Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.
open access

A Comparison of Self Concepts Among "Starter" and "Substitute" Female College Athletes in Selected Varsity Sports

Description: The purposes of the study were (1) to determine if differences exist between the self concepts of female intercollegiate starting and substitute athletes and between members of team and individual sports and (2) to determine if a significant relationship exists between coaches' ratings of an athlete and the athletes' self concepts. Subjects were forty-five college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance method and the Spearman Rank Order Correlation. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that (1) the self concepts of athletes in basketball, softball, volleyball, tennis, and badminton are not significantly different, and (2) the coaches' ratings of athletes and athletes' self concept ratings are not significantly related.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Gotcher, Judith F.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Transitioning from Sport: Retirement and Former Female Collegiate Athletes' Satisfaction with Life, Depressive Symptomatology, and Body Satisfaction

Description: Retirement from elite sport can be highly distressing for athletes, and many athletes report elevated depression and anxiety or body dissatisfaction when going through this transition. Factors that may be important in determining a higher level of adjustment in retirement include feeling in control of when and how retirement occurs, planning occupationally for after sport, and having achieved sport goals. Thus, we examined how such factors related to former female collegiate athletes (N = 218) satisfaction with life, depression, and body satisfaction. Two to six years post retirement, athletes completed an online questionnaire that measured their satisfaction with life, depressive symptomatology, and body satisfaction; retirement factors were measured by the 12-items from the BALANCE scale. Through regression analyses, we examined the extent to which each of the 12 retirement factors is related to life satisfaction, depression, and body satisfaction; time since retirement was unrelated to these outcomes. Future research might address the transition immediately following retirement utilizing these factors that appear most influential.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Wartalowicz, Karolina Maria
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Description: This study explores the flow experiences of collegiate athletes. NCAA Division I athletes and intramural athletes (N = 180) completed a series of measures on their flow experiences. Comparisons were made regarding the characteristics of flow, the perceived facilitators of flow, the frequency of flow experiences, and explored the role of perceived ability. Using a person by situation interaction framework, this study singles out perceived ability as a person factor and competitive level as a situational factor to more clearly examine flow experiences. Results indicated distinctions between the two groups. Mainly, the intramural athletes reported experiencing the merging of action and awareness, autotelic experience, transformation of time and having clear goals more frequently than the NCAA Division I athletes. No group differences were found for flow frequency or flow facilitators. Perceived ability was found to have a weak, but significant relationship with specific flow facilitators and characteristics.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Peterson, Ryan J.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Achievement of Student Development Tasks by Male College Scholarship Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Comparison

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is to determine whether or not differences exist in the achievement of student development tasks by college student athletes and non-athletes. The investigation also tested for differences in the achievement of developmental tasks between athletes and non-athletes based on the variables of race (black or white), classification, and interpersonal behavior orientation. The sample was composed of 276 male students (201 non-athletes and 75 athletes) who attend a large private university in Texas. Each participant completed both a student developmental task inventory questionnaire, which measures individual achievement of the tasks of developing autonomy, purpose, and mature interpersonal relationships, and an interpersonal relationship orientation-behavior instrument, which measures an individual's orientation to others on the scales of inclusion, control, and affection.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Mills, Donald B. (Donald Bjorn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Appearance Pressures, Exercise Behaviors, and Reasons for Exercise to the Psychological Well-Being of Retired Female Athletes

