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Differing Scope and Methodology in GAO and University of California Reports Account for Variations in Cost Estimates for Homosexual Conduct Policy

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Congress requested information concerning differences in cost estimates for implementing the Department of Defense's (DOD) homosexual conduct policy reported by GAO and a University of California Blue Ribbon Commission (Commission). In February 2005, we estimated that the cost to recruit and train replacements for enlisted servicemembers separated under the policy from fiscal years 1994 through 2003 was about $190.5 million. A year later, the Commission estimated that the cost was at least $363.8 million over the same time period--91 percent more than our estimate. This report answers the following questions: (1) What factors contributed to the difference in estimated costs reported by GAO and the Commission? (2) What factors accounted for the difference in estimated enlistee training costs in our 1998 and 2005 reports?"
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2002 Update of the 155mm Lightweight Howitzer

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report describes the schedule, cost, and technical status of the 155mm Lightweight Howitzer program. The Army-Marine Corps Lightweight Howitzer Joint Program Office directs this program's development, with a British company as the prime contractor. Since GAO's April 2000 report (See GAO-01-603R), all key milestones have slipped because a 2-year low-rate initial production phase has been added to provide production representative howitzers for operational testing. Correspondingly, the full-rate production decision has slipped from September 2002 to October 2004. Since April 2001, total program cost estimates have increased from $1,209.0 million to $1,365.2 million, principally as the result of the large number of design modifications resulting from developmental testing and restructuring the program to add a low-rate initial production phase. In addition, the costs for the towed artillery digitization increased by $51 million. Technical problems--such as the durability of the optical fire control, bore sight retention, and accuracy--have been addressed through design changes. However, some of these changes have not yet been tested, and the Marine Corps Operational Test and Evaluation Activity has yet to review test data that the program office believes shows the howitzer has met accuracy requirements. Additional information is being collected for the upcoming decision on whether the program should enter low-rate initial production. This includes (1) the final results from the operational assessment, (2) the results from planned testing of the strength and accuracy of the first pilot production howitzer, and (3) an assessment from independent contractors on production readiness and the cost of complete production of the howitzer."
Date: July 24, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Mandatory Spending on the Elderly

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on federal mandatory spending on the elderly."
Date: May 11, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Glossary of Terms Used in the Federal Budget Process (Supersedes AFMD-2.1.1)

Description: Guidance issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This publication supersedes AFMD-2.1.1, A Glossary of Terms Used in the Federal Budget Process (Exposure Draft), January 1993. It fulfills part of GAO's responsibility to publish standard terms, definitions, and classifications for the government's fiscal, budget, and program information. It was developed in cooperation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Directors of the Office of Management and Budget and the Congressional Budget Office. This glossary is a basic reference document for the Congress, federal agencies, and others interested in the federal budget-making process. Like previous editions, this revision emphasizes budget terms, but relevant economic and accounting terms are also defined to help the user appreciate the dynamics of the budget process and its relationship to other key activities (e.g., financial reporting). It also distinguishes between any differences in budgetary and nonbudgetary meanings of terms."
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of DOD's Report on Budgeting for Exchange Rates for Foreign Currency Fluctuations

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) expends a significant amount of funds overseas, particularly from its Operation and Maintenance (O&M) and Military Personnel (MILPERS) appropriations. As the rate of overseas currencies fluctuates on a daily basis, such fluctuations have an impact on the various expenditures that DOD makes. For budgeting purposes, DOD establishes foreign currency exchange rates to determine its O&M and MILPERS funding needs. During the fiscal year, DOD incurs expenditures at the actual exchange rate, which varies from the budgeted rate. For example, if the dollar depreciates in value, more dollars are needed to pay for goods and services than originally budgeted. Concerned about whether DOD's method for selecting foreign currency rates has produced realistic estimates in its budget submissions, Congress required DOD to consider alternative methods. Specifically, the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 required the Secretary of Defense to submit a report on the foreign currency exchange rate projections used in annual DOD budget presentations. The act required that DOD identify alternative approaches, including the feasibility of using private economic forecasting and approaches used by other federal departments and agencies, for selecting foreign currency exchange rates that would produce more realistic estimates of the amounts required for DOD to accommodate foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. DOD also was required to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and to identify the department's preferred approach among the alternatives and provide a rationale for preferring that approach. Finally, the act further required that we review DOD's report, including the basis for the Secretary's conclusions for the preferred approach. DOD submitted its report to Congress on April 15, 2005. In response to the act, we examined (1) the extent to which DOD ...
Date: June 16, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status Update of the New 155mm Lightweight Howitzer

