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[Slingshot John Milligan's wife Holding Balloons as one bursts]

Description: Photograph of a John's wife holding three balloons, one has been shot through by Slingshot John Milligan. In the image the balloon in her right hand has just been popped and the other two are next to be shot. John Milligan, a machinist in Detroit, Michigan who was also the “country’s greatest slingshot expert. “He won local fame by shooting the marks out of playing cards, hitting objects in mid air and bagging game in the field.” Joe took John national with his photos documenting his talent and accuracy. To assure accuracy, he has designed his own precision-built aluminum sling, called the Milligan Special. Additional photos and information can be found in the Clark Family Collection. Photos from this series appeared in eight national publications. Here you can find articles in “Life Magazine . February 3, 1961. Pages 80-83. And in a fifteen page pictorial in the book “Photojournalism” by Joe Clark, HBSS. Photo by: Joe Clark, HBSS. Clark PhotoFile: 6335-64
Date: March 22, 1952
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Balloon Flight and Atmospheric Electricity

Description: "The air is known to be charged with electricity (chiefly positive) with reference to the earth, so that its potential increases with the altitude and the difference in potential between two points in the same vertical line, divided by the distance between them, gives a value called the "potential gradient," which may vary greatly with the altitude, the nature of the ground and the atmospheric conditions" (p. 1).
Date: July 1924
Creator: Herrera, Emilio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Balloon Fabrics Made of Goldbeater's Skins

Description: Goldbeater's skin, which is the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox, is examined as a balloon fabric and details of how goldbeater's skin is prepared for use are provided. The construction techniques employed by Germany, France, and England are all discussed.
Date: December 1922
Creator: Chollet, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations of Balloon and Aeroplane Fabrics

Description: Report presents the experimental results of fabrics used for balloons and aeroplanes. Tensile properties, surface roughness, skin friction, flammability, permeability, and water absorption were tested for different combinations of materials.
Date: 1917
Creator: Gibbons, Willis A. & Smith, Omar H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ken Versus the Balloon

Description: This watercolor painting on paper depicts a young man attempting to pop balloons at an arcade in order to win a stuffed bear.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1990
Creator: Ferguson, Max, 1959-
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

PROGRESS ON MARGIE, A GAMMA-RAY BURST ULTRA-LONG DURATION BALLOON MISSION

Description: We are designing the Minute of Arc Resolution Gamma-ray Imaging Experiment (MARGIE) as a 100 day Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) mission to: (1) detect and localize gamma-ray bursts; and (2) survey the hard X-ray sky. Major advances in designing the CZT detectors increase the sensitivity to higher energy. Design of the gondola has also progressed.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: BAND, D. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Conference guests attending buffet dinner]

Description: Photograph of guests attending a buffet dinner during the 2005 Texas Daily News Association annual conference, held at the Driskell Hotel in Austin. The dining hall has been decorated with an assortment of rainbow balloons as the guests are seen mingling with one another. Donnis Bagget (brown jacket) is seen talking with three conference attendees.
Date: March 15, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Balloons]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: September 2, 1978, 10:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Balloons]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: August 26, 1979, 10:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Script: Balloons]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the third annual Giant Balloon Parade in Dallas, Texas.
Date: November 23, 1962
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Precision shooting by slingshot expert John Milligan (2)]

Description: Narrative by Junebug Clark: John Milligan's wife and next door neighbor each holding a balloon filled with two tablespoons of flour as John bursts the balloons with a steel ball bearing launched from his "Milligan Special" slingshot. The result is a dramatic explosion and plume that looks almost nuclear. John Milligan, a machinist in Detroit, Michigan who was also the “country’s greatest slingshot expert. “He won local fame by shooting the marks out of playing cards, hitting objects in mid air and bagging game in the field.” Joe took John national with his photos documenting his talent and accuracy. To assure accuracy, he has designed his own precision-built aluminum sling, called the Milligan Special. Additional photos and information can be found in the Clark Family Collection. Photos from this series appeared in eight national publications. Here you can find articles in “Life Magazine . February 3, 1961. Pages 80-83. And in a fifteen page pictorial in the book “Photojournalism” by Joe Clark, HBSS. Photo by: Joe Clark, HBSS.
Date: March 22, 1952
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Discussion of long-range weather prediction

Description: A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.
Date: September 10, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value of global weather sensors

Description: Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.
Date: December 23, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of ARM radiosonde operational performance

