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Uses of Sorghum Grain

Description: This report discusses the uses of sorghum grain for human food and animal feed, including information about nutrition, digestibility, and storage and preparation. Sorghum is grown primarily in the southern Great Plains of the United States.
Date: 1915
Creator: Ball, Carleton R. (Carleton Roy), 1873-1958 & Rothgeb, Benton E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Principles of Horse Feeding

Description: "The bulletin discusses the general principles of feeding, with especial reference to horses, and summarizes the results of recent experimental work, particularly that of American experiment stations." -- p. 2. Discussion includes principles of nutrition, the nutritional value of different foods, methods of feeding, and rationing and feeding standards.
Date: 1903
Creator: Langworthy, C. F. (Charles Ford), 1864-1932
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Successful Hog and Seed-Corn Farm

Description: Report describing a system of management on a successful hog and seed corn farm in Illinois. Topics discussed include shelters, watering devices, types of feed, farm labor, and expect financial results.
Date: 1906
Creator: Spillman, W. J. (William Jasper)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sheeps, Hogs, and Horses in the Pacific Northwest

Description: This bulletin gives a broad overview of the livestock industry in the Pacific Northwest with respect to sheep and hogs; there is also a brief discussion of the horse industry. I. Sheep Husbandry. II. Hog Raising. III. The Horse Industry.
Date: 1900
Creator: French, Hiram T. (Hiram Taylor), b. 1861; Nelson, S. B. (Sofus Bertelsen), 1867-1931 & Withcombe, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Hogs in the South

Description: Report discussing the status of hog raising in the southern United States. Topics discussed include sows, corn feeds, supplements to corn in feeds, and different breeds of swine.
Date: 1910
Creator: Gray, Dan T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Hogs in the South

Description: Report discussing the status of hog raising in the southern United States. Topics discussed include sows, corn feeds, and supplements to corn in feeds.
Date: 1916
Creator: Gray, Dan T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cropping Systems for New England Dairy Farms

Description: "This paper gives the results of three years' study of the cropping systems on a number of the most successful dairy farms in New England. This study point[s] out the elements which go to make a satisfactory cropping system in that section and to make definite recommendations concerning crops to plant and the relative acreage of these crops on dairy farms." -- p. 3
Date: 1908
Creator: Dodge, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

Description: The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota agri-power project. Quarterly report, January--March 1997

Description: This project involves the growing of trial quantities of alfalfa for gasification pilot plant tests and the use of by-products of alfalfa plants as animal feeds for beef and dairy cattle and turkeys. The various tasks under this project are described. Tasks are: design; review and confirm feedstock supply plan; performance guarantees and warranties; sales contracts; site plan construction and environmental permits report; environmental monitoring plan; and project management, engineering, and administration.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Baloun, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alfalfa leaf meal for market and breeder hen turkeys. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: A sample of ALM became available for testing in October, 1996. The sample was in pelleted form and contained 24.2% crude protein and a gross energy content of 4102 kcal/kg (as fed basis). To determine available energy, the true metabolizable energy assay as developed by Sibbald. The T.M.E. system of feed evaluation, A.R.C. No. 83-1, Research Branch, Ottawa, Canada, was used with some modifications as described below. As the ALM was in pellets too large to feed, the ALM pellets were crumbled or finely reground for the test. Young turkeys (6 wks of age, Nicholas females) were placed in individual cages and allowed to acclimate for 5 days. The turkeys weighed 2.4 kg. The turkeys were fasted for 40 hrs and precision fed 36 g of either crumbled (C) or finely (F) reground ALM. Due to the larger volume of the fine ground ALM, a smaller portion was fed and averaged 28 g. The control turkeys received an equivalent amount of glucose. There were 6 replicates for each ALM source and control turkeys. Excreta was collected for 60 hrs after feeding, consistent with recommendations for a longer collection period for fibrous materials. After the collection period ended, the excreta was quantitatively collected and all material was freeze dried. Each sample was allowed to reach equilibrium with atmospheric conditions and then weighed. The excreta was finely ground and analyzed for moisture, protein and gross energy. Samples of the fed ALM were treated in a similar manner. The true metabolizable energy content (nitrogen corrected) of the C and F ALM was 10 12 (SE 50) and 1578 (SE 159) kcal/kg, respectively. Form of ALM significantly affected TME value (P<.01). The difference in TMEn due to form was most likely due to the difference in amount fed. The crumbled form of ALM allowed ...
Date: October 30, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FRMAC Assessment Manual

Description: The ingestion pathway assessment procedures cited in the current version of the ``RMAC Assessment Manual'', DOE/NV/11718-061 (September 1996) have been superseded by new US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. This addendum replaces the obsolete procedures with a revised set based on the new guidance released by the FDA in August 1998. This addendum provides an overview of the new guidance, revised assessment methods, and assessment aids. It does not provide a general method of ingestion pathway analysis. The scope is limited to that covered by the new guidance titled, ``Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies,'' issued by the FDA in August 1998.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Clark, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A. & Smith, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiment Station Work, [Volume] [61]

Description: Bulletin issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture compiling selected articles from the Agricultural Experiment Stations. This bulletin contains articles on: Unusual v. Standard Fertilizers, Symptoms of Disease in Plants, Premature Dropping of Figs, Condimental Feeds, Feeding the Dairy Calf, Defects in Cottage Cheese, and the Iowa Silo.
Date: 1911
Creator: United States. Office of Experiment Stations.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiment Station Work, [Volume] 67

Description: Bulletin issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture compiling selected articles from the Agricultural Experiment Stations. This bulletin contains articles on: Screening Cabbage Seed Beds, Spraying Apple Orchards, New Type of Spray Nozzle, Preparation of Corn for Hogs, Experiments in Beef Production, Preparation of Choice Hams, and Factors Affecting Fat in Cream.
Date: 1912
Creator: United States. Office of Experiment Stations.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report

Description: Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: DeLong, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

Description: Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M. & Systems, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

Description: Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Boyd, G. A.; Sciences, Decision and Information & USEPA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B. & DiCostanzo, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B. & Hall, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what ...
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G. & Jung, H.J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998

Description: The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Wilbur, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department