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The Porpoising Characteristics of a Planing Surface Representing the Forebody of a Flying-Boat Hull

Description: Porpoising characteristics were observed on V-body fitted with tail surfaces for different combinations of load, speed, moment of inertia, location of pivot, elevator setting, and tail area. A critical trim was found which was unaltered by elevator setting or tail area. Critical trim was lowered by moving pivot either forward or down or increasing radius or gyration. Increase in mass and moment of inertia increased amplitude of oscillations. Complete results are tabulated and shown graphically.
Date: May 1, 1942
Creator: Benson, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Hydrofoils in the NACA Tank I : Effect of Dihedral and Depth of Submersion

Description: Tests were conducted on hydrofoil assemblies approximating an arrangement for use under seaplanes or surface boats. A series of hydrofoils, each supported by two struts, was towed at various depths ranging from partial submersions to a depth of 5-chord lengths. At depths greater than 4 or 5 chords, the influence of the surface of the water is small; hydrofoils operating at low speed will have characteristics similar to those of airfoils of the same section.
Date: September 1, 1942
Creator: Land, Norman S. & Benson, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation of Boundary-Layer and Profile-Drag Characteristics of Smooth Wing Sections of a P-47D Airplane

Description: In Mach range of 0.25 - 0.69, boundary-layer measurements were made on upper wing surface at 25% semi-span, pressure-distribution measurements made on upper surface at 63% semi-span, and wake surveys made at 63% semi-span. The minimum profile-drag coefficient of 0.0062 was indicated for smooth section at 63% semi-span. Critical mach number was exceeded by 0.04, but no compressibility shocks appeared. In slipstream, boundary layer transition occurred as far back as 20% chord on upper surface at low lift coefficients.
Date: October 1, 1945
Creator: Zalovcik, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning and Recovery Characteristics of a 1/18-Scale Model of the Ryan X-13 Airplane as Determined from Tests in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel

Description: An investigation is being conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a l/18 scale model of the Ryan X-13 airplane to determine its spin and recovery characteristics. The spin and recovery characteristics determined to date are presented in this report.
Date: July 27, 1955
Creator: Bowman, James S., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning Characteristics of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman F11F-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA AD 395

Description: An investigation is being conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman F11F-1 airplane to determine spin and recovery characteristics and the minimum-size parachute required to satisfactorily terminate the spin in an emergency. Results obtained to date are presented herein. Test results indicate that it may be difficult to obtain an erect or inverted spin on the airplane, but, if a spin is obtained, the spin will be very oscillatory and recovery from the developed erect spin by rudder reversal may not be possible. The lateral controls will have no appreciable effect on recoveries from erect.spins. Recovery from the inverted spin by merely neutralizing the rudder will be satisfactory. After recoveries by rudder reversal and after recoveries from spins without control movement (no spins), the model oftentimes rolled very rapidly about the X-axis. Based on limited preliminary tests made in this investigation to make the model recover satisfactorily, it appears that canards near the nose of the airplane or differentially operated horizontal tails may be utilized to provide rapid recoveries. The parachute test results indicate that an 11-foot-diameter (laid-out-flat) parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.650 (based on the laid- out-flat diameter) and with a towline length equal to the wing span is the minimum-size parachute required to satisfactorily terminate an erect or inverted spin in an emergency.
Date: July 13, 1955
Creator: Bowman, James S., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a 4000-Pound-Thrust Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine, Part 1, Performance and Windmilling Drag Characteristics

Description: The results of altitude-wind-tunnel tests conducted to determine the performance of an axial-flow-type 4000.pound-thrust turboJet engine for a range of pressure altitudes from 5000 to 40,000 feet and ram pressure ratios from 1.02 to 1.86 are presented and the experimental and analytical methods employed are discussed. By means of suitable generalizing factors applied to the measured performance data, curves were obtained from which the engine performance at any altitude for a given ram pressure ratio can be estimated. The data presented include the windmilling drag characteristics of the turbojet engine for the ranges of altitudes and ram pressure ratios covered by the performance data.
Date: August 3, 1948
Creator: Fleming, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculations of the Dynamic Stress of Several Airplane Wings in Various Gusts

Description: A series of calculations of the dynamic response of airplane wings to gusts were made with the purpose of showing the relative response of a reference airplane, the DC-3 airplane, and of newer types of airplanes represented by the DC-4, DC-6, and L-49 airplanes. Additional calculations were made for the DC-6 airplane to show the effects of speed and altitude. On the basis of the method of calculation used and the conditions selected for analysis, it is indicated that: 1) The newer airplanes show appreciably greater dynamic stress in gusts then does the reference airplane; 2) Increasing the forward speed or the operating altitude results in an increase of the dynamic stress ratio for the gust with a gradient distance of 10 chords.
Date: July 12, 1948
Creator: Pierce, Harold B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Theoretical Investigation of the Dynamic Lateral Stability Characteristics of the MX-838 (XB-51) Airplane