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed the progress of the new 155mm Lightweight Howitzer program. GAO found that since July 2000, all key program milestones have continued to slip. Only the initial fielding date for the howitzer remains unchanged. Since July 2000, the total program cost estimates have increased from $1,129.9 million to $1,250.2 million, an increase of $120.3 million. In addition, GAO found four technical problems yet to be addressed in the program: (1) cracking of the spades used to anchor the howitzer, (2) loose spade latches that create difficulties in removing the spades from the ground, (3) the spade damper--a device intended to help the spade dig into the soil to stabilize the gun--does not work properly in all soil types, and (4) the durability of the optical sight being developed for the gun. Design solutions have been identified for each of these problems, according to the Army-Marine Corps Lightweight Howitzer Joint Program Office. These design changes have not been fully incorporated and field tested to date."
Date: April 10, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uncertainties Remain Concerning the Airborne Laser's Cost and Military Utility

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In 1996, the Air Force launched an acquisition program to develop and produce a revolutionary laser weapon system, the Airborne Laser (ABL), capable of defeating an enemy ballistic missile during the boost phase of its flight. Over the last 8 years, the program's efforts to develop this technology have resulted in significant cost growth and schedule delays. These events led Senate Members to request that we answer the following questions: (1) how much and why has the ABL's cost increased since the program's inception; (2) what is the expected military utility of the initial ABL aircraft; (3) what support systems will be required when the ABL is fielded and what is the likely cost of those systems; and (4) have recent program changes resulted in a more cost effective strategy for developing the weapon?"
Date: May 17, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USDA's Application of Administrative PAYGO to Its Mandatory Spending Programs

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In fiscal year 2010, about 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) total outlays of about $129 billion was used to fund mandatory spending programs--programs with at least some spending that is controlled through eligibility rules, benefit formulas, and other parameters that are set in law other than appropriations acts. At USDA, mandatory spending programs include the majority of the department's nutrition assistance, farm commodity, crop insurance, and export promotion programs, as well as a number of its conservation programs. A May 23, 2005, memorandum from the Director of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to the heads of departments and agencies provided guidance on a new OMB review process that would apply to administrative actions not required by law that would increase mandatory spending. As directed by the memorandum, in submitting to OMB for review such proposed actions, agencies must include one or more proposals for other administrative actions to be taken by the agency that would comparably reduce mandatory spending. This process for controlling spending is referred to as "administrative pay-as-you-go (PAYGO)." Administrative actions subject to administrative PAYGO include regulations, demonstrations, program notices, guidance to states or contractors, or other similar actions not required by law that would increase mandatory spending. Among other things, the memorandum states the following: (1) Proposals of actions subject to administrative PAYGO submitted without an offset will be returned to the agency for reconsideration. (2) Questions concerning whether a proposed administrative action is subject to administrative PAYGO will be resolved at the discretion of the OMB Director. (3) If an agency determines that a proposed administrative action that would increase mandatory spending is required by law and therefore not subject to administrative PAYGO, the agency's general counsel must provide ...
Date: September 29, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Issues: Reprogramming of Federal Air Marshal Service Funds in Fiscal Year 2003

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "On May 15, 2003, and again on July 25, 2003, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) notified the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations, Subcommittees on Homeland Security, of its intention to reprogram a large amount of funds appropriated to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) for fiscal year 2003. In an August 2003 letter, Congress requested that we review the key events leading up to the reprogramming and subsequent revisions as they related to the Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS). In particular, we were asked to determine (1) whether senior TSA, DHS, and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) officials were informed of the implications of the FAMS funding reductions prior to submission of the reprogramming notices; (2) the programmatic implications of the funding reductions on the FAMS program; (3) whether it was legally necessary to send an impoundment message to the Congress; and whether the Secretary of Homeland Security had delegated to the Under Secretary for Management the authority to transmit reprogramming notifications to the cognizant Appropriations Subcommittees. Finally, Congress asked us to identify, as appropriate, improvements in budget execution for future consideration. As agreed, we briefed Congressional staff on February 27, 2004, and March 3, 2004, on the results of our work. This report transmits the information we provided in those briefings."
Date: March 31, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Level Leadership Needed to Help Guam Address Challenges Caused by DOD-Related Growth

