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Flight Measurements to Determine Effect of a Spring-Loaded Tab on Longitudinal Stability of an Airplane

Description: In conjunction with a program of research on the general problem of stability of airplanes in the climbing condition, tests have been made of a spring-loaded tb which. is referred to as a ?springy tab,? installed on the elevator of a low-wing scout bomber. The tab was arranged to deflect upward with decrease in speed which caused an increase in the pull force required to trim at low speeds and thereby increased the stick-free static longitudinal stability of the airplane. It was found that the springy tab would increase the stick-free stability in all flight conditions, would reduce the danger of inadvertent stalling because of the definite pull force required to stall the airplane with power on, would reduce the effect of center-of-gravity position on stick-free static stability, and would have little effect on the elevator stick forces in accelerated f11ght. Another advantage of the springy tab is that it might be used to provide almost any desired variation of elevator stick force with speed by adjusting the tab hinge-moment characteristics and the variation of spring moment with tab deflection. Unlike the bungee and the bobweight, the springy tab would provide stick-free static stability without requiring a pull force to hold the stick back while taxying. A device similar to the springy tab may be used on the rudder or ailerons to eliminate undesirable trim-force variations with speed.
Date: February 1, 1946
Creator: Hunter, Paul A. & Reeder, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Porous Gas-Heated Leading-Edge Section for Icing Protection of a Delta Wing

Description: A tip section of a delta wing having an NACA 0004-65 airfoil section and a 600 leading-edge sweepback was equipped with a porous leading-edge section through which hot gas was 'bled for anti-icing. Heating rates for anti-icing were determined for a wide range of icing conditions. The effects of gas flow through the porous leading-edge section on airfoil pressure distribution and drag in dry air were investigated. The drag increase caused by an ice formation on the unheated airfoil was measured for several icing conditions. Experimental porous surface- to free-stream convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained in dry air and compared with theory. Adequate icing protection was obtained at all icing conditions investigated. Savings in total gas-flow rate up to 42 percent may be obtained with no loss in anti-icing effectiveness by sealing half the upper-surface porous area. Gas flow through the leading-edge section had no appreciable effect on airfoil pressure distribution. The airfoil section drag increased slightly (5-percent average) with gas flow through the porous surface. A heavy glaze-ice formation produced after 10 minutes of icing caused an increase in section drag coefficient of 240 percent. Experimental convective heat-transfer coefficients obtained with hot-gas flow through the porous area in dry air and turbulent flow were 20 to 30 percent lower than the theoretical values for a solid surface under similar conditions. The transition region from laminar to turbulent flow moved forward as the ratio of gas velocity through the porous surface to air-stream velocity was increased.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Bowden, Dean T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA Conference on Aircraft Structures

Description: This document contains reproductions of technical papers on some of the most recent research results on aircraft structures from the NACA Laboratories. These papers were presented by members of the staff of the NACA Laboratories at the NACA conference held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory March 7, 1951. The purpose of this conference was to convey to those involved in the study of aircraft structures these recent research results and to provide those attending an opportunity for discussion of these results. The papers in this document are in the same form in which they were presented at the conference so that distribution of them might be prompt. The original presentation and this record are considered as complimentary to, rather than as substitute for, the Committee?s system of complete and formal reports.
Date: March 7, 1951
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lateral-Stability Flight Test of a 0.125-Scale Rocket-Propelled Model of the Mcdonnell F-101A Airplane at Mach Numbers from 1.0 to 1.9

Description: A rocket-propelled model of the McDonnell F-101A airplane was tested in free flight for its lateral stability characteristics. The 0.125~scale model was equipped with six pulse rockets to produce the lateral disturbances. The center of gravity was located at 17.3 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The method of analysis was based on lateral-force and moment vector diagrams which trigonometrically solved for the resultants. The slope of the side-force curve C(Ybeta), varied little with speed, but remained at, a value of about -1.0. The dihedral effect was adequate. The model was statically stable but dynamically neutral. The roll damping was nearly constant through the speed range and agreed with-some theoretical values.
Date: April 17, 1956
Creator: Hollinger, James A & Coltrane, Lucille C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Compressibility on the Pressure and Forces Acting on a Modified NACA 65,3-019 Airfoil Having a 0.20-Chord Flap

