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Business Systems Modernization: Summary of GAO's Assessment of the Department of Defense's Initial Business Enterprise Architecture

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) faces financial and related management problems that are pervasive, complex, long-standing, and deeply rooted in virtually all business operations throughout the department. These problems have impeded the department's ability to provide complete, reliable, and timely business information to the Congress, DOD managers, and other decision makers. Of the 25 areas on our governmentwide "high-risk" list, 6 are DOD program areas, and the department shares responsibility for 3 other high-risk areas that are governmentwide in scope. DOD's problems in each of these areas hinder the efficiency of operations, and leave the department vulnerable to fraud, waste, and abuse. For fiscal year 2003, DOD's information technology (IT) budget request was over $26 billion. More specifically, to support its business operations, DOD reports that it currently relies on about 2,300 systems, including accounting, acquisition, logistics, and personnel systems that will cost about $18 billion--nearly $5.2 billion for business systems and $12.8 billion primarily for business systems infrastructure--in fiscal year 2003 to operate, maintain, and modernize. As we have previously reported, this environment was not designed to be, but rather has evolved into, an overly complex and error-prone environment, including (1) little standardization across DOD, (2) multiple systems performing the same tasks, (3) the same data stored in multiple systems, and (4) manual data entry into multiple systems."
Date: July 7, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: DOD Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1995, GAO first designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) business systems modernization program as "high-risk," and continues to do so today. In 2004, Congress passed legislation reflecting prior GAO recommendations for DOD to adopt a corporate approach to information technology (IT) business system investment management. To support GAO's legislative mandate to review DOD's efforts, GAO assessed whether the department's corporate investment management approach comports with relevant federal guidance. In doing so, GAO applied its IT Investment Management framework and associated methodology, focusing on the framework's stages related to the investment management provisions of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996."
Date: May 11, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Billions Continue to Be Invested with Inadequate Management Oversight and Accountability

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Despite its significant investment in business systems, the Department of Defense (DOD) continues to have long-standing financial and inventory management problems that prevent it from producing reliable and timely information for making decisions and for accurately reporting on its billions of dollars of inventory. GAO was asked to (1) identify DOD's fiscal year 2004 estimated funding for its business systems, (2) determine if DOD has effective control and accountability over its business systems investments, and (3) determine whether selected business systems will help resolve some of DOD's long-standing problems and whether they are being effectively managed."
Date: May 28, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Navy ERP Adherence to Best Business Practices Critical to Avoid Past Failures

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense's (DOD) difficulty in implementing business systems that are efficient and effective continues despite the billions of dollars that it invests each year. For a decade now--since 1995--we have designated DOD's business systems modernization as "high-risk." GAO was asked to (1) provide a historical perspective on the planning and costs of the Navy's four Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) pilot projects, and the decision to merge them into one program; (2) determine if the Navy has identified lessons from the pilots, how the lessons are being used, and challenges that remain; and (3) determine if there are additional best business practices that could be used to improve management oversight of the Navy ERP."
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Planned Investment in Navy Program to Create Cashless Shipboard Environment Needs to Be Justified and Better Managed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO has designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) multi-billion dollar business systems modernization efforts as high risk, in part because key information technology (IT) management controls have not been implemented on key investments, such as the Navy Cash program. Initiated in 2001, Navy Cash is a joint Department of the Navy (DON) and Department of the Treasury Financial Management Service (FMS) program to create a cashless environment on ships using smart card technology, and is estimated to cost about $320 million to fully deploy. As requested, GAO analyzed whether DON is effectively implementing IT management controls on the program, including architectural alignment, economic justification, requirements development and management, risk management, security management, and system quality measurement against relevant guidance."
Date: September 8, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service's Fiscal Year 2007 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Business Systems Modernization (BSM) program is a multibillion-dollar, high-risk, highly complex effort that involves the development and delivery of a number of modernized information systems that are intended to replace the agency's aging business and tax processing systems. As required by law, IRS submitted its fiscal year 2007 expenditure plan, in September 2006, to congressional appropriations committees, requesting $167.3 million from the BSM account. GAO's objectives in reviewing the plan were to (1) determine whether it satisfied the conditions specified in the law, (2) determine IRS's progress in implementing prior GAO recommendations, and (3) provide any other observations about the plan and IRS's BSM program. To address these objectives, GAO analyzed the plan, reviewed related documentation, and interviewed IRS officials."
Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service's Fiscal Year 2010 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Business Systems Modernization (BSM) program is a multi-billion dollar, high risk, highly complex effort that involves the development and delivery of a number of modernized systems that are intended to replace the agency's aging business and tax processing systems. As required, IRS submitted its fiscal year 2010 expenditure plan in November 2009 to the House and Senate appropriations committees, requesting approximately $254 million from the BSM account. GAO's objectives in reviewing the expenditure plan were to (1) determine whether it satisfies the applicable legislative conditions, (2) determine IRS's progress in implementing prior expenditure plan review recommendations, and (3) provide additional observations about the plan and the BSM program. To accomplish the objectives, GAO analyzed the plan, reviewed related documentation, and interviewed IRS officials."
Date: May 10, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Governance Mechanisms for Implementing Management Controls Need to Be Improved