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In an effort to improve the U.S. military's flexibility to address conventional and terrorist threats worldwide, the Department of Defense (DOD) plans to relocate more than 8,000 Marines and an estimated 9,000 dependents from Okinawa, Japan, to Guam as well as expand other U.S. force capabilities on the island at an estimated cost of more than $13 billion. Guam is an integral part of DOD's logistical support system and serves as an important forward operational hub for a mix of military mission requirements. According to DOD, Guam provides strategic flexibility, freedom of action, and prompt global action for the Global War on Terrorism, peace and wartime engagement, and crisis response. DOD plans to begin construction on Guam during fiscal year 2010 in order to meet the desired buildup deadline of fiscal year 2014 indicated in the agreement reached by the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee on October 29, 2005. As a result of the military buildup, Guam's current population of 171,000 will increase by an estimated 25,000 active duty military personnel and dependents (or 14.6 percent), to 196,000. In addition, the realignment will require additional workers to move to the island, including non-defense personnel, DOD contractors, and transient military personnel. As such, the U.S. military realignment and buildup will substantially impact Guam's community and infrastructure. DOD and representatives for Guam have expressed concern that Guam's infrastructure and social services will not be prepared to handle the impacts of the buildup by the 2014 completion date because of the compressed timeline and the extensive impact of the buildup. Further, GAO previously reported that the Government of Guam faces significant challenges in addressing the impacts of the buildup and realignment. Although DOD plans to fund infrastructure requirements directly related to the ...
Date: April 9, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations on Efforts to Implement the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative on the U.S. Border with Canada

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Securing the U.S. border has received increasing attention since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. For years, U.S. and Canadian citizens have crossed the northern border using documents such as driver's licenses or birth certificates or in some cases without showing any documentation. Border crossings are commonplace; in 2005, for example, an estimated 13 million U.S. citizens crossed the northern border. In the heightened national security environment after September 11, we have previously reported that documents like driver's licenses and birth certificates can easily be obtained, altered, or counterfeited and used by terrorists to travel into and out of the country. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 requires the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, to develop and implement a plan that requires a passport or other document or combination of documents that the Secretary of Homeland Security deems sufficient to show identity and citizenship for U.S. citizens and citizens of Bermuda, Canada, and Mexico when entering the United States from certain countries in North, Central, or South America. The act requires the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of State (State) to implement this requirement by January 2008, and the effort to do so is called the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (Travel Initiative). As the statutory deadline for implementing DHS's and State's plans draws closer, questions have arisen about the agencies' progress in carrying out the Travel Initiative. As part of our examination of the Travel Initiative, Congress asked us to provide a status report on the progress these agencies have made. On April 7, 2006, we briefed Congress on our observations to date, which focused primarily on implementation along the northern border. This letter summarizes ...
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Issues: Budgeting for Inflation in Civilian Agencies

Description: A staff study issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed the Department of Defense's (DOD) experiences with budgeting for inflation, focusing on whether it is feasible for civilian agencies to also budget for inflation."
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Issues: Accrual Budgeting Useful in Certain Areas but Does Not Provide Sufficient Information for Reporting on Our Nation's Longer-Term Fiscal Challenge

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The federal government's financial condition and fiscal outlook have deteriorated dramatically since 2000. The federal budget has gone from surplus to deficit and the nation's major reported long-term fiscal exposures--a wide range of programs, responsibilities, and activities that either explicitly or implicitly commit the government to future spending--have more than doubled. Current budget processes and measurements do not fully recognize these fiscal exposures until payments are made. Increased information and better incentives to address the long-term consequences of today's policy decisions can help put our nation on a more sound fiscal footing. Given its interest in accurate and timely information on the U.S. fiscal condition, the Senate Committee on the Budget asked us to update our study of other nations' experiences with accrual budgeting and look at other ways countries have increased attention to their long-term fiscal challenges."
Date: December 20, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mandatory Spending: Using Budget Triggers to Constrain Growth

