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Development of a Targeted Protein Residue Analysis Approach in Archaeology

Description: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomic methods have provided archaeologists with a powerful tool for the discovery and identification of proteins within artifacts. Traditionally, discovery-based methods have utilized a non-targeted full mass scan method in an attempt to identify all proteins present within a given sample. However, increased sensitivity is often needed to target specific proteins in order to test hypotheses. Proteins present within archaeological materials present a unique challenge, as they are often subjected to a variety of chemical transformations both before and after burial. Any preserved proteins will be present within a complex mixture of compounds, and full mass scans often fail to detect less abundant proteins of interest. Consistent and reliable targeted methods are needed to detect protein biomarkers. Taphonomic experimentation was employed as a means to identify the effect of particular processes and conditions on the preservation of mare's milk proteins. In addition, three LC-MS methods were evaluated for their efficiency in identifying mare's milk-specific peptide biomarkers from experimental pottery samples. The ability to reliably detect the presence of these species-specific peptides can help provide evidence about past cultural groups, including the origins of dairying and animal domestication.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Scott, Ashley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Office FY 2011 Activity Report

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500 year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has legal responsibility for the management and protection of the resources and has contracted these responsibilities to Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts the challenge of preserving INL cultural resources in a manner reflecting their importance in local, regional, and national history. This report is intended as a stand-alone document that summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2011. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be informative to both internal and external stakeholders, serve as a planning tool for future INL cultural resource management work, and meet an agreed upon legal requirement.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Williams, Julie Braun; Pace, Brenda R.; Gilbert, Hollie K. & Olson, Christina L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excavations at the Quince Site (34AT134) Atoka County, Oklahoma

Description: This volume presents findings from an excavation at the Quince Site of McGee Creek Reservoir project area. Excavations at the Quince Site disclosed deep alluvial deposits with several occupations throughout the Holocene Period. The site contains a well-preserved culturally stratified deposit dating from Paleoindian to Woodland Indian periods.
Date: 1994
Creator: Perttula, Timothy K.
Partner: UNT Institute of Applied Sciences

Digital Inputs, Cultural Outputs: Collaborative, Online Tools for Education, Research and Publication in the History of Art and Cultural Heritage Preservation

Description: Presentation for the 2016 Digital Frontiers Annual Conference. In this presentation, John North Hopkins presents the Collections Analysis Collaborative, an initiative of the Menil Collection and Rice University.
Date: September 22, 2016
Creator: Hopkins, John North
Partner: UNT Libraries

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

Description: As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Williams, Julie Braun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Archaeological Testing of the Lewisville Lake Shoreline, Denton County, Texas

Description: This report describes the results of test excavations at 23 prehistoric and 16 historic sites on the periphery of Lewisville Lake, Denton County, Texas. The purpose of this report is to summarize the character and significance of the archaeological sites that were test excavated and recommendations for mitigation at those sites determined eligible for the National Register.
Date: 1991
Creator: Brown, Kenneth L. (Kenneth Lynn), 1951- & Lebo, Susan A.
Partner: UNT Institute of Applied Sciences

[Keynote] Counting the Dead: Consent, Quantum Media, & How We Come to Matter

Description: Keynote presentation for the 2017 Digital Frontiers Conference. This presentation discusses how the practice of counting the dead is deeply entangled with the long histories the paperwork and media technologies used to certify and regulate the lives of U.S. citizens and expresses and shapes how the nation-state values different lives and bodies.
Date: September 22, 2017
Creator: Wernimont, Jacqueline
Partner: UNT Libraries

French-Indian Interaction at an 18th Century Frontier Post: The Roseborough Lake Site, Bowie County, Texas

Description: This report discusses archaeological findings at the Roseborough Lake Site 14 miles west of Texarkana. The research is oriented towards forming a concept of village life for the indigenous people of the area (and the French settlers who intermarried), as well as a model of the village itself.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Gilmore, Kathleen
Partner: UNT Institute of Applied Sciences

Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

Description: At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Pace, Brenda Ringe; Heath, Gail; Scott, Clark & McDaniel, Carlan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Braun, Julie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Formation Processes and Bone Preservation Along the Trinity River Basin, North Central Texas