Description: Because the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program uses data from radiosondes for real-time quality control and sensitive modeling applications, it is important to have a quantitative measure of the quality of the radiosonde data themselves. Two methods have been tried for estimating the quality of radiosonde data: comparisons with known standards before launch and examination of pseudo-replicate samples by single sensors aloft. The ground check procedure showed that the ARM radiosondes are within manufacturer`s specifications for measuring relative humidity; procedural artifacts prevented verification for temperature. Pseudo-replicates from ascent and descent suggest that the temperature measurement is within the specified {minus_plus}0.2 C. On average ascent and descent data are similar, but detailed structure may be obscured on descent by loss of sampling density, and the descent involves other uncertainties.
Date: June 1995
Creator: Lesht, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BALLOON-BASED HIGH-TIME RESOLUTION MEASUREMENTS OF X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM LIGHTNING

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project consisted of a series of balloon flights to collect high-time-resolution x-ray and electric-field-change measurements in thunderstorms in order to validate the existence of the runaway air-breakdown mechanism during lightning and/or sprite production. The runaway air-breakdown mechanism is currently the leading theory to account for unexplained balloon and aircraft-based measurements of x-ray enhancements associated with sprites. Balloon-borne gamma-ray and electric-field-change instruments were launched into a daytime summer thunderstorm. A greater than three-fold increase in the gamma-ray flux was observed as the balloon descended through a thunderstorm anvil where a strong electric field was present. These observations suggest that gamma-ray production in thunderstorms may not be as uncommon as previously believed.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: EACK, K.; SUSZCYNSKY, D. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Cost Effective Automatic Balloon Launcher

Description: Approximately 800,000 balloon-borne radiosondes are hand-launched each year, a cost and labor-intensive procedure. Development of a low-cost Automatic Radiosonde Launcher would allow the manual procedure to be replaced with a reliable and less expensive process. Balloon-borne radiosondes provide essential meteorological data used by forecasters and researchers around the globe. The National Weather service alone launches tens of thousands of sondes from sites across the US. Although worldwide launching of radiosondes has been done for many years, it remains a labor intensive and therefore expensive operation. Using its own funding and, more recently with the help of a Phase I SBIR grant, Visidyne, Inc. has begun investigating the feasibility of building an Automatic Radiosonde Launcher (ARL) that can be built at a cost that will be acceptable to the commercial marketplace. That work has led to the issuing of four patents covering important innovations that will allow us to meet that goal. Under the recent Phase I effort, solutions to many of the key problems have been tested in the laboratory and in real-world demonstrations in the field. The balloon filling, battery wetting, and launch release mechanisms were designed, built, and tested. A breadboard launcher was constructed and tested to prove feasibility of key system elements. Demonstration launches of radiosondes were performed using the breadboard launcher from the National Weather Service facility in Gray, ME, and from Hanscom AFB in Lexington, MA. The cost and size of a full scale shelter prevented us from building one during Phase I, however, we do have a design that will accomplish our goals. The Automatic Radiosonde Launcher will significantly reduce the cost of launching balloon-borne instruments. US and foreign weather services and atmospheric, climatological, and meteorological researchers will all benefit from this innovation.
Date: June 8, 2000
Creator: Michael, Berrigan J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental effects of the US Antarctic Program`s use of balloons in Antarctica

Description: The USAP uses balloons in Antarctica to conduct scientific research, to facilitate safe air transport, and to provide data for global weather predictions. However, there is the possibility that balloons or their payloads may adversely affect Antarctic fauna or flora. The purpose of this study is to provide background information upon which the USAP may draw when complying with its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Madrid Protocol.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: McCold, L.N.; Eddlemon, G.K. & Blasing, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The shock Hugoniot of glass microballoons

Description: Shock Hugoniot measurements were made on glass microballoons. Input pressures ranging from 0.37-3.9 GPa produced compression from 860-690%. The Hugoniot curves were found to be anomalous in that the density shocked to decreases with increasing pressure.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Simpson, R. & Helm, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Balloon]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about a large balloon that broke apart, initially believed to be a flying saucer by eyewitnesses.
Date: April 26, 1960
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

FALLOUT STUDIES AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. Preliminary Report

Description: Data were obtained to evaluate the attenuation of photons, emitted from a fallout field, due to the surface roughness of the terrain. A study was made to determine the effect of the shot tower on the fallout material. Particles for comparison were collected from two detonations of equal scaled height, one tower supported and the other balloon supported. Data on time-dependent phenomena were recorded, as were physical characteristics of the fallout material. The use of small balloons as instrument platforms and a new fallout collector were evaluated for field use. No conclusions or recommendations can be made at this time. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1957
Creator: Egeberg, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department