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley rectangular high-speed tunnel to determine the effect of compressibility on the pressure distribution for a modified NACA 65,3-019 airfoil having a 0.20-chord flap. The investigation was made for an angle-of-attack range extending from -2 to 12 deg at .20 flap deflections from 0 to -12 deg. Test data were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.28 to approximately 0.74. The results show that the effectiveness of the trailing-edge-type control surface rapidly decreased and approached zero as the Mach number increased above the critical value.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Lindsey, W F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Notes on the Determination of the Stick-Free Neutral Point from Wind-Tunnel Data

Description: Two graphical methods are presented for determining the stick-free neutral point, and they are extensions of the methods commonly used to determine the stick-free neutral point. A mathematical formula for computing the stick-free neutral point is also given. These methods may be applied to determine approximately the increase in tail size necessary to shift the neutral point (stick fixed or free) to any desired location on an airplane having inadequate longitudinal stability.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Schuldenfrei, Marvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results Obtained from Flight Test of a 1/7-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Grumman XF10F Airplane Configuration in the Swept-Wing Condition, TED No. NACA DE 354

Description: A flight investigation of a 1/7-scale rocket-powered model of the XF10F Grumman XFl0F airplane in the swept-wing configuration has been made. The purpose of this test was to determine the static longitudinal stability, damping in pitch, and longitudinal control effectiveness of the airplane with the center of gravity at 20 percent of the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Only a small amount of data was obtained from the test because, immediately after booster separation at a Mach number of 0.88, the configuration was directionally unstable and diverged in sideslip. Simultaneous with the sideslip divergence, the model became longitudinally unstable at 3 degree angle of attack and -6 degree sideslip and diverged in pitch to a high angle of attack. During the pitch-up the free-floating horizontal tail became unstable at 5 degree angle of attack and the tail drifted against its positive deflection limit.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Gardner, William N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rocket-Model Investigation of the Longitudinal Stability, Drag, and Duct Performance Characteristics of the North American MX-770 (X-10) Missile at Mach Numbers from 0.80 to 1.70

Description: A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.
Date: September 16, 1953
Creator: Bond, Aleck C. & Swanson, Andrew G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of a Flight Investigation of 1/6-Scale Rocket-Powered Models of the Bell MX-776 to Determine Aileron Rolling Effectiveness and Total Drag

Description: An experimental investigation of the variation of aileron rolling effectiveness and total drag with Mach number has been made using 1/6-scale rocket-propelled models of the Bell MX-776. Three models having constant-chordwise-thickness full-span aileron at approximate deflections of 2 deg, 5 deg, and 15 deg have been flown. Positive control effectiveness over the Mach number range between approximately 0.5 and 1.2 was obtained from the models and no indication of reversal of effectiveness was encountered. The ratio of tip helix angle to aileron deflection indicated a decrease in proportional rolling effectiveness with increasing deflections in the Mach number range from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. A drag rise of about 125 percent in the transonic region between Mach numbers of 0.85 and 1.02 followed by a gradual decrease at higher speeds was revealed.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Stevens, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigations on a Changed Mustang Profile with Nose Flap Force and Pressure-Distribution Measurements

Description: Measurements are described which were taken in the large wind tunnel of the AVA on a rectangular wing "Mustang 2" with nose flap of a chord of 10 percent. Besides force measurements the results of pressure-distribution measurements are given and compared with those on the same profile "without" nose flap.
Date: September 1, 1947
Creator: Krueger, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Installation of Jet Engine Nacelles on a Wing Fourth Partial Report: Pressure-Distribution Measurements on a Sweptback Wing with Jet Engine Nacelle

Description: The present report, which deals with pressure-distribution measurements made on a sweptback wing with a jet engine nacelle, is similar to a report on pressure-distribution measurements on a rectangular wing with a jet engine nacelle (second partial report). Here, in investigations preliminary to high-speed measurements, as in the second partial report, useful arrangements and fillet designs have been discovered.
Date: July 1, 1949
Creator: Buschner, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Flight-Tunnel Investigation of the Dynamic Stability and Control Characteristics of a Chance Vought F7U-3 Airplane in Towed Flight

