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Computation of Cantilever Airplane Wings

Description: The purpose of this treatise is, first of all, the determination of the effect of variously loaded spars on one another, since the neglect of this effect would present an economically very unfavorable computation method. The system of spars and cross-bars alone (whether solid or built-up) does not matter at first, the original assumption being that the spars are rigidly braced by the cross-bars.
Date: July 1925
Creator: Thalau, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of Stability and Control Characteristics of Swept Back Wings

Description: Note presenting tests conducted on untapered constant-span wings of 0, 30, 45, and 60 degrees sweepback. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of sweepback on stability and control characteristics. The data showed large changes in longitudinal stability at moderate lift coefficients for the 45 and 60 degree sweptback wings.
Date: April 1946
Creator: Letko, William & Goodman, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Effect of a Retractable Landing Gear

Description: "Tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full scale wind tunnel at the request of the Army Air Corps to determine the effect of retractable landing gear openings in the bottom surface of a wing upon the characteristics of a Lockheed Altair airplane. The tests were extended to include the determination of the lift and drag characteristics throughout the angle-of-attack range with the landing gear both retracted and extended. Covering the wheel openings in the wing with sheet metal when the wheels were extended reduced the drag only 2 percent at a lift coefficient of 1.0, which was assumed for the take-off condition" (p. 1).
Date: March 1933
Creator: DeFrance, Smith J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method for the Rapid Estimation of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Thickness for Calculating Profile Drag

Description: "An analysis is developed that makes it possible to integrate von Kármán's boundary-layer momentum equation directly. For this purpose, the skin friction coefficient is expressed as a function of the Reynolds number based on the boundary-layer momentum thickness and the boundary-layer shape is assumed to be constant. The integrated equation permits the boundary-layer momentum thickness at the airfoil trailing edge to be rapidly determined for the estimation of airfoil profile-drag coefficients" (p .1).
Date: July 1944
Creator: Tetervin, Neal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Flow About a Section of a Finite-Aspect-Ratio NACA 0018 Airfoil on a Transonic Bump

Description: Note presenting pressure distributions on a semispan rectangular wing model with an NACA 0015 airfoil section and a moderate aspect ratio at one spanwise station in tests made on a transonic bump in the 16-foot high-speed wind tunnel. The results indicated that at a fixed angle of attack, a region developed over the airfoil wherein the Mach number at each point remained essentially constant as the free-stream Mach number was increased above the critical.
Date: October 1953
Creator: Mellenthin, Jack A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method for the Calculation of Wave Drag on Supersonic-Edged Wings and Biplanes

Description: "A method is presented for finding the lift, moment, and drag on three-dimensional wings or biplanes with supersonic edges and a straight trailing edge normal to the free stream. The minimum wave drag for fixed lift or volume is given for several special cases. Simple applications of the method may provide some measure of the degree to which more abstract method for finding minima can be relied upon as a measure of optimum real systems" (p. 1).
Date: March 1958
Creator: Lomax, Harvard & Sluder, Loma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lift and Pitching Moment at Supersonic Speeds Due to Constant Vertical Acceleration for Thin Sweptback Tapered Wings With Streamwise Tips: Supersonic Leading and Trailing Edges

Description: Note presenting the nondimensional lift derivative and the corresponding pitching-moment derivative resulting from constant vertical acceleration as evaluated for a family of thin sweptback tapered wings with streamwise tips traveling at supersonic speeds. The analysis is applicable at those speeds for which the wing leading and trailing edges are both supersonic, provided that the Mach lines from the wing apex intersect the trailing edge and that the Mach line from the leading edge of one tip does not intersect the remote half-wing.
Date: July 1954
Creator: Cole, Isabella J. & Margolis, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blockage Corrections for Three-Dimensional-Flow Closed-Throat Wind Tunnels, With Consideration of the Effect of Compressibility

Description: "Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wing-tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject" (p. 771).
Date: 1950
Creator: Herriot, John G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoils 2: Continuation of Report No. 93

Description: "This collection of data on aerofoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made" (p. 423).
Date: 1923~
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch and Sideslip of a 45 Degree Sweptback-Wing Airplane Model With Various Vertical Locations of the Wing and Horizontal Tail: Effect of Wing Location and Geometric Dihedral for the Wing-Body Combination, M = 2.01

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted in the 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the effects of wing vertical location and geometric dihedral on the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch and sideslip of a wing-body configuration at Mach number 2.01. The configurations investigated included a high-wing, midwing, and a low-wing arrangement.
Date: April 6, 1955
Creator: Spearman, M. Leroy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation on the Effect of Raked Wing Tips