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Prepared as part of GAO's basic statutory responsibility for monitoring the condition of the nation's finances, the objectives of this report were to (1) determine the feasibility of designing and using trigger mechanisms to constrain growth in mandatory spending programs and (2) provide an analysis of the factors that led to differences between estimated and actual outlays in seven mandatory budget accounts during fiscal years 2000 through 2004."
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tobacco Settlement: States' Allocations of Fiscal Year 2003 and Expected Fiscal Year 2004 Payments

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In the 1990s, states sued major tobacco companies to obtain reimbursement for health impairments caused by the public's use of tobacco. In 1998, 46 states and four of the nation's largest tobacco companies signed a Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) that requires the tobacco companies to make annual payments to the states in perpetuity as reimbursement for past tobaccorelated health care costs. The MSA commits the tobacco companies to pay the states approximately $206 billion over the first 25 years. Some of the states have arranged to receive upfront proceeds based on the amounts that tobacco companies owe by issuing bonds backed by future payments. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 requires GAO to report annually on the amount of MSA payments states receive through fiscal year 2006. This third report provides information on the payments the 46 states received in fiscal year 2003 and expect to receive in fiscal year 2004, and states' allocations of these funds to various program categories and changes from prior years. To conduct this study, GAO surveyed the 46 states."
Date: March 19, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Briefing on Air Force's Response on Fee-For-Service Aerial Refueling

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Section 1081 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 calls for the Secretary of the Air Force to conduct a pilot program to assess the feasibility and advisability of utilizing commercial fee-for-service air refueling tanker aircraft for Air Force operations. In response to your May 2009 letter to the Secretary of the Air Force requesting an update on the status of this pilot program, the Air Force submitted the Status of the Pilot Program on Commercial Fee-For-Service Air Refueling Support for the Air Force on August 7, 2009."
Date: October 5, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Issues: July 2000 Update of GAO's Long-Term Fiscal Simulations

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO updated its long-term economic model using the latest economic and budget assumptions from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO)."
Date: July 26, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Issues: Treasury's Interest Rate Calculation Changes

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reported on the Department of the Treasury's decision to change the calculation of the interest rates used since 1980 to determine the investment returns for a number of government trust funds, including Social Security and Medicare, focusing on: (1) how and why Treasury changed its rules for calculating interest rates in 1980 and 1998; (2) the effects of these changes on the unified budget and on the financial status of Social Security and Medicare trust funds; and (3) what other trust funds were affected by Treasury's decision."
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Budgeting: States' Experiences Can Inform Federal Efforts

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "With a number of challenges facing the nation--including a long-term fiscal imbalance--agencies need to maximize their performance and leverage available resources and authorities to achieve maximum value while managing risk. Examining state efforts to increase the focus on performance and their experiences in responding to recent fiscal stress can offer insights into practices that may assist federal decision makers in addressing the challenges ahead. GAO described for five selected states--Arizona, Maryland, Texas, Virginia, and Washington--legislators' use of performance information in budget deliberations, how performance information helped to inform choices during fiscal stress, challenges these states face in implementing and sustaining their efforts, and the potential for state experiences to inform initiatives to improve the use of performance information at the federal level. Among other factors, these states were selected because they have established histories of performance budgeting efforts and represent a variety of approaches to implementing those efforts."
Date: February 28, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues Related to Navy Battleships