Description: At the request of the Air Material Command, U. S. Air Force, a theoretical study has been made of the dynamic lateral stability characteristics of the MX-838 (XB-51) airplane. The calculations included the determination of the neutral-oscillatory-stability boundary (R = 0), the period and time to damp to one-half amplitude of the lateral oscillation, end the time to damp to one-half amplitude for the spiral mode. Factors varied in the investigation were lift coefficient, wing incidence, wing loading, and altitude. The results of the investigation showed that the lateral oscillation of the airplane is unstable below a lift coefficient of 1.2 with flaps . deflected 40deg but is stable over the entire speed range with flaps deflected 20deg or 0deg. The results showed that satisfactory oscillatory stability can probably be obtained for all lift coefficients with the proper variation of flap deflection and wing incidence with airspeed. Reducing the positive wing incidence improved the oscillatory stability characteristics. The airplane is spirally unstable for most conditions but the instability is mild and the Air Force requirements are easily met.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Paulson, Jon W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

Description: In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.
Date: August 1, 1944
Creator: Liebe, Wolfgang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maintaining Laminar Flow in the Boundary Layer using a Swept-Back Wing

Description: The positions of boundary-layer transition were ascertained experimentally for a swept-back wing and a wing without sweepback which were alike in all other respects and were compared for the same angle of attack (R(sub e) = 5.6 x 10(exp 5)). The swept-back wing in a definite range of angle of attack resulted in a backward shift of the transition point on the suction side of the wing. The favorable effect of sweepback on the position of the transition point is confirmed, consequently. In addition to decreasing the drag at high Mach numbers, the swept-back wing is acknowledged to have additional advantages. These are: (1) Decrease of the pressure drag. The reduction factor is approximately equal to the cosine of the angle of sweepback. (2) Backward shift of the transition point. There are no known experiments which establish experimentally the advantage anticipated. It appeared justifiable, therefore, to carry out some fundamental experiments which might furnish some idea of the magnitude of the advantage expected. Such an experiment is reported in what follows; the advantage of the sweepback appears clearly.
Date: February 1, 1948
Creator: Brennecke
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental Aerodynamic Investigations for Development of Arrow-Stabilized Projectiles

Description: The numerous patent applications on arrow-stabilized projectiles indicate that the idea of projectiles without spin is not new, but has appeared in various proposals throughout the last decades. As far as projectiles for subsonic speeds are concerned, suitable shapes have been developed for sometime, for example, numerous grenades. Most of the patent applications, though, are not practicable particularly for projectiles with supersonic speed. This is because the inventor usually does not have any knowledge of aerodynamic flow around the projectile nor any particular understanding of the practical solution. The lack of wind tunnels for the development of projectiles made it necessary to use firing tests for development. These are obviously extremely tedious or expensive and lead almost always to failures. The often expressed opinion that arrow-stabilized projectiles cannot fly supersonically can be traced to this condition. That this is not the case has been shown for the first time by Roechling on long projectiles with foldable fins. Since no aerodynamic investigations were made for the development of these projectiles, only tedious series of firing tests with systematic variation of the fins could lead to satisfactory results. These particular projectiles though have a disadvantage which lies in the nature cf foldable fins. They occasionally do not open uniformly in flight, thus causing unsymmetry in flow and greater scatter. The junctions of fins and body are very bad aerodynamically and increase the drag. It must be possible to develop high-performance arrow-stabilized projectiles based on the aerodynamic research conducted during the last few years at Peenemuende and new construction ideas. Thus the final shape, ready for operational use, could be developed in the wind tunnel without loss of expensive time in firing tests. The principle of arrow-stabilized performance has been applied to a large number of caliburs which were stabilized by various means ...
Date: December 1, 1947
Creator: Kurzweg, Hermann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approximate Method for Calculation of the Laminar Boundary Layer with Suction for Bodies of Arbitrary Shape

Description: Various ways were tried recently to decrease the friction drag of a body in a flow; they all employ influencing the boundary layer. One of them consists in keeping the boundary layer Laminar by suction; promising tests have been carried out. Since for large Reynolds numbers the friction drag of the laminar boundary layer is much lower than that of the turbulent boundary layer, a considerable saving in drag results from keeping the boundary layer laminar, even with the blower power required for suction taken into account. The boundary layer is kept laminar by suction in two ways: first, by reduction of the thickness of the boundary layer and second, by the fact that the suction changes the form of the velocity distribution so that it becomes more stable, in a manner similar to the change by a pressure drop. There by the critical Reynolds number of the boundary layer (USigma*/V) (sub crit) becomes considerably higher than for the case without suction. This latter circumstance takes full effect only if continuous suction is applied which one might visualize realized through a porous wall. Thus the suction quantities required for keeping the boundary layer laminar become so small that the suction must be regarded as a very promising auxiliary means for drag reduction.
Date: March 1, 1949
Creator: Schlichting, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Compressible Flow Past Various Plane Profiles Near Sonic Velocity

Description: In an earlier report UM No.1117 by Gothert,the single-source method was applied to the compressible flow around circles, ellipses, lunes, and around an elongated body of revolution at different Mach numbers and the results compared as far as possible with the calculations by Lamla ad Busemann. Essentially, it was found that with favorable source arrangement the single-source method is in good agreement with the calculations of the same degree of approximation by.Lamla and Busemann. Near sonic velocity the number of steps must be increased considerably in order to sufficiently approximate the adiabatic curve. After exceeding a certain Mach number where local supersonic fields occur already, it was no longer possible, in spite of the substantially increased number of steps, to obtain a systematic solution because the calculation diverged. This result,was interpreted to mean that above this point of divergence the symmetrical type of flow ceases to exist and changes into the unsymmetrical type characterized by compressibility shocks.
Date: January 13, 1949
Creator: Goethert, B. & Kawalki, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jet Diffusion in Proximity of a Wall

Description: When auxiliary jet engines are installed on airframes; as well as in some new designs, the jet engines are mounted in such a way that the jet stream exhausts in close proximity to the fuselage. This report deals with the behavior of the jet in close proximity to a two-dimensional surface. The experiments were made to find out whether the axially symmetric stream tends to approach the flat surface. This report is the last of a series of four partial test reports of the Goettingen program for the installation of jet engines, dated October 12, 1943. This report is the complement of the report on intake in close proximity to a wall.
Date: May 1, 1949
Creator: Kuechemann, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow Pattern in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle

Description: The present report describes a new method for the prediction of the flow pattern of a gas in the two-dimensional and axially symmetrical case. It is assumed that the expansion of the gas is adiabatic and the flow stationary. The several assumptions necessary of the nozzle shape effect, in general, no essential limitation on the conventional nozzles. The method is applicable throughout the entire speed range; the velocity of sound itself plays no singular part. The principal weight is placed on the treatment of the flow near the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle. For slender nozzles formulas are derived for the calculation of the velocity components as function of the location.
Date: March 1, 1949
Creator: Oswatitsch, K. & Rothstein, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman AF-2S, -2W Airplane

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman AF-2S, -2W airplane was conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of controls on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics for a range of possible loadings of the.airplane were determined. The effect of a revised-tail installation (small dual fins added to the stabilizer of the original tail and the vertical-tail height of the original tail increased) and the effect of various ventral-fin and antispin-fillet installations were determined. The investigation also included spin-recovery parachute tests.
Date: March 12, 1950
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Wilson, Jack H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 3/4-Scale Model of the EX-3 Pine-Cone-Head Pellet in the Langley High-Speed 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel

Description: An investigation of the Ex-3 pine-cone-head pellet was made in the Langley high-speed 7-by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the static force and moment characteristics at high Mach numbers with the reference center of gravity located at 37.5 percent of the over-all length aft of the nose. For this center-of-gravity location there were no secondary trim positions, and the center-of-pressure position was not appreciably affected by Mach number.
Date: August 4, 1948
Creator: Campbell, George S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Determination of the Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of a 0.133-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 Airplane without Propellers at Mach Numbers from 0.73 to 1.19, TED No. NACA DE 369

Description: A flight test has been conducted to determine the longitudinal stability and control,characteristics of a 0.133-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 airplane without propellers for the Mach number range between 0.73 and 1.19.
Date: February 3, 1954
Creator: Hastings, Earl E., Jr. & Mitcham, Grady L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane with Wing-Tip Tanks Installed

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane with wing-tip tanks installed has been conducted-in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements on the erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model for a range of possible loadings of the tip tanks were determined. Spin and recovery characteristics without tanks were determined in a previous investigation. The model results indicated that the airplane spins will generally be oscillatory and that recoveries will be satisfactory for all loadings by normal recovery technique (full rudder reversal followed approximately one-half turn later by moving the elevator down). The rudder force necessary for recovery should be within the physical capability of the pilot but the elevator force may be excessive so that some type of balance or booster might be necessary, or it might be necessary to jettison the wing-tip tanks.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Berman, Theodore & Wilson, Jack H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Tests in the Supersonic Sphere