Description: Retirement from sport can be difficult for athletes. Physically, retirement is associated with challenges such as weight gain, muscle loss, and degradation of physical skills. Psychologically, retirement has been linked to increased identity confusion, depression, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Research shows that exercise is a way athletes cope with stressors such as psychosocial pressure and retirement. However, exercise is positively correlated with psychological well-being for some individuals, whereas for others exercise is associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, and body dissatisfaction. Reasons for exercise behavior, as well as the type of exercise in which someone engages, may explain the contrasting psychological outcomes of exercise. I examined perceived societal pressures, exercise, and reasons for exercise in relation to the psychological well-being (i.e., depression, satisfaction with life, body satisfaction) of 218 college female athletes who had been retired from 2-6 years. Through regression analysis, I examined the extent to which the predictors were related to each measure of psychological well-being, controlling for BMI and years since retirement. For life satisfaction (Adj. R2 = .08), exercising to meet potential romantic partner was significant (β = -.158). Higher levels of depressive symptoms (Adj. R2 = .15) were predicted by exercising to improve appearance (β = .198) and feeling pressure to exercise (β = .212). For body satisfaction (Adj. R2 = .42), exercising to prevent illness/injury (β = .197) and to prepare to compete in sport competitions (β = .141) were associated with the increased body satisfaction, whereas a higher BMI (β = -.193) and exercising to improve appearance (β = -.167) were related to decreased body satisfaction. Future research might address psychological predictors immediately post retirement, as this is when retirement may be more stressful.
Access: Restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Mikesell, Matthew
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Weigh-in Environment and Weight Intentionality and Management of Female Collegiate Athletes

Description: Research suggests that female athletes, in particular, experience “sport-environment” pressures such as: weight, performance, and body image demands from their coaches, teammates, and judges. These influences in tandem with society’s portrayal of the thin ideal are thought to considerably increase the risk of developing disordered eating problems in this population. Although numerous studies have been conducted over the past decade on the prevalence of eating disorders and pathogenic weight control behaviors among female athletes, few have examined in detail the weight pressures that exist within the sport environment, such as whether or not (and how often) athletes are weighed by their coaches, and how athletes respond to those pressures in terms of weight management practices. In the proposed study, we will examine the weigh-in environment, weight satisfaction, weight management practices, menstrual health, and reported source of nutritional guidance. The sample includes 414 NCAA Division I female collegiate swimmers/divers and gymnasts drawn from 26 universities across the U.S. Participants anonymously completed a series of questionnaires as part of a larger study on student-athlete health and well-being. This study found that 41% of athletes were weighed, and most often by an athletic trainer in private. Despite most weigh-ins were reportedly conducted in a positive manner, the majority of the athletes who were weighed (75%) reported using at least one strategy to manage their weight prior to weigh-ins (e.g. restrict food, increase exercise). Athletes desire to lose weight, caloric intake, and menstrual cycles were not related to whether athletes were or were not weighed. The majority of athletes received qualified nutritional guidance about how to healthfully manage their weight. Overall, weighing is occurring in a more positive manner than expected; however, athletes are continuing to report using unhealthy weight management strategies at a high rate. It seems important for athletic departments to set …
Date: December 2015
Creator: Tackett, Bailey
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Exploring Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating among Male Collegiate Athletes

Description: In research on disordered eating in female collegiate athletes, psychosocial correlates including elevated scores on measures of body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state were found significantly more often in either the eating disorder or symptomatic group as opposed to the asymptomatic group. Unique or nuanced pressures exist for male athletes as well, specifically a different ideal for body image, often described by a drive for muscularity. I examined these effects in a sample of 698 male collegiate athletes. All participants completed questionnaires, which provided measures of drive for muscularity, social desirability, body satisfaction, negative affect, sociocultural pressures, sport weight pressures, and internalization and social comparison among other factors not pertinent for this analysis as part of a larger study. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of five factors (general and sport pressures, internalization, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and drive for muscularity) to which a sixth was added to reflect dietary intent, all of which are explained in the Petrie and Greenleaf sociocultural model. A logistic regression showed that dietary intent and drive for muscularity differentiated significantly between the symptomatic/eating disordered athletes and those who were asymptomatic.
Date: December 2019
Creator: Mack, Dalton L.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Comparative Study of Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Athletes and Non-Athletes in Selected Class A Texas High Schools for the School Year of 1948-1949

Description: The investigator made a comparative study of the health knowledge and health practices of participants in interscholastic athletics for boys and non-participants in a selected number of class A Texas high schools during the school session of 1948-1949.
Date: 1949
Creator: Yager, Blake E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Test of an Etiological Model: Disordered Eating in Male Collegiate Athletes

