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Investigation of ignition characteristics of AN-F-32 and two AN-F-58a fuels in single can-type turbojet combustor

Description: Ignition characteristics of AN-F-32 and two AN-F-58a fuels were studied in a single can-type turbojet combustor under air-flow conditions representing engine speeds of 1600, 2500, and 4000 rpm, altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, ambient temperatures at sea level from 90 degrees to minus 36 degrees F, and flight Mach numbers of 0 and 0.6. Critical fuel-flow rates for ignition increased with increase in preignition engine speed, with increase in altitude, or with decrease in sea-level ambient temperature. This flow rate appears to increase in a direct relation to decrease in fuel volatility as indicated by the 10-percent-evaporated temperature.
Date: October 13, 1950
Creator: Rayle, Warren D. & Douglass, Howard W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of five short multielement turbojet combustors for hydrogen fuel in quarter-annulus duct

Description: Report presenting an investigation of five short multielement turbojet combustors designed for use with hydrogen fuel tested in a quarter-annulus duct. One combustor had an array of U-gutter flame-holders, while the other four were manifold arrays of swirl-can combustor elements. Results regarding combustion efficiency, temperature profiles, pressure loss, durability, comparison with previous short combustors, and operation with propane fuel are provided.
Date: July 22, 1958
Creator: Jones, Robert E. & Rayle, Warren D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of experimental turbojet-engine combustor I: performance of a one-eighth segment of an experimental turbojet-engine combustor

Description: Report presenting an investigation of a one-eighth segment of an annular combustor suitable for use as a component of an experimental turbojet engine. Due to the small space available for the combustor, a special design involving a minimum of obstructions in the combustion chamber was created. Results regarding the temperature-rise efficiency, total-pressure loss, and exhaust-gas temperature variation for several simulated engine operating conditions are provided.
Date: April 21, 1948
Creator: Hill, Francis U. & Mark, Herman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of pentaborane in a 1/4-sector of an experimental annular combustor

Description: Report presenting an evaluation of a 1/4-sector of an annular combustor designed for use with pentaborane fuel at a simulated altitude condition. Results regarding the pentaborane performance, combustor development, and the JP-5 fuel performance are provided.
Date: May 22, 1957
Creator: Kaufman, Warner B.; Lezberg, Erwin A. & Breitwieser, Roland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion of gaseous hydrogen at low pressures in a 35 degree sector of a 28-inch-diameter ramjet combustor

Description: Report presenting testing of gaseous hydrogen fuel burned in a connected-pipe combustor with a cross section equal to 35 degrees sector of a 28-inch diameter. Eleven shrouded fuel-injector configurations were used to obtain combustion data at specified high-altitude ramjet combustor conditions. Results regarding shroud air blockage, mixing tabs, higher equivalence-ratio burning, injector size, flameholder durability, burner length, combustion efficiency, and temperature profile are provided.
Date: April 22, 1958
Creator: Kerslake, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion efficiency performance of a MIL-F-5624 type fuel and monomethylnapthalene in a single vaporizing combustor

Description: Report presenting an investigation conducted with a conventional turbojet fuel, MIL-F-5624 (JP-3), and a low-volatility, high-density hydrocarbon, monomethylnaphthalene, in a vaporizing-type combustor to determine the combustion efficiency for variations in inlet-air conditions and fuel flow and to what extent fuel vaporization would minimize differences in combustion efficiency between the two fuels. Results regarding the performance of the combustor, correlation parameter, pressure-drop characteristics, and other miscellaneous observations are provided.
Date: February 14, 1952
Creator: Jones, Anthony W. & Cook, William P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blow-out velocities of various petroleum, slurry, and hydride fuels in a 1 7/8-inch diameter combustor

Description: Report presenting testing using a 1 7/8-inch inside-diameter combustor that can measure and compare the blow-out velocities of single-component fuels, slurries, and fuel mixtures with a wide range of reactivity and physical properties. The blow-out velocities of isooctane, n-heptane, isopentane, allyl chloride, and propylene oxide varied int he same way as flame speeds of the fuels. Results regarding the effects of different additives are also provided.
Date: April 19, 1954
Creator: Cook, Preston N., Jr.; Lord, Albert M. & Kaye, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of fuel nozzle protrusion on transient and steady-state turbojet combustor performance