Description: This thesis presents the results of geoarchaeological investigations of several archaeological sites along the Elm Fork of the Trinity River in north central Texas. Archaeological data recorded from mitigation excavations in Denton and Cooke counties were analyzed to understand the geologic impacts on faunal preservation resulting from site formation processes. The faunal assemblages are highly fragmented, even in settings known for good preservation. A combined approach using geoarchaeological and taphonomic techniques was implemented to examine how fragmentation, evidence of soil weathering, and differential preservation were impacted by differing geologic conditions throughout the river basin. Intrasite and intersite results of the sites show that a great deal of variability of faunal preservation is present at difference scales of analysis.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Colvin, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2007

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2007. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Braun, Julie; Gilbert, Hollie; Lowrey, Dino; Marler, Clayton & Pace, Brenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Braun, Julie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2010

Description: This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010). Throughout the year, thirty-three cultural resource localities were revisited, including somethat were visited more than once, including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is a cave, two additional caves, twenty-six prehistoric archaeological sites, two historic stage stations, and Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. The resources that were monitored included seventeen that are routinely visited and sixteen that are located in INL project areas. Although impacts were documented at a few locations and one trespassing incident (albeit sans formal charges) was discovered, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resources were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that several INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Office, INL Cultural Resource Management
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

Description: The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to ...
Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Pace, Brenda R. & Williams, Julie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating Sea-Level Rise Hazards on Coastal Archaeological Sites, Trinity Bay, Texas

Description: This study uses the predictive modeling program Sea-Levels Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) to evaluate sea-level rise hazards, such as erosion and inundation, on coastal archaeological sites with a vertical rise of sea level of .98 meters from 2006 to 2100. In total 177 archaeological site locations were collected and georeferenced over GIS outputs maps of wetlands, erosion presence, surface elevation, and accretion. Wetlands data can provide useful information about characteristics of the wetland classes, which make a difference in the ability for coastal archaeological sites to combat sea level rise. Additionally, the study evaluated predicted erosion of archaeological sites by presence or absence of active erosion on a cell-by-cell basis. Elevation map outputs relative to mean tide level allowed for a calculation of individual archaeological site datums to use NOAA tidal databases to identify the potential for their inundation. Accretion maps acquired from the SLAMM run determined the potential for the archaeological site locations to combat rising sea levels and potentially provide protection from wave effects. Results show that the most significant hazard predicted to affect coastal archaeological sites is inundation. Approximately 54% of the total archaeological sites are predicted to be inundated at least half the time by 2100. The hazard of erosion, meanwhile, is expected to affect 33% of all archaeological sites by the end of the century. Although difficult to predict, the study assumes that accretion will not be able to keep pace with sea-level rise. Such findings of hazards prove that SLAMM is a useful tool for predicting potential effects of sea-level rise on coastal archaeological sites. With its ability to customize and as it is complementary, it provides itself not only an economical choice but also one that is adaptable to many scenarios.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Elliott, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Faunal Remains for Identifying Shifts in Pit Structure Function in the Mesa Verde Region: a Case Study From Goodman Point

Description: The archaeofaunal remains left by the Ancestral Puebloan people of Goodman Point Unit provides a valuable, yet underutilized resource into pit structure function. This thesis explores temporal changes in pit structure use and evaluates if a final feast occurred during a kiva decommissioning. The results from zooarchaeological analyses of a pithouse and two great kivas suggest that changes in pit structures at Goodman Point mimic the regional trend toward specialization until late Pueblo III. Cross-cultural studies on feasts, southwest ethnographies and previous zooarchaeological work established methods for identifying a feast. The analysis of differences in faunal remains from a great kiva and multiple room block middens imply that the remains in the kiva were from a final feast prior to a decommissioning ceremony and were not fill. Spatially and temporally the great kiva appears to be a unique, specialized structure in the cultural development of the Goodman Point community.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Winstead, Christy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Testing New Measures of Age Independent Body Size in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

Description: The four elements of the lower hind foot (calcaneus, metatarsal, naviculo-cuboid, and tibia) were tested for use as age-independent proxies of body size in white-tailed deer using known aged specimens from Ft. Hood Texas. Statistical analysis indicates that the calcaneum and the tibia are good proxies of age-independent body size in white-tailed deer. In addition to expanding the list of elements that can be used for studies of age-independent body size, these elements can also be used to age faunal remains to an ordinal scale of juveniles and adults. This is useful for research regarding prehistoric prey populations; as a single element can be used to determine prey body size and age simultaneously, which are the two variables used to assess changes in human subsistence practices via the archaeological remains of their prey.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Densmore, Julie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries