the GCOMAP Model

Description: This paper explores the economics of carbon density and carbon pricing in forestry and in deforested areas. According to a footnote, this paper was commissioned by the [United Kingdom] Office of Climate Change as background work to its report 'Climate Change: Financing Global Forests' (the Eliasch Review).
Date: unknown
Creator: Sathaye, Jayant; Chan, Peter; Blum, Helcio; Dale, Larry & Makundi, Willy
Partner: UNT Libraries

China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change (2012)

Description: The Chinese government attaches great importance to the issue of climate change.It defines the objectives, tasks and policy orientation of China’s response to climate change over the next five years and identifies key tasks, including controlling greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to climate change, and strengthening international cooperation.
Date: 2012
Creator: National Development and Reform Commission
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ting and the Possible Futures

Description: This is a children's book where the characters build a time machine that lets them visit alternate futures based on the decisions they make in the present. The story provides a glimpse of a post-apocalyptic dystopia as a result of severe global climate change, as well as a future utopian ideal that comes as a result of implementing massive changes to land use and food and energy production.
Date: June 2008
Creator: Douglis, Carole & Kennaway, Adrienne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Our Planet, May 2008

Description: Magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme discussing worldwide environmental policies and other concerns. This issue is devoted to a discussion of ways to reduce carbon emissions in order to reduce the threats of climate change.
Date: May 2008
Creator: United Nations Environment Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries