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General Airplane Performance

Description: "Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit" (p. 241).
Date: June 1, 1937
Creator: Rockfeller, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Logarithmic Polar Curve - Its Theory and Application to the Predetermination of Airplane Performance

Description: "The logarithmic polar curve has for several years been used by the most prominent aerodynamical laboratories as well as by airplane manufacturers in Europe. To show more clearly the practical application of the polar curve, a series of examples are given with suggestions for solution. After a discussion of the theory and the practical application of the polar curve, the following problems are discussed: climbing flight, speed at various altitudes, and the characteristics of two seater observation airplanes of recent design" (p. 1).
Date: October 1924
Creator: Cronstedt, Val
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Weight and Drag on the Sinking Speed and Lift/Drag Ratio of Gliders

Description: The most important factors in evaluating performance of gliders are minimum sinking speed and minimum gliding angle. To assure their optimum value the energy necessary for flight, that is, the energy of lift and friction must be kept very low, or in other words, weight and total drag which have a decisive effect on the sinking speed and on the gliding angle, must be kept to a minimum. How great the effect of a reduction of these two quantities will be shown in the following.
Date: December 1934
Creator: Kosin, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of Airplane Performances Without the Aid of Polar Diagrams

Description: For good profiles the profile-drag coefficient is almost constant in the whole range which comes into consideration for practical flight. This is manifest in the consideration of the Gottingen airfoil tests and is confirmed by the investigations of the writer (measurements of the profile drag during flight by the Betz method), concerning which a detailed report will soon be published. The following deductions proceed from this fact. The formulas developed on the assumptions of a constant profile-drag coefficient afford an extensive insight into the influences exerted on flight performances by the structure of the airplane.
Date: March 1928
Creator: Schrenk, Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the Availability and Performance Problems of High Octane Number Fuels

Description: Memorandum presenting a study to determine the possible blending agents or additives that may be used to supplement current high performance number, rich rating components in future aviation fuels. The study indicated that such high rich rating blending agents as toluene and xylene cannot be made available in sufficient quantities to maintain the rich rating performance of the fuels when reducing the lead content from 4.6 to 3.0 ml per gallon.
Date: April 15, 1949
Creator: NACA Committee on Aircraft Fuels
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and Ranges of Application of Various Types of Aircraft-Propulsion System

Description: Note presenting a discussion of the performance characteristics of the compound engine, the turbine-propeller engine, the turbojet engine, the turbo ramjet engine, the ramjet engine, and the rocket engine. Insight is provided into the proper position of each of these engine types in the speed-range spectrum of aircraft operation. It is shown that the compound engine, which has the greatest weight per unit thrust and also the lowest specific fuel consumption, gives the longest range.
Date: August 1947
Creator: Cleveland Laboratory Staff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Characteristics of a Normal-Shock Side Inlet Located Downstream of a Canard Control Surface at Mach Numbers of 1.5 and 1.8

Description: The performance characteristics of a downward canted normal-shock side (scoop) inlet located downstream of a triangular control surface are presented for free-stream Mach numbers of 1.5 and 1.8 in terms of total pressure recovery and mass flow ratio for various boundary-layer removal systems, angles of attack, control surface deflections and adverse yaw. An engine operating condition for a hypothetical turbojet engine is established, and the match point characteristics of the engine-inlet configuration are summarized. It is shown that the diffuser performance increases with increased boundary-layer removal and decreases because of the presence of the wake from the forward control surface.
Date: July 29, 1952
Creator: Dryer, Murray & Beke, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Aircraft Heaters 21: Measured and Predicted Performance of a Flattened-Tube Type Crossflow Exhaust Gas and Air Heat Exchanger

Description: Report presenting data on the thermal performance and the static pressure drop characteristics of a flattened-tube type crossflow exhaust gas and air heat exchanger. The measured thermal outputs and static pressure drops are compared with predicted magnitudes.
Date: April 1945
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Guibert, A. G.; Rademacher, J. M.; Romie, F. E.; Sanders, V. D. & Sloggy, L. J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Formulas and Charts for the Calculation of Airplane Performance

Description: This report presents general formulas for the determination of all major airplane performance characteristics. A rigorous analysis is used, making no assumption regarding the attitude of the airplane at which maximum rate of climb occurs, but finding the attitude at which the excess thrust horsepower is maximum. Equations and charts are developed which show the variation of performance due to a change in any of the customary design parameters.
Date: 1932
Creator: Oswald, W. Bailey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Comparative Performance of Roots Type Aircraft Engine Superchargers as Affected by Change in Impeller Speed and Displacement

Description: "This report presents the results of tests made on three sizes of roots type aircraft engine superchargers. The impeller contours and diameters of these machines were the same, but the length were 11, 8 1/4, and 4 inches, giving displacements of 0.509, 0.382, and 0.185 cubic foot per impeller revolution. The information obtained serves as a basis for the examination of the individual effects of impeller speed and displacement on performance and of the comparative performance when speed and displacement are altered simultaneously to meet definite service requirements" (p. 3).
Date: December 23, 1927
Creator: Ware, Marsden & Wilson, Ernest E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Choice of Wing Sections for Airplanes

Description: "The subject of the choice of an airfoil section is by no means a closed one, and despite the impossibility of making a single rule serve, it is quite practicable to deduce in a strictly rational manner a series of rules and formulas which are capable of being of the greatest use if we but confine ourselves to the consideration of one element of performance at a time. There are seven such elements of performance which are here taken up in turn. The seven are of different relative importance in different types of airplanes. The seven elements are: maximum speed regardless of minimum; maximum speed for given minimum; maximum speed range ratio; maximum rate of climb; maximum absolute ceiling; maximum distance non-stop; and maximum duration non-stop" (p. 1-2).
Date: November 1921
Creator: Warner, Edward P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trend of Airplane Flight Characteristics

Description: This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.
Date: December 1933
Creator: Von Köppen, Joachim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors affecting flow distortions produced by supersonic inlets

Description: Report presenting the typical effects of flow distortions on turbojet-engine performance and how flow distortions can be reduced by reducing the distortion entering the inlet diffuser and by improving the amount of mixing that generally occurs in the subsonic diffuser. Sources of distortion in the supersonic inlet are described and steps are suggested that might be taken to reduce their effects.
Date: February 29, 1956
Creator: Piercy, Thomas G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a full-scale supersonic-type three-blade propeller at Mach numbers to 0.96

Description: From Summary: "An investigation of the characteristics of a full-scale supersonic-type propeller has been made in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel with the 6000-horsepower propeller dynamometer. The tests covered a range of blade angles from 20.2 degrees to 60.2 degrees at forward Mach numbers up to 0.96. The results showed that envelope efficiency at an advance ratio of 2.8 decreased from 86 percent to 72 percent when the forward Mach number was increased from 0.70 to 0.96."
Date: May 18, 1953
Creator: Evans, Albert J. & Liner, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of inadvertent speed increases in transport operation

Description: From Summary: "Some factors relating to inadvertent speed and Mach number increases in transport operation are discussed with the object of indicating the manner in which they might vary with different qualities of the airplane and the minimum margins required to guard against reaching unsafe values. The speed increments and the margins required under several assumed conditions are investigated. The results indicate that, on a percentage basis, smaller margins should be required of high-speed airplanes than of low-speed airplanes to prevent overspeeding in inadvertent maneuvers."
Date: November 16, 1951
Creator: Pearson, Henry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple formula for estimating airplane ceilings

Description: From Summary: "The aeronautical engineer often has occasion to estimate the absolute ceiling of an airplane for which a detailed performance calculation is out of the question. In such cases it is customary to use either empirical performance charts or formulae. The performance charts given in several of the recent works on aeronautics are satisfactory so long as the airplane under consideration does not depart too far from the average in its characteristics. The formulae, with one exception, are no better. Given here is that exception, with indications of which terms of the formula may be neglected without seriously affecting the results, thus simplifying the task."
Date: June 1922
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gust-load and airspeed data from one type of two-engine airplane on six civil airline routes from 1947 to 1955