Description: Athletes may be at increased risk for developing disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors due to pressure for their bodies to look a certain way and perform at a high level (Sundgot-Borgen & Torstveit, 2004). Petrie and Greenleaf (2013) proposed a psychosocial model to explain the development of athletes’ disordered eating behaviors. Specifically, they suggested that unique weight/body pressures of the sport environment, general societal pressures about attractiveness, internalization of societal appearance ideals, body dissatisfaction, drive for muscularity, negative affect, and dietary restraint combine and contribute to the development of bulimic symptomatology. The aim of the current study is to test the Petrie and Greenleaf model in a large, nation-wide, diverse sample of male collegiate athletes. Participants were male collegiate athletes (N = 731; Mage = 19.91, SD = 1.50) representing 17 sports and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions I, II, and III. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures designed to assess their experiences of the above constructs. Structural equation modeling was used to test the pathways proposed in the Petrie and Greenleaf (2013) etiological model. Results suggest that sport pressures, such as those from coaches and teammates about weight, the importance of appearance, and looking good in a uniform, are significant factors in understanding disordered eating among male collegiate athletes. These pressures were related directly to all other variables in the model, including increased body dissatisfaction, experiencing more negative emotions, restricting caloric intake, and engaging in behaviors to increase muscularity. In the end, it was these variables – negative affect, drive for muscularity, dietary restraint, and body dissatisfaction– that explained over 30% of the variance in the athletes’ bulimic symptomatology.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Chatterton, Justine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Comparison of College Athletes and Nonathletes in the areas of Career Decision-Making. Salience, and Values

Description: This study paralleled Smallman's (1993) analysis of college athletes at an NCAA Division I school, which found significant differences between athletes and nonathletes in readiness to make career decisions. The present study measured career decision-making skills using The Career Development Inventory. In addition, the present study examined the salience of roles (i.e., student, worker, citizen, family member, and leasurite) as measured by The Salience Inventory.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Patterson, Howard Y. (Howard Yates)
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Comparison of the Personalities of Non-Injured and Injured Female Athletes in Intercollegiate Competition

Description: This study was designed to determine if differences exist between the personalities of injured and non-injured athletes, injured and non-injured athletes in individual sports, and injured and non-injured athletes in team sports. Subjects were forty-three female athletes selected from six intercollegiate teams. The test instrument was the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that the personality of injured athletes does not differ from the personality of non-injured athletes, that non-injured athletes in individual sports are more self-assured than non-injured athletes in team sports, and that the personality of athletes in team sports does not differ from the personality of athletes in individual sports.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Abadie, Deborah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Academic Stress in Student-Athletes

Description: Academic stress and the causes of such stress are subjects that are found in very few studies concerning student-athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this quantitative study is to determine how the following variables relate to academic stress and perceived stress either through correlations or differences--demographics, academic classification, major or field of study, athletic scholarship status, and season of sport (in- season/ out of season). An online questionnaire containing a Perceived Stress Scale and a Perception of Academic Stress scale were distributed to 151 student-athlete participants at a university in the southwest United States. The results indicated that biological sex has a significant relationship to perceived stress. No other variables were found significant to perceived stress or academic stress.
Date: May 2017
Creator: James, Christina
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Relationship Between Ventilation and Oxygen Uptake at 40% And 85% of Peak Oxygen Uptake in 18-35-Year-Old Women Using the Arm Crank Ergometer

Description: This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between ventilation and oxygen uptake at 40% and 85% of V02 peak intensity in 30 upper body fit and 30 unfit 18- 35-year-old women. The correlations between ventilation and oxygen uptake at 40% of peak intensity for the fit group (r = -.51) and the unfit group (r = -.48) were modestly negative. At 85% intensity the relationship between ventilation and oxygen uptake in the two groups was -.44 and -.66, respectively. The lower correlations between ventilation and oxygen uptake observed at the 85% level of peak intensity among the unfit group could be due to a lower ventilatory threshold (66% = fit; 49% = unfit), lesser local muscle changes, along with reduced lactate and C02 management; all of which would be improved with training.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Zervopoulos, Peter C. (Peter Cosmas)
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Psychological Factors Related to Drug Use in College Athletes

Description: The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the psychological factors related to drug use by college athletes on seven drug categories. A questionnaire was given to male and female Division I college athletes asking them about their use of drugs. The frequency, intensity and duration of use/non-use was used to divide subjects into high and low/nonuser categories. Dependent measures included the Profile of Mood States, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and questions assessing athlete stress. A multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) was conducted in a 2 x 2 (alcohol high/low, non-user x male/female) design to distinguish significant differences on the POMS and stress questions followed by univariate ANOVA's. A separate ANOVA was run on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated that high alcohol users scored significantly higher on anger, fatigue and vigor than low/non-users. Significant differences were found between males and females on the pressure felt from coaches to perform well.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Evans, Melissa
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

To Weigh or Not to Weigh? Relation to Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Amongst Female Collegiate Athletes

Description: Collegiate and elite female athletes have been identified as a subpopulation at heightened risk for disordered eating and pathogenic weight management practices. It was hypothesized that this increases risk may be related to sport specific pressures (such as team conducted weigh-ins), or the use and frequency of self-weighing. It appears that mandatory, team conducted weigh-ins are not salient to female athletes in regards to experiencing internalization, body image concerns, dietary restraint, negative affect, and bulimic symptomatology. Results, however, indicate that frequency of engagement in self-weighing may be influential in the engagement of disordered eating symptoms. Specifically, athletes who weighed themselves three or more times per week reported significantly more internalization of general societal ideals and athletic body ideals. For body image concerns, athletes who weighed three or more times per week reported being more concerned with their body size/shape than all others. With respect to dietary behaviors, athletes who weighed themselves three or more times per week reported engaging in significantly more caloric restriction than did those who weighed less frequently. For negative affect, the athletes who weighed themselves three or more times per week reported significantly higher levels of both anger and guilt. Finally for bulimic symptomatology, athletes who weighed themselves three or more times a week had significantly higher levels than those who weighed once or twice or not at all.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Carrigan, Kayla
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Response of Female Athletes to Twelve-Week Plyometric Depth-jump Training

Description: This study aimed to investigate the response of trained intercollegiate and national level female athletes to twelve week depth-jump (DJ) training performed twice weekly with forty repetitions of DJs performed each training session. Results of statistical analysis revealed that only the .3 and .5 meter experimental group improved significantly on VJ ability. However, there was no significant increase in LS for either experimental group compared to the control group. It was concluded that DJ training from .3 and .5 meter heights is more optimal for increasing VJ ability of trained female athletes compared to the 0.75 and 1.1 meter heights as recommended by Verhoshanski for trained male athletes. It was also concluded that DJ training has the the ultimate purpose of developing explosive leg power not leg strength.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Adel, Ahmed Mousa
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Relationship of Sport Type to Disordered Eating Correlates among Collegiate Male Athletes

Description: Petrie and Greenleaf's sociocultural model proposes that athletes experience unique sport environment pressures regarding weight, body size/shape, eating and appearance that increases their risk of developing disordered eating (DE) attitudes and behaviors. Although research in cross-correlational studies has looked at prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and DE behaviors in different sport types, such pressures are likely to vary by sport depending on its unique environment and performance demands. For instance, female athletes in leanness sports experience more body dissatisfaction and societal appearance pressures compared to those in nonleanness sports. Because these effects have been established primarily with female athletes, I examined ED/DE correlates from Petrie and Greenleaf's model with 695 collegiate male athletes who represented five sport types (endurance, ball game, power, technical, weight-dependent) based on a well-established categorization system. Through a series of one-way MANCOVAs (BMI serving as the covariate), I found that sport types were significantly different from each other on all ED/DE correlates except for negative affect. Follow-up analysis revealed that power, endurance, and weight-dependent athletes showed the greatest number of significantly different group centroids, demonstrating distinct profiles among the sport types in their experiences of the ED/DE correlates. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the research findings, future directions, and clinical implications.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Cusack, Kaleb W
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Factors That Influence Athletic Trainers’ Ability to Recognize, Diagnose, and Intervene: Depression in Athletes