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) continues to take steps to comply with the provisions of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005, as amended, and to satisfy relevant system modernization management guidance. While the department has initiated numerous activities aimed at addressing the act, it has been limited in its ability to demonstrate results. Specifically, the department"
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Management Controls Being Implemented on Major Navy Program, but Improvements Needed in Key Areas

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) has long been challenged in implementing key information technology (IT) management controls on its thousands of business system investments. For this and other reasons, GAO has designated DOD's business systems modernization efforts as high-risk. One of the larger business system investments is the Department of the Navy's Enterprise Resource Planning (Navy ERP) program. Initiated in 2003, the program is to standardize the Navy's business processes, such as acquisition and financial management. It is being delivered in increments, the first of which is to cost about $2.4 billion over its useful life and be fully deployed in fiscal year 2013. GAO was asked to determine whether key IT management controls are being implemented on the program. To do this, GAO analyzed, for example, requirements management, economic justification, earned value management, and risk management."
Date: September 8, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service's Fiscal Year 2008 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Business Systems Modernization (BSM) program is a multibillion-dollar, high-risk, highly complex effort that involves the development and delivery of a number of modernized systems that are intended to replace the agency's aging business and tax processing systems. As required by law, IRS submitted its fiscal year 2008 expenditure plan in August 2007 to congressional appropriations committees, requesting $235.8 million from the BSM account. GAO's objectives in reviewing the plan were to (1) determine whether it satisfied the conditions specified in the law, (2) determine IRS's progress in implementing prior expenditure plan review recommendations, and (3) provide additional observations about the plan and the BSM program. To accomplish the objectives, GAO analyzed the plan, reviewed related documentation, and interviewed IRS officials."
Date: March 7, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: DOD Continues to Improve Institutional Approach, but Further Steps Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For decades, the Department of Defense (DOD) has not been successful in repeated attempts to modernize its timeworn business systems and operations. In 1995, we first designated DOD's business systems modernization as "high risk," and we continue to designate it as such today. As our research on successful public and private sector organizations has shown, attempting a large-scale systems modernization program in a large organization such as DOD without, among other things, a well-defined enterprise architecture and the associated investment management controls for implementing it often results in systems that are duplicative, stovepiped, non-integrated, and unnecessarily costly to manage, maintain, and operate. In May 2001, we made recommendations to the Secretary of Defense that provided the means for effectively developing and implementing an enterprise architecture and limiting systems investments until the department had a well-defined architecture and a corporate approach to investment control and decision making. In July 2001, the department initiated a business management modernization program to, among other things, develop a business enterprise architecture and establish the investment controls needed to effectively implement it. This effort was begun as part of the Secretary of Defense's broad initiative to "transform the way the department works and what it works on." Between 2001 and 2005, we reported that the department's business management modernization program was not being effectively managed, concluding in 2005 that hundreds of millions of dollars had been spent on an architecture and investment management structures that had limited use. To assist DOD in addressing these modernization management challenges, Congress included provisions in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (the Act) that were consistent with our recommendations for developing a business enterprise architecture and associated enterprise transition plan, ...
Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: IRS's Fiscal Year 2004 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Business Systems Modernization (BSM) program is a multibillion-dollar, high-risk, highly complex effort that involves the development and delivery of a number of modernized information systems that are intended to replace the agency's aging business and tax processing systems. BSM funds are not available until IRS submits an expenditure plan that meets various conditions to congressional appropriations committees for approval. In January and July 2004, the Department of the Treasury submitted IRS's initial and revised fiscal year 2004 plans, respectively. As required by law, GAO reviewed the plans to (1) determine whether the plans satisfied the conditions specified in the law, (2) determine what progress IRS had made in implementing our prior recommendations, and (3) provide any other observations about the plans and IRS's BSM program."
Date: November 17, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Key Navy Programs' Compliance with DOD's Federated Business Enterprise Architecture Needs to Be Adequately Demonstrated