Description: This report presents preliminary data obtained in the Langley supersonic sphere. The supersonic sphere is essentially a whirling mechanism enclosed in a steel shell which can be filled with either air or Freon gas. The test models for two-dimensional study are of propeller form having the same plan form and diameter but varying only in the airfoil shape and thickness ratio. Torque coefficients for the 16-006, 65-110, and the 15 percent thick ellipse models are presented, as well as pressure distributions on a circular-arc supersonic airfoil section having a maximum thickness of 10 percent chord at the 1/3-chord position. Torque coefficients were measured in both Freon and air on the 15 percent thick ellipse, and the data obtained in air and Freon are found to be in close agreement. The torque coefficients for the three previously mentioned models showed large differences in magnitude at tip Mach numbers above 1, the model with the thickest airfoil section having the largest torque coefficient. Pressure distribution on the previously mentioned circular-arc airfoil section are presented at Mach numbers of 0.69, 1.26, and 1.42. At Mach numbers of 1.26 and 1.42 the test section is in the mixed flow region where both subsonic and supersonic speeds occur on the airfoil. No adequate theory has been developed for this condition of mixed flow, but the experimental data have been compared with values of pressure based on Ackeret's theory. The experimental data obtained at a Mach number of 1.26 on the rear portion of the airfoil section agree fairly well with the values calculated by Ackeret's theory. At a Mach number of 1.42 a larger percentage of the airfoil is in supersonic flow, and the experimental data for the entire airfoil agree fairly well with the values obtained using Ackeret's theory.
Date: January 20, 1947
Creator: Baker, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Test Results of Rocket-Propelled Buffet-Research Models Having 45 Degree Sweptback Wings and 45 Degree Sweptback Tails Located in the Wing Chord Plane

Description: Three rocket-propelled buffet-research models have been flight tested to determine the buffeting characteristics of a swept-wing- airplane configuration with the horizontal tail operating near the wing wake. The models consisted of parabolic bodies having 45deg sweptback wings of aspect ratio 3.56, at aspect ratio of 0.3, NACA 64A007 airfoil sections, and tail surfaces of geometry and section identical to the wings. Two tests were conducted with the horizontal tail located in the wing chord plane with fixed incidence angles of -1.5deg on one model and 0deg on the other model. The third test was conducted with no horizontal tail. Results of these tests are presented as incremental accelerations in the body due to buffeting, trim angles of attack, trim normal- and side-force coefficients, wing-tip helix angles, static-directional-stability derivatives , and drag coefficients plotted against Mach number. These data indicate that mild low-lift buffeting was experienced by all models over a range of Mach number from approximately 0.7 to 1.4. It is further indicated that this buffeting was probably induced by wing-body interference and was amplified at transonic speeds by the horizontal tail operating in the wing wake. A longitudinal trim change was encountered by the tail-on models at transonic speeds, but no large changes in side force and no wing dropping were indicated.
Date: November 4, 1953
Creator: Mason, Homer P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of Various Tail Modifications on the Brewster XSBA-1 Airplane II : Measurements of Flying Qualities with Tail Configuration Number Two

Description: Several tail modifications of the Brewster XSBA-1 scout-bomber were investigated and results compared. Modifications consisted of variation of the chord of the elevator and rudder while the total area of the surfaces is kept constant and variations of the total area of the vertical tail surface. Configuration number 2 reduced trim changes by 50 percent and reduced average elevator control force gradient from 30 to 27 pounds/g. Stick travel required to stall in maneuver was 4.6 inches.
Date: December 1, 1943
Creator: Phillips, W. H. & Crane, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Report on Three-and Six-Component Measurements on a Series of Tapered Wings of Small Aspect Ratio (Partial Report: Elliptic Wing)

Description: The report UM No. 1023/1 which presented the results of measurements for a series of trapezoidal wings was the beginning of a series on wings with aspect ratio 1 to 3 and various contours. In report No. 1023/1 the aspect ratio (Lambda = 4/3) remained the same; the tapering was modified. The present report gives the results of the series of elliptic wings. Here the aspect ratio varies from 1 to 2 with the sweepback. The contour is formed by elliptic arcs. The influence of sweepback and contour upon the neutral point is shown.
Date: June 1, 1947
Creator: Lange & Wacke
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department