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Analysis of Dr. Schaffran's Propeller Model Tests

Description: Note presenting an analysis of the propeller model tests of Dr. Schaffran. Only the thrust is examined. The results indicate that the thrust produced by three-blade and four-blade propellers follows the same laws as with two-blade propellers, and that all conclusions reached from Dr. Durand's tests can be upheld.
Date: September 1923
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dependence of Propeller Efficiency on Angle of Attack of Propeller Blade

Description: In order to determine the maximum and the most favorable pitch for a propeller, it was found desirable to investigate the dependence of propeller efficiency on the angle of attack of the propeller blade. The results of a few experiments are given to show that propeller blades conduct themselves just like airplane wings with reference to the dependence of their efficiency on their angle of attack.
Date: December 1921
Creator: Borck, Hermann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Source of Propeller Noise

Description: A two blade propeller of 40 cm diameter and zero pitch was explored for its noise development; it could be whirled up to 17,000 rpm - i.e., a tip speed of 355 meters/second. To obtain the power loss N(sub m) of the propeller for comparison with the produced acoustical power N(sub A) the engine performance characteristics were measured with and without propeller. The result is the sought-for relation c, that is, curve c' after correction with the engine efficiency.
Date: May 1937
Creator: Ernsthausen, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified Propeller Design for Low-Powered Airplanes

Description: "The object of this report is to furnish the designer and builder of small airplanes a simple system for designing the propeller and making the drawing. An empirical design method is used, based on tests of model propellers in a wind tunnel and full scale tests of propellers in flight. The actual designing is accomplished by means of charts and involves very little calculation" (p. 1).
Date: January 1925
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The "Universal" Adjustable and Reversible Propeller Built by Paragon Engineers, Inc., Baltimore, MD

Description: "A device which does for the aircraft what change speed gears do for the automobile is the invention of Spencer Heath. It comprises a system of special blades and a mechanism for varying the pitch of the blades from zero to 360 degrees, while in flight or otherwise. By adjusting the pitch, either before starting or while the engine is running, to a less than normal angle, the engine is allowed to pick up speed and deliver its maximum power which is necessary in taking-off with a heavier load than the same airplane could otherwise normally carry" (p. 1).
Date: November 1922
Creator: Bacon, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonance Vibrations of Aircraft Propellers

Description: On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples.
Date: February 1932
Creator: Liebers, Fritz
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Propeller Section Characteristics as Used in Propeller Design

Description: "This report contains artificial aerodynamic characteristics of a set of propeller sections to be used in designing propellers by means of the blade element theory. Characteristics computed from model propeller tests for a single section are extended to cover sections of Navy propeller sections at high Reynolds Number in the variable density tunnel of the NACA" (p. 1).
Date: August 1926
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise From Propellers With Symmetrical Sections at Zero Blade Angle, 2

Description: "In a previous paper (Technical Note No. 605), a theory was developed that required an empirical relation to calculate sound pressures for the higher harmonics. Further investigation indicated that the modified theory agrees with experiment and that the empirical relation was due to an interference phenomenon peculiar to the test arrangement used. Comparison is made between the test results for a two-blade arrangement and the theory" (p. 1).
Date: December 1938
Creator: Deming, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propeller Selection From Aerodynamic Considerations

Description: Report presenting a theoretical analysis of the performance of propellers extending to high values. Charts are presented that facilitate the selection of the most efficient propellers over a wide range of operating conditions.
Date: July 1942
Creator: Crigler, John L. & Talkin, Herbert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Problem of the Propeller in Yaw With Special Reference to Airplane Stability

Description: The quantity of air which the disk area described by propeller blades travels through, is accelerated rearward conformably to the momentum of the forces acting on the propeller. The accelerated air mass forms behind the propeller the so-called slipstream, in which among others, the mean velocity of advance is increased. If the propeller axis slopes toward the relative flight direction, the slipstream direction likewise changes, i.e., it sets up a downwash behind the propeller.
Date: January 1933
Creator: Misztal, Franz
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propeller Design 4: A Simple Method for Determining the Strength of Propellers

Description: "The object of this report, the last of a series of four on propeller design, is to describe a simple method for determining whether the strength of a propeller of a standard form is sufficient for safe operation. An approximate method of stress analysis is also given" (p. 1).
Date: June 1926
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propeller Tests to Determine the Effect of Number of Blades at Two Typical Solidities