Description: As part of a program to determine the feasibility of using a fighter airplane as a parasite in combination with a Consolidated Vultee RB-36 for long-range reconnaissance missions (project FICON), an experimental investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/17.5-scale model of a Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane in several tow configurations. The investigation consisted of flight tests in which the model was towed from a strut in the tunnel by a towline and by a direct coupling which provided complete angular freedom. The tests with the direct coupling also included a study of the effect of spring restraint in roll in order to simulate approximately the proposed full-scale arrangement in which the only freedom is that permitted by the flexibility of the launching and retrieving trapeze carried by the-bomber. For the tow configurations in which a towline was used (15 and 38 feet full scale), the model had a very unstable lateral oscillation which could not be controlled. The stability was also unsatisfactory for the tow configuration in Which the model was coupled directly to the strut with complete angular freedom. When spring restraint in roll was added, however, the stability was satisfactory. The use of the yaw damper which increased the damping in yaw to about six times the normal value of the model appeared to have no appreciable effect on the lateral oscillations in the towline configurations, but produced a slight improvement in the case of the direct coupling configurations. The longitudinal stability was satisfactory for those cases in which the lateral stability was good enough to permit study of longitudinal motions.
Date: January 1, 1952
Creator: Grana, David C. & Shanks, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lift, Drag, Static Stability, and Buffet Boundaries of a Model of the McDonnell F3H-1N Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.40 to 1.27, TED No. NACA DE 351

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted a flight test of a model approximating the McDonnell F3H-lN airplane configuration to determine its pitch-up and buffet boundaries, as well as the usual longitudinal stability derivatives obtainable from the pulsed- tail technique. The test was conducted by the freely flying rocket- boosted model technique developed at the Langley Laboratory; results were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.27 at corresponding Reynolds numbers of 2.6 x 10(exp 6) and 9.0 x 10(exp 6). The phenomena of pitch-up, buffet, and maximum lift were encountered at Mach numbers between 0.42 and 0.85. The lift-curve slope and wing-root bending-moment slope increased with increasing angle of attack, whereas the static stability decreased with angle of attack at subsonic speeds and increased at transonic speeds. There was little change in trim at low lift at transonic speeds.
Date: January 31, 1956
Creator: Crabill, Norman L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Full-Scale Model of the Hughes MX-904 Missile

Description: A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the stability and control characteristics of a full-size model of the Hughes MX-904 missile. Aerodynamic characteristics of the complete model through moderate ranges of angles of attack and yaw, with an additional test made through an angle of attack of 180 degrees, are presented. The effects of horizontal tail deflection are also included.
Date: January 1, 1950
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The High-Speed Longitudinal Stability and Control of the Bell P-39N-1 Airplane as Calculated from Propeller-Off Tests of a 0.35-Scale Model

Description: This report presents the result of tests of a 0.35-scale model of the Bell P-39N-l airplane. Included are the longitudinal-stability and - control characteristics of the airplane as indicated by tests of the model equipped with each of two different sets of elevators. The results indicate good longitudinal stability and control throughout the speed range encounterable in flight. The variation of estimated stick force with speed was less when the model was equipped with elevators constructed to the theoretical design dimensions than when equipped with elevators as built to scale from measurements of the corresponding-parts of the actual airplane. The predicted stick forces required to produce the normal accelerations attainable in flight are within the limits specified by the Army Air Forces.
Date: January 29, 1947
Creator: Robinson, Robert C. & Perone, Angelo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of Structural Weight of Wing Along the Span

Description: In the present report the true weight distribution law of the wing structure along the span is investigated. It is shown that the triangular distribution and that based on the proportionality to the chords do not correspond to the actual weight distribution, On the basis of extensive data on wings of the CAHI type airplane formulas are obtained from which it is possible to determine the true diagram of the structural weight distribution along the span from a knowledge of only the geometrical dimensions of the wing. At the end of the paper data are presented showing how the structural weight is distributed between the straight center portion and the tapered portion as a function of their areas.
Date: August 1, 1946
Creator: Savelyev, V. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Horizontal Motion of a Wing Near the Ground