Description: This investigation was carried out by request of the United States Air Service in the wind tunnel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The results are here published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as it is thought that they may be of general interest. Wings of the R.A.F. 6 section are tested with various angles of rake, and it is found that although rake has very little effect, a positive or negative rake of 30 degrees is the best.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Static Longitudinal Stability Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of 30 Degree Sweptback Wing in Wing-Body Configuration With and Without Horizontal Tail

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation of the static longitudinal stability characteristics of two wings of different construction and slightly different flexibilities in the 16-foot transonic tunnel. The wings had the same external dimensions but one had a steel construction and the other was made of plastic reinforced by a steel core.
Date: April 22, 1957
Creator: Willis, Conrad M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Variations in the Velocity of the Air Flow About a Wing Profile

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation to determine the variations in the velocity of the air when it was obliged to flow about a wing profile. Special interest was paid to the determination of velocity as compared with that of the undisturbed flow and of the velocity drop in successive planes perpendicular to the flow direction at increasing distances from the wing profile.
Date: July 1930
Creator: Repenthin, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim Report on a Fatigue Investigation of a Full-Scale Transport Aircraft Wing Structure

Description: Note presenting results of an investigation of the fatigue strength of several full-scale aircraft wing structures. The 34 fatigue failures which resulted from the tests were of four main types and occurred in three principal localities on the test wings. Results regarding the definition of fatigue failure, load history of specimens, description of fatigue failures, spread in fatigue life, stress concentration factors, rate of crack growth, and effect of fatigue damage on natural frequency and damping are provided.
Date: April 1953
Creator: McGuigan, M. James, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of a Supersonic Aircraft Configuration Having a Tapered Wing With Circular-Arc Sections and 40 Degree Sweepback: A Pressure-Distribution Study of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Wing at Mach Number 1.59

Description: Memorandum presenting a pressure-distribution investigation of a wing of a complete supersonic aircraft configuration as conducted in the 4- by 4-foot supersonic tunnel at Mach number 1.59 based on the mean aerodynamic chord. The experimental life and drag coefficients were less than those predicted by linear theory. Results regarding section pressure characteristics, section characteristics, spanwise characteristics, and overall wing characteristics are provided.
Date: May 23, 1950
Creator: Cooper, Morton & Spearman, M. Leroy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Theoretical Lift of Flat Swept-Back Wings at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Note presenting an application of the method of superposition of linearized conical flows to the calculatin of the aerodynamic properties of thin, flat, swept-back wings at an angle of attack. Various cases are distinguished, depending on the sweep of the leading and trailing edges relative to their respective Mach lines. The results of the calculations emphasize the indications of the theory that the determining factor in the aerodynamic performance of wings is the disposition of area relative to the Mach lines.
Date: March 1948
Creator: Cohen, Doris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of a Wing With an Auxiliary Upper Part

Description: This report presents experiments in which two parts of the wing were arranged so as to form a biplane, which was subjected to normal three-component measurements, the two parts being placed in various relative positions with respect to the gap a and the stagger b.
Date: June 1927
Creator: Seiferth, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Process of Separation in the Turbulent Friction Layer

Description: "The separation of the flow which occurs at large angles of attack on the suction side of an airplane wing is attributable to phenomena in the flowing fluid layer adjacent to the surface; the fluid particles slowed up by the friction on the surface can no longer advance against an unduly great pressure rise. It is of vital importance that there exist two types of flow - laminar and turbulent - in the fluid layer flowing in the immediate vicinity of a body. According to Prandtl, by whom the whole theory was developed, we speak in the first case of a laminar boundary layer, in the second, of a turbulent friction layer" (p. 1).
Date: February 1933
Creator: Gruschwitz, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Problem of the Slotted Wing: A Communication From the Aerodynamic Institute of the Aachen Technical High School

Description: "It is to be expected that the advantageous properties, hitherto discovered in many slotted wing sections, depend very largely on the contour of the slot and the structural details of the wing. It is therefore of interest, aside from measurements on wings of constant cross-section along the span, to measure also wing models in which the structural details have already been given practical consideration" (p. 1).
Date: June 1922
Creator: Klemperer, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Note on the Air Forces on a Wing Caused by Pitching.

Description: Report containing information on the air forces on a wing produced by its pitching at a finite rate of angular velocity. The condition of smooth flow at the region of the trailing edge is maintained. The wing then experiences the same lift as if moving with the momentary velocity of the rear edge.
Date: March 1925
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remarks on the Elastic Axis of Shell Wings

Description: The definitions of flexural center, torsional center, elastic center, and elastic axis are discussed. The calculation of elastic centers is dealt with in principle and a suggestion is made for the design of shear webs.
Date: April 1936
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ice Formation on Wings

Description: This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.
Date: February 1939
Creator: Ritz, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department