Description: Report presenting an analysis of approximately 70,000 hours of V-G data from one type of two-engine transport airplane to determine the severity and frequency of occurrence of the gust loads and gusts. The data were obtained during routine feeder-line and short-haul commercial operations in six different routes over the course of eight years. Results regarding the distribution of acceleration, gust velocity, and airspeed, confidence bends, and acceleration and gust velocity envelopes are provided.
Date: February 1956
Creator: Walker, Walter G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charts for graphical estimation of airplane performance

Description: This report contains a series of charts which were developed in order to simplify the estimation of airplane performance. Charts are given for estimating propeller diameter and efficiency, maximum speed, initial rate of climb, absolute ceiling, service ceiling, climb in 10 minutes, time to climb to any altitude, maximum speed at any altitude, and endurance. A majority of these charts are based on the equations given in NACA Technical Report no. 173. Plots of pressure and density against altitude in standard air are also given for convenience. It must be understood that the charts giving propeller diameter, maximum speed, initial rate of climb, absolute ceiling, and speeds at altitudes are approximations subject to considerable error under certain conditions. These particular charts should not be used as a substitute for detailed calculations when accuracy is required, as, for example, in military proposals. (author).
Date: January 1925
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of flight path inclination on airplane velocity

Description: This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply a systematic study of the relations between the flight velocity V and its horizontal component V subscript H, in power glides. Curves of V and V subscript H plotted against the inclination of the flight path 0 are given, together with curves which show the maximum values of V subscript H and the corresponding values of 0. Curves are also given showing the effect of small departures from the horizontal in high speed performance testing.
Date: January 1927
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of observed airplane performance to standard conditions

Description: This report shows how the actual performance of an airplane varies with air temperature when the pressure is held constant. This leads to comparatively simple methods of reducing observed data to standard conditions. The new methods which may be considered exact for all practical purposes, have been used by the Navy Department for about a year, with very satisfactory results. The report also contains a brief historical review of the important papers which have been published on the subject of performance reduction, and traces the development of the standard atmosphere. (author).
Date: January 1929
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new chart for estimating the absolute ceiling of an airplane

Description: This report is concerned with the derivation of a chart for estimating the absolute ceiling of an airplane. This chart may be used in conjunction with the usual curves of power required and power available as an accurate substitute for extended calculation, or it may be used in the estimation of absolute ceiling when power curves are not available.
Date: July 1930
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliable formulae for estimating airplane performance and the effects of changes in weight, wing area, or power

Description: This report contains the derivation and the verification of formulae for predicting the speed range ratio, the initial rate of climb, and the absolute ceiling of an airplane. Curves used in the computation are given in NACA-TR-171. Standard formulae for service ceiling, time of climb, cruising range, and endurance are also given in the conventional forms.
Date: January 1924
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance evaluation of reduced-chord rotor blading as applied to J73 two-stage turbine 1: over-all performance with standard rotor blading at inlet conditions of 35 inches of mercury absolute and 700 degrees R

Description: Report presenting an investigation conducted to determine the overall performance of the J73 two-stage turbine with a standard rotor-blade configuration. The turbine operated with a maximum brake internal efficiency between 0.91 and 0.92 at an overall pressure ratio of about 3.4 and 120 percent equivalent design rotor speed. Results regarding the overall performance, variation of equivalent weight flow with overall pressure ratio, and effect of limiting blade loading are provided.
Date: July 11, 1957
Creator: Berkey, William E.; Rebeske, John J., Jr. & Forrette, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ideal temperature rise due to constant-pressure combustion of a JP-4 fuel

Description: The ideal temperature rise due to the constant-pressure combustion of a methylene (CH sub 2) fuel was calculated. CH sub 2 fuel closely approximates MIL-F-5624 grade JP-4 fuel presently used in most turbojet and ram-jet engines. Charts are presented from which the ideal temperature rise or the ideal quantity of fuel required to obtain a specified combustion temperature may be obtained for any flight condition likely to be encountered with turbojet or ram-jet engines using this fuel. The charts are applicable only to a fuel having a hydrogen-carbon mass ratio of 0.168.
Date: September 27, 1955
Creator: Huntley, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department