Description: Athletic trainers (ATs) are professionals who are most directly responsible for athletes’ health care in a sport environment. ATs work with athletes on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of athletic injury; it is through these interactions that put ATs in an ideal position to recognize the psychological and emotional distress that athletes may suffer. Consequently, the National Athletic Trainer’s Association (NATA) has called for ATs to be competent in implementing psychosocial strategies and techniques (e.g., goal-setting, imagery, positive self-talk), recognizing basic symptoms of mental disorders, and identifying and referring athletes in need of psychological help. I explored ATs’ ability to recognize, diagnose, and provide a referral for collegiate athletes who were presenting with symptoms of depression across three different scenarios. The study examined factors that may impact ATs’ abilities in these areas, including AT gender, athlete gender, and type of presenting problem (e.g., athletic injury, romantic relationship, or sport performance issue). Overall, female ATs were better at recognizing depressive symptoms than male ATs, though both were equally proficient at diagnosing depression. Regardless of gender of the AT, gender of the athlete, and presenting problem, ATs were most likely to refer the athletes to a counselor/psychologist, and to a lesser extent sport psychology consultant (SPC). ATs viewed referrals to an SPC as most appropriate for presenting problems related to sport (i.e., performance problem or injury). The results highlight a possible bias in referrals to an SPC, in that SPCs may not be considered an appropriate referral source for romantic relationship problems. Implications for ATs and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Nguyen, Thomas TN
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Role of Cultural Self-Construal and Autonomy on Athlete Preference for Intervention

Description: Self-construal (SC) refers to the way people perceive their identities in relation to self and others (Markus & Kitayama, 1991b). It has been found in the literature to influence thinking, decision-making, and preferences (e.g., Sung, Choi, & Tinkham, 2012) which suggests that a person's SC may affect her/his preference on psychological interventions. However, no empirical studies can be located that examined this relationship. The study examined the effects of independent SC, interdependent SC, general autonomy (GA), and sport autonomy (SA) on athletes' preferences and desire to use the interventions in the future, especially how these relations might vary as a function of the type of intervention. It was hypothesized that the relationship between each of the predictors and preference for and desire to use intervention would be moderated by the type of intervention received. Four hundred and thirty-one current and former athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire that measured SC, GA, and SA and were then randomly assigned to receive one of two self-talk interventions, representing either a self- or other-focused intervention. Participants were asked to rate their preference for and desire to use the given intervention in the future. Results found positive significant relationships with all predictors and intervention preference, in both self- and other-focused groups. Initial hierarchical multiple and logistic regression analyses did not support a significant moderation effect of intervention type on the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. However, a post-hoc analysis that conducted a hierarchical multiple regression with participants separated by gender found a significant moderation effect of intervention type on the relationship between independent SC and preference for intervention for females only. Additional post-hoc analyses were conducted to replicate Sung et al.'s (2012) analysis procedures in which the SC continuous variables were transformed into categorical ones, and …
Date: August 2017
Creator: Yu, Alexander Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Psychosocial Predictors of Eating Disorder Classification: Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Analyses

Description: There is growing concern for eating pathology and body dissatisfaction in sports; particularly, in sports that emphasize a lean body type. In 325 female collegiate swimmers/divers and gymnasts, we examined psychosocial well-being (i.e., perception of weight pressures, levels of internalization, body satisfaction, dietary intent, negative affect) at the beginning and end of an athletic season and predict their eating disorder classification at the end of their athletic season. Logistic regressions revealed that a model containing all 14 predictors at the beginning and end of an athletic season significantly predicted eating disorder classification at the end of an athletic season. Specifically, in the longitudinal logistic regression, with every one unit of increase on a measure of the pressure felt within the sport environment regarding their weight and every unit increase on a measure of their intentions to diet, respectively, the female athletes were 49% and 89% more likely to be classified in the subclinical/clinical group at the end of their sport season. Surprisingly, with every one unit of increase on a measure of sociocultural pressure to exercise, female athletes were 43% less likely to be classified in the subclinical/clinical group six months later. The cross-sectional logistic regression found that only dietary restraint was significant. Specifically, with every one unit of increase on a measure of their intentions to diet the female athletes were 3.6 times more likely to be classified in the subclinical/clinical group at the end of their sport season. The implications of this study may emphasize the importance of body healthy sport systems to reduce sport specific pressures and dieting among female collegiate athletes. Limitations of this study include self-report measures and longitudinal timeframe was only across one athletic season.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Tackett, Bailey Price
Partner: UNT Libraries
Back to Top of Screen