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For decades, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been challenged in modernizing its thousands of business systems. Since 1995, GAO has designated the department's business systems modernization efforts as high risk. One key to effectively modernizing DOD's systems environment and satisfying relevant legislative requirements is ensuring that business system investments comply with an enterprisewide strategic blueprint, commonly called an enterprise architecture. For DOD's business systems modernization, it is developing and using a federated Business Enterprise Architecture (BEA), which is a coherent family of parent and subsidiary architectures. GAO was requested to determine whether key Department of the Navy business systems modernization programs comply with DOD's federated BEA. To determine this, GAO examined the BEA compliance assessments, certifications, and approvals for selected Navy programs against relevant guidance."
Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: IRS Needs to Complete Recent Efforts to Develop Policies and Procedures to Guide Requirements Development and Management

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) effort to modernize its tax administrative and financial systems--Business Systems Modernization (BSM)--has suffered delays and cost overruns due to a number of factors, including inadequate development and management of requirements. Recognizing these deficiencies, IRS created a Requirements Management Office (RMO) to establish policies and procedures for managing requirements. GAO's objectives were to assess (1) whether the office has established adequate requirements development and management policies and procedures and (2) whether BSM has effectively used requirements development and management practices for key systems development efforts."
Date: March 20, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Progress in Establishing Corporate Management Controls Needs to Be Replicated Within Military Departments

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1995, GAO first designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) business systems modernization program as "high risk," and GAO continues to do so today. To assist in addressing this high-risk area, the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 contains provisions that are consistent with prior GAO investment management and enterprise architecture-related recommendations, and requires the department to submit annual reports to its congressional committees on its compliance with these provisions. The act also directs GAO to review each annual report. In response, GAO assessed the actions taken by DOD to comply with requirements of the act. To do so, GAO leveraged its recent reports on various aspects of the department's modernization management controls, and it reviewed, for example, the latest version of its business enterprise architecture and the associated transition plan and architecture federation strategy. GAO also interviewed key officials."
Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Department of the Navy Needs to Establish Management Structure and Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1995, GAO first designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) business systems modernization program as "high-risk," and continues to do so today. In 2004, Congress passed legislation reflecting prior GAO recommendations that DOD adopt a corporate approach to information technology (IT) business systems investment management, including tiered accountability for business systems at the department and component levels. To support GAO's legislative mandate to review DOD's efforts, GAO assessed whether the investment management approach of one of DOD's components--the Department of the Navy--is consistent with leading investment management best practices. In doing so, GAO applied its IT Investment Management (ITIM) framework and associated methodology, focusing on the stages related to the investment management provisions of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996."
Date: October 31, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Billions Being Invested without Adequate Oversight

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Despite its significant investment in business systems, the Department of Defense (DOD) continues to have long-standing financial and business management problems that preclude the department from producing reliable and timely information for making decisions and for accurately reporting on its billions of dollars of assets. GAO was asked to (1) identify DOD's fiscal year 2005 estimated funding for its business systems and (2) determine whether DOD has effective control and accountability over its business systems modernization investments."
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Strategy for Evolving DOD's Business Enterprise Architecture Offers a Conceptual Approach, but Execution Details Are Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1995, we first designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) business systems modernization program as "high risk," and we continue to designate it as such today. To assist in addressing this high-risk area, Congress passed legislation consistent with prior GAO recommendations for Defense to develop a business enterprise architecture (BEA). In September 2006, DOD released version 4.0 of its BEA, which despite improvements over prior versions, was not aligned with component architectures. Subsequently, Defense issued a strategy for extending its BEA to the component military services and defense agencies. To support GAO's legislative mandate to review DOD's BEA, GAO assessed DOD's progress in defining this strategy by comparing it with prior findings and recommendations relevant to the strategy's content."
Date: April 16, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Scope and Content of DOD's Congressional Report and Executive Oversight of Investments Need to Improve