Description: "Propellers with equal total blade area, but with different numbers, were tested at Stanford University. The tests show generally that, for equal total blade area, propellers with the larger number of blades absorb the greater power and, provided hubs have equal drag, develop the higher efficiency. It is shown that the differences found are in agreement, qualitatively, with what might be predicted from simple blade-element theory" (p. 1).
Date: April 1939
Creator: Lesley, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-Scale-Tunnel Investigation of a Multiengine Pusher-Propeller Installation

Description: Report presenting an investigation of propellers designed specifically for pusher operation behind fixed contravanes on a large-scale model of a four-engine airplane. In the test, the wing trailing edge was twisted to serve as a contravane and to produce the rotating inflow required for optimum propulsive efficiency. Results indicated that gains in efficiency of about 3.5 percent at a blade angle of 40 degrees can be obtained by the use of contravanes with specifically designed pusher propellers.
Date: November 1942
Creator: Wilson, Herbert A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Stresses and Deformations of Aircraft Propellers

Description: A method is described for testing the strength of propellers of any shape. It is shown that the shape of the propeller greatly affects the stresses, and that great caution must be exercised if the relieving effect of the centrifugal force, which exists in every propeller with a straight blade axis, is to be increased by curving the blade axis. In a numerical example, the calculation is made for a certain revolution speed at which the actual distortion is then measured. The results of the calculation agree satisfactorily with the experimental results.
Date: May 1932
Creator: Seewald, Friedrich
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full Scale Tests on a Thin Metal Propeller at Various Tip Speeds

Description: "This report describes an investigation made in order to determine the effect of tip speed on the characteristics of a thin-bladed metal propeller. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane with a 180-HP E-2 engine, and tested in the 20-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It was found that the effect of tip speed on the propulsive efficiency was negligible within the range of the tests, which was from 600 to 1,000 feet per second (about 0.5 to 0.9 the velocity of sound in air)" (p. 465).
Date: June 20, 1928
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments With Intubed Propellers

Description: This report describes the results of experiments with a new method of propulsion involving propellers operating in conjunction with a Venturi tube forming the only fuselage of the "turbine wing.".
Date: 1932
Creator: Stipa, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Driven Propellers (Or "Windmills")

Description: Wind-driven propellers are much used as sources of power for equipment such as radios. This report establishes the principles involved and acquaints the reader with rules for design of such windmills.
Date: April 1923
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Thrust Distribution and Efficiency of Air Propellers

Description: I am now proposing a method for the preliminary approximate calculation of the thrust distribution and efficiency of air propellers under any operating conditions. Our task becomes the following, namely, to determine the speed relations and the forces developed on a section with a given direction and velocity of the air current, a problem which can be solved with the aid of the momentum theory.
Date: December 1927
Creator: Bienen, Theodor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comparison of Propeller and Centrifugal Fans for Circulating the Air in a Wind Tunnel

Description: The tests described in this paper afford a direct comparison of the efficiency and smoothness of flow obtained with propeller fan and multiblade centrifugal fan drives in the same wind tunnel. The propeller fan was found to be superior to the centrifugal fan in that the efficiency was about twice as great, and the flow much smoother.
Date: March 1928
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of a Contra-Propeller for Aircraft

Description: "Tests of an 8-blade contra-propeller of 32-inch diameter in combination with a 4-inch, 36-inch diameter adjustable pitch, metal propeller at pitch setting of 15, 25, 35, and 45 degrees at 0.75 R were made. The tests showed a significant increase in effective thrust of the combination over that of the propeller alone for value V/nD somewhat below those for maximum efficiency and without a corresponding increase of power absorbed. From 1/2 percent to 2-1/2 percent in propulsive efficiency was thus gained in this range" (p. 1).
Date: November 1938
Creator: Benson, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micarta Propellers 4: Technical Methods of Design

Description: A description is given of the methods used in design of Micarta propellers. The most direct method for working out the design of a Micarta propeller is to start with the diameter and blade angles of a wooden propeller suited for a particular installation and then to apply one of the plan forms suitable for Micarta propellers. This allows one to obtain the corresponding blade widths and to then use these angles and blade widths for an aerodynamic analysis.
Date: September 1924
Creator: Caldwell, F. W. & Clay, N. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department