Description: Report presenting the effect of small variations in the axial position of the liner with respect to the nozzle on limiting rates of change of fuel flow and steady-state combustion efficiencies in a single tubular combustor. Data were obtained with two liner configurations at three combustor-inlet conditions. Results regarding transient combustion performance and steady-state combustion performance are provided.
Date: February 23, 1955
Creator: McCafferty, Richard J. & Donlon, Richard H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of mechanically induced sinusoidal air-foil oscillations on operation of a ram-jet engine

Description: Report presenting an experimental investigation in a 16-inch ram-jet engine to examine the degree to which inlet flow pulsations influence the combustion efficiency and lean blow-out limit of a ram-jet combustor.
Date: June 16, 1954
Creator: Dangle, E. E.; Cervenka, A. J. & Perchonok, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion-efficiency investigation of special fuels in single tubular-type combustor at simulated altitude conditions

Description: Report presenting a combustion-efficiency investigation of 10 special straight-run distillate fuels in an individual tubular-type combustor unit of a 14-unit assembly at two simulated engine operating conditions. These distillates were obtained from various crude oils and consisted of hydrocarbon mixtures with distillations temperature varying from 93 to 690 degrees Fahrenheit. Comparison of temperature measurements obtained from two locations in the exhaust duct showed that under certain operating conditions the flame extended beyond the turbine position.
Date: August 15, 1947
Creator: Dittrich, Ralph T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discharge coefficients for combustor-liner air-entry holes 2: flush rectangular holes, step louvers, and scoops

Description: Experimental discharge coefficients for various types of combustor-liner air-entry holes are presented as a function of a dimensionless flow parameter. In general, scoops and step louvers have higher discharge coefficients and wider flow ranges than flush holes. The effects of size or shape of a given type of hole are small. The proximity of multiple flush holes or the wall inclination of a convergent duct has a negligible effect on discharge coefficient.
Date: April 1958
Creator: Dittrich, Ralph T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of fuel-nozzle carbon deposition on combustion efficiency of single tubular-type, reverse-flow turbojet combustor at simulated altitude conditions

Description: Report presenting an investigation to study the effects of changes in fuel-nozzle carbon deposition on the combustion efficiency of a single tubular-type, reverse-flow, turbojet combustor. The investigation was conducted because of the need to improve the reproducibility of combustion data for fuel-research purposes.
Date: June 1948
Creator: Dittrich, Ralph T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of pure fuels in a single J33 combustor 1: five liquid hydrocarbon fuels

Description: Report presenting an investigation of several pure hydrocarbon fuels in a single tubular-type combustor in order to determine possible relations between combustor performance and fuel properties. The combustor temperature rise, combustion efficiency, and blow-out limits were determined with five liquid hydrocarbon fuels of high purity over a range of heat input and air-flow rates and at two inlet-air-temperature conditions. Performance parameters were selected to compare with the physical and fundamental combustion properties of the fuel.
Date: November 21, 1952
Creator: Wear, Jerrold D. & Dittrich, Ralph T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a 28-inch ramjet utilizing gaseous hydrogen at a Mach number of 3.6, angles of attack up to 12 degree, and pressure altitudes up to 110,000 feet

Description: Report presenting an investigation in the 10- by 10-foot supersonic wind tunnel to evaluate the performance of a shrouded injector burner with perforated domes employed in a 28-inch ramjet using gaseous hydrogen as fuel. Steady-state data were obtained at a pressure altitude of 77,000 feet and zero angle of attack. Results indicated that burning could be initiated under severe distortion conditions and that satisfactory combustor operation was accomplished up to a pressure altitude of 110,000 feet with no adverse effect on combustion efficiency.
Date: May 19, 1958
Creator: Musial, Norman T.; Ward, James J. & Wasserbauer, Joseph F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: August 5, 1957
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W. & Graves, Charles C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

Description: From Summary: "The combustion performance, and particularly the phenomenon of altitude operational limits, was studied by operating the annular combustor of a turbojet engine over a range of conditions of air flow, inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and fuel flow. Information was obtained on the combustion efficiencies, the effect on combustion of inlet variables, the altitude operational limits with two different fuels, the pressure losses in the combustor, the temperature and velocity profiles at the combustor outlet, the extent of afterburning, the fuel-injection characteristics, and the condition of the combustor basket."
Date: March 21, 1947
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; McCafferty, Richard J. & Surine, Oakley W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of altitude ignition, acceleration, and steady-state operation with a single combustor of a J47 turbojet engine

Description: From Summary :"An investigation was conducted with a single combustor from a J47 turbojet engine using weathered aviation gasoline and several spark-plug modifications to determine altitude ignition, acceleration, and steady state operating characteristics. Satisfactory ignition was obtained with two modifications of the original opposite-polarity spark plug up to and including an altitude of 40,003 feet at conditions simulating equilibrium windmilling of the engine at a flight speed of 400 miles per hour. At a simulated altitude of 30,000 feet, satisfactory ignition was obtained over a range of simulated engine speeds."
Date: September 22, 1950
Creator: Cook, William P. & Butze, Helmut F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of fuel properties on carbon deposition in atomizing and prevaporizing turbojet combustors

Description: Report presenting investigations of the effects of fuel properties on combustion-chamber carbon deposition in singe tubular fuel-atomizing and fuel-prevaporizing combustors. The NACA K factor and the smoking tendency were approximately equally effective in relating carbon-deposition data from the prevaporizing and atomizing combustors. Results regarding the K factor, smoking tendency, effect of prevaporizing combustor operating conditions, sulfur, gum, and olefin, are provided.
Date: June 6, 1952
Creator: Wear, Jerrold D. & Cook, William P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid-fuel-distribution and fuel-state effects on combustion performance of a single tubular combustor

Description: Report presenting an investigation to study the effects of liquid-fuel distribution on combustion performance of a single turbojet-engine combustor operating with liquid MIL-F 5624 fuel. Results regarding altitude limits and combustion efficiencies, liquid-fuel distribution, fuel state, and miscellaneous observations are provided.
Date: May 1, 1951
Creator: McCafferty, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A balanced diaphragm type of maximum cylinder pressure indicator

Description: A balanced diaphragm type of maximum cylinder pressure indicator was designed to give results consistent with engine operating conditions. The apparatus consists of a pressure element, a source of controlled high pressure and a neon lamp circuit. The pressure element, which is very compact, permits location of the diaphragm within 1/8 inch of the combustion chamber walls without water cooling. The neon lamp circuit used for indicating contact between the diaphragm and support facilitates the use of the apparatus with multicylinder engines.
Date: December 1930
Creator: Spanogle, J. A. & Collins, John H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of three low-temperature-ratio combustor configurations in a 48-inch-diameter ram-jet engine

Description: "A preliminary evaluation was made of three types of combustor configurations in a 48-inch-diameter ram-jet engine to determine the one with the greatest promise of ultimately achieving efficient and stable combustion at low fuel-air rations and low combustor-inlet pressure. The combustor configurations evaluated include (1) a can-piloted configuration using a gutter-type flame holder with can-type pilot burners for stability, (2) an annular-piloted configuration using a gutter-type flame holder with an annular pilot burner to provide stability and to serve as a flow divider for confined fuel-air mixing, and (3) a can-type configuration using a flow divider for confined fuel-air mixing. No modifications were made to optimize the performance of any configuration" (p. 1).
Date: March 10, 1954
Creator: Meyer, Carl L. & Welna, Henry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of liner air-entry holes, fuel state, and combustor size on performance of an annular turbojet combustor at low pressures and high air-flow rates

Description: Report presenting the development of an annular combustor by utilizing the design principles evolved in previous investigations and by making 12 design changes to optimize the altitude performance of the combustor. Three types of fuels were used and the combustion efficiency, pressure losses, and outlet temperature profiles were evaluated.
Date: January 13, 1953
Creator: Norgren, Carl T. & Childs, J. Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of fuel injectors and liner design on performance of an annular turbojet combustor with vapor fuel

Description: Report presenting a direct-connect duct investigation conducted with a one-quarter segment of a 25.5-inch-diameter annular combustor that had been developed for liquid fuel injection. The combustor was modified by changing the fuel injectors and liner design for vapor fuel injection. Results regarding accuracy and reproducibility, combustion efficiency, combustor-outlet temperature profiles, and pressure losses are provided.
Date: April 6, 1953
Creator: Norgren, Carl T. & Childs, J. Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance at simulated high altitudes of a prevaporizing annular turbojet combustor having low pressure loss

Description: An annular prevaporizing turbojet combustor having pressure losses lower than those obtained in current turbojet combustors was developed, Pressure losses of 2 to 4 percent, satisfactory temperature profiles, and combustion efficiencies of 98, 88, and 81 percent were obtained at 56,000, 70,000, and 80,000 feet respectively, for a simulated 5.2- pressure-ratio engine at rated speed and 0.6 flight Mach number with JP-4 fuel. Use of JP-5 fuel resulted in a small penalty in efficiency due, at least in part, to insufficient prevaporizer capacity.
Date: December 6, 1956
Creator: Norgren, Carl T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department