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 1995, GAO has designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) multibillion dollar business systems modernization program as high risk, and it continues to do so today. To assist in addressing DOD's modernization challenges, the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (the act) requires the department to, among other things, report specific information about business system investments, including (1) milestones and actual performance against specified measures and any revisions and (2) actions taken to certify that a modernization investment involving more than $1 million meets defined conditions before obligating funds. The act also directs GAO to review each report. As agreed, GAO focused on the fiscal year 2010 report's compliance with, among other things, these provisions of the act. To do so, GAO compared DOD's report to the act's reporting requirements, interviewed DOD officials, analyzed relevant documentation, and leveraged prior GAO reports."
Date: May 24, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service's Fiscal Year 2006 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Business Systems Modernization (BSM) program is a multibillion-dollar, high-risk, highly complex effort that involves the development and delivery of a number of modernized information systems intended to replace the agency's aging business and tax processing systems. As required by law, IRS submitted its fiscal year 2006 expenditure plan, in October 2005, to congressional appropriations committees, requesting $199 million from the BSM account. GAO's objectives in reviewing the plan were to (1) determine whether it satisfied the conditions specified in the law and (2) provide any other observations about the plan and IRS's BSM program."
Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Military Departments Need to Strengthen Management of Enterprise Architecture Programs

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1995, GAO designated Department of Defense (DOD) business systems modernization as a high-risk program, and the program remains on the high-risk list today. A key to successful systems modernization is having and using an enterprise architecture as an authoritative frame of reference, or blueprint, for system investment decisions. To assist DOD in modernizing its business systems, Congress passed legislation consistent with prior GAO recommendations for DOD to develop and implement a business enterprise architecture (BEA). In response, DOD developed a corporate BEA that it intends to federate, or extend, to the military departments and defense agencies. To support GAO's legislative mandate to review DOD's BEA, GAO evaluated the status of the Air Force, Navy, and Army architecture programs. To accomplish this, GAO used its Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework and associated evaluation method."
Date: May 12, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service's Fiscal Year 2005 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Business Systems Modernization (BSM) program is a multibillion-dollar, high-risk, highly complex effort that involves the development and delivery of a number of modernized information systems intended to replace the agency's aging business and tax processing systems. As required by law, IRS submitted its fiscal year 2005 expenditure plan in April 2005 to congressional appropriations committees, requesting about $203 million from the BSM account. GAO's objectives in reviewing the plan were to (1) determine whether it satisfied the conditions specified in the law, (2) determine what progress IRS had made in implementing our prior recommendations, and (3) provide any other observations about the plan and IRS's BSM program."
Date: July 22, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Key Marine Corps System Acquisition Needs to Be Better Justified, Defined, and Managed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO has designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) business systems modernization as a high-risk program because, among other things, it has been challenged in implementing key information technology (IT) management controls on its thousands of business systems. The Global Combat Support System-Marine Corps program is one such system. Initiated in 2003, the program is to modernize the Marine Corps logistics systems. The first increment is to cost about $442 million and be deployed in fiscal year 2010. GAO was asked to determine whether the Department of the Navy is effectively implementing IT management controls on this program. To accomplish this, GAO analyzed the program's implementation of several key IT management disciplines, including economic justification, earned value management, risk management, and system quality measurement."
Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Progress Made in Establishing Foundational Architecture Products and Investment Management Practices, but Much Work Remains

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For many years, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been attempting to modernize its business systems, and GAO has made numerous recommendations to help it do so. To further assist DOD, Congress included provisions in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 aimed at ensuring that DOD develop a well-defined business enterprise architecture and transition plan by September 30, 2005, as well as establish and implement effective structures and processes for managing information technology (IT) business system investments. In response to the act's mandate, GAO is reporting on DOD's compliance with requirements relating to DOD's architecture, transition plan, budgetary disclosure, and business system review and approval structures and processes. Given GAO's existing recommendations, it is not making additional recommendations at this time. In comments on a draft of this report, DOD recognized that GAO has been a constructive player in its business transformation efforts. While not specifically commenting on most of the report's findings and its conclusions, DOD also said that it disagreed with two points: the level of development for its "As Is" architecture and instances of nonintegration within the architecture and transition plan. However, it also commented that it is committed to addressing what GAO views to be the underlying basis of both points."
Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department