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Until World War II U.S. Navy battleships provided an impressive show of force and outgunned and outmaneuvered their ocean-going enemies. From World War II until the Persian Gulf War in 1991, the Navy's Iowa class battleships provided Naval Surface Fire Support capabilities with their 16-inch guns. Naval Surface Fire Support, together with land- and air-based components, makes up the joint "fires triad", which is used to support Marine Corps amphibious assault operations. The last Iowa class battleship was decommissioned in 1992. In 1996, congressional authorizers became concerned that the Navy would not be able to produce a replacement Naval Surface Fire Support capability comparable to the battleships until well into the twenty-first century and directed the Secretary of the Navy to restore at least two Iowa class battleships to the naval vessel registry until the Secretary of the Navy certified that a capability had been developed equal to or greater than that provided by the battleships. Two Iowa class battleships--the U.S.S. Wisconsin and the U.S.S. Iowa--remain on the naval vessel registry in inactive status. Both ships are considered "in reserve", meaning they are being retained for reactivation in case of full mobilization or future need. Since 1995 we have reported several times on the status of battleships and their role in meeting future Naval Surface Fire Support requirements. In November 2004, we reported that the Navy and Marine Corps had only recently begun the process to establish validated Naval Surface Fire Support requirements that address the overall capabilities needed, that the cost and schedule for reactivating and modernizing two Iowa class battleships had not been fully developed, and that fielding of a replacement Naval Surface Fire Support capability has been delayed. An issue confronting Congress in finalizing the ...
Date: December 13, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fiscal Exposures: Improving Cost Recognition in the Federal Budget

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Fiscal exposures may be explicit in that the federal government is legally required to pay for the commitment; alternatively, it may be implicit in that the exposure arises from expectations based on current policy or past practices. The nine programs GAO examined illustrate the range of federal fiscal exposures (see figure) and how they can change over time. Also, some programs may have elements of both explicit and implicit exposure. Federal insurance programs, for example, fall across the spectrum: if an event occurs, some payment is legally required--an explicit exposure. However, there may be an expectation that the government will provide assistance beyond the amount legally required--that is an implicit exposure. Prior to 2008, securities issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac were explicitly not backed by the U.S. government. However, in response to the financial crisis, the government's agreement to provide temporary assistance to cover their losses up to a set amount created a new explicit exposure. The amount of future spending arising from federal fiscal exposures varies in the degree to which it is known and can be measured."
Date: October 29, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debt Management: Treasury Has Improved Short-Term Investment Programs, but Should Broaden Investments to Reduce Risks and Increase Return

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Growing debt and net interest costs are a result of persistent fiscal imbalances, which, if left unchecked, threaten to crowd out spending for other national priorities. The return on every federal dollar that the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) is able to invest represents an opportunity to reduce interest costs. This report (1) analyzes trends in Treasury's main receipts, expenditures, and cash balances, (2) describes Treasury's current investment strategy, and (3) identifies options for Treasury to consider for improving its return on short-term investments. GAO held interviews with Treasury officials and others and reviewed related documents."
Date: September 20, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan's Donor Dependence

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The United States has allocated over $72 billion to secure, stabilize, and rebuild Afghanistan since 2002, and the President requested over $18 billion for these purposes for fiscal year 2012. GAO has on numerous occasions raised doubts about the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan's (GIRoA) ability to fund its public expenditures--funds spent to provide public services to the Afghan population, such as security, infrastructure projects, and government salaries. In 2005, we reported that Afghanistan had limited resources and recommended that the Secretaries of State and Defense develop plans for funding the Afghan national security forces (ANSF).1 In 2007 and 2008, we reported that it was essential to develop future funding requirements for the ANSF and a strategy for transitioning these responsibilities to GIRoA.2 In 2008, Congress also mandated that the Department of Defense provide a long-term plan for sustaining the ANSF, including future funding requirements. The Department of Defense, however, has yet to provide the Congress an estimate of the cost to sustain the Afghanistan National Security Forces.3 In 2011, we again recommended that the U.S. and international partners develop estimates of the future funding needed to grow the Afghan National Army.4 We have also raised concerns about Afghanistan's inability to fund planned government expenditures without foreign assistance and raised questions about the sustainability of U.S.-funded efforts to build and enhance Afghanistan's road, agriculture, and water infrastructures.5 During a related engagement, we reviewed U.S. efforts to strengthen Afghanistan's public financial management, a critical capability for Afghanistan's fiscal sustainability.6 The international community, including about 50 donor countries and international entities such as the World Bank and the United Nations, has also provided significant support to help stabilize and rebuild Afghanistan. At international conferences in London (January 2010) ...
Date: September 20, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department