Description: By the method of images the horizontal steady motion of a wing at small heights above the ground was investigated in the wind tunnel, A rectangular wing with Clark Y-H profile was tested with and without flaps. The distance from the trailing edge of the wing to the ground was varied within the limits 0.75 less than or = s/c less than or = 0.25. Measurements were made of the lift, the drag, the pitching moment, and the pressure distribution at one section. For a wing without flaps and one with flaps a considereble decrease in the lift force and a,drop in the drag was obtained at angles of attack below stalling. The flow separation near the ground occurs at smaller angles of attack than is the case for a great height above the ground. At horizontal steady flight for practical values of the height above the ground the maximum lift coefficient for the wing without flaps changes little, but markedly decreases for the wing with flaps. Analysis of these phenomena involves the investigation of the pressure distribution. The pressure distribution curves showed that the changes occurring near the ground are not equivalent to a change in the angle of attack. At the lower surface of the section a very strong increase in the pressures is observed. The pressure changes on the upper surface at angles of attack below stalling are insignificant and lead mainly to an increase in the unfavorable pressure gradient, resulting in the earlier occurrence of separation. For a wing with flaps at large angles of attack for distances from the trailing edge of the flap to the ground less than 0.5 chord, the flow between the wing end the ground is retarded so greatly that the pressure coefficient at the lower surface of the section is ...
Date: September 1, 1946
Creator: Serebrisky, Y. M. & Biachuev, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Longitudinal and Lateral Stability, Control Characteristics, and Vertical-Tail-Load Measurements for 0.03-Scale Model of the Avro CF-105 Airplane at Mach Number 1.41

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 1.41 to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an 0.03-scale model of the Avro CF-105 airplane. The investigation included the determination of the static longitudinal and lateral stability, the control and the hinge-moment characteristics of the elevator, the aileron, and the rudder, as well as the vertical-tail-load characteristics. The results indicated a minimum drag coefficient of about 0.0270, and a maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio of about 4.25 which occurs at a lift coefficient of 0.16. The directional stability decreased with increasing angle of attack until a region of static instability occurred above an angle of attack of about 9 deg.
Date: August 20, 1956
Creator: Spearman, M. Leroy; Robinson, Ross B. & Driver, Cornelius
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Static Stability and Drag Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Avco Booster Vehicle at Mach Numbers of 1.60 and 2.00, Coord. No. AF-AM-58

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind tunnel to determine the static stability and drag characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of the AVCO booster vehicle. The tests were made at a constant Reynolds number, based on maximum nose diameter, of 1.09 x 10(exp 6)6 at Mach numbers of 1.60 and 2.00.
Date: May 10, 1957
Creator: Church, James D. & Sista, Lawrence M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic Investigation of Release Characteristics of a Streamlined Internal Store from a Simulated Bomb Bay of the Republic F-105 Airplane at Mach Numbers of 0.8, 1.4, and 1.98, Coord. No. AF-222

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the 27- by 27-inch preflight jet of the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va., of the release characteristics of a dynamically scaled streamlined-type internally carried store from a simulated bomb bay at Mach numbers M(sub o) of 0.8, 1.4, and 1.98. A l/17-scale model of the Republic F-105 half-fuselage and bomb-bay configuration was used with a streamlined store shape of a fineness ratio of 6.00. Simulated altitudes were 3,400 feet at M(sub o) = 0.8, 3,400, and 29,000 feet at M(sub o) = 1.4, and 29,000 feet at M(sub o) = 1.98. At supersonic speeds, high pitching moments are induced on the store in the vicinity of the bomb bay at high dynamic pressures. Successful ejections could not be made with the original configuration at supersonic speeds at near sea-level conditions. The pitching moments caused by unsymmetrical pressures on the store in a disturbed flow field were overcome by replacing the high-aspect-ratio fin with a low-aspect-ratio fin that had a 30-percent area increase which was less subject to aeroelastic effects. Release characteristics of the store were improved by orienting the fins so that they were in a more uniform flow field at the point of store release. The store pitching moments were shown to be reduced by increasing the simulated altitude. Favorable ejections were made at subsonic speeds at near sea-level conditions.
Date: January 1, 1956
Creator: Lee, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department