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A Flight Evaluation and Analysis of the Effect of Icing Conditions on the ZPG-2 Airship

Description: A series of test flights was conducted by the U. S. Navy over a 3- year period to evaluate the effects of icing on the operation of the ZPG-2 airship. In supercooled. clouds, ice formed only on the forward edges of small protuberances and wires and presented no serious hazard to operation. Ice accretions of the glaze type which occurred in conditions described as freezing drizzle adversely affected various components to a somewhat greater extent. The results indicated, a need for protection of certain components such as antennas, propellers, and certain parts of the control system. The tests showed that icing of the large surface of the envelope occurred only in freezing rain or drizzle. Because of the infrequent occurrence of these conditions, the potential maximum severity could not be estimated from the test results. The increases in heaviness caused by icing in freezing rain and drizzle were substantial, but well within the operational capabilities of the airship. In order to estimate the potential operational significance of icing in freezing rain, theoretical calculations were used to estimate: (1) the rate of icing as a function of temperature and rainfall intensity, (2) the climatological probability of occurrence of various combinations of these variables, and (3) the significance of the warming influence of the ocean in alleviating freezing-rain conditions. The results of these calculations suggest that, although very heavy icing rates are possible in combinations of low temperature and high rainfall rate, the occurrence of such conditions is very infrequent in coastal areas and virtually impossible 200 or 300 miles offshore.
Date: April 1, 1958
Creator: Lewis, Willilam & Perkins, Porter J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

Description: An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.
Date: July 24, 1953
Creator: Lewis, James P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Inlet Control Parameters for an External-Internal-Compression Inlet from Mach 2.1 to 3.0

Description: Investigation of the control parameters of an external-internal compression inlet indicates that the cowl-lip shock provides a signal to position the spike and to start the inlet over a Mach number range from 2.1 to 3.0. Use of a single fixed probe position to control the spike over the range of conditions resulted in a 3.7-count loss in total-pressure recovery at Mach 3.0 and 0 deg angle of attack. Three separate shock-sensing-probe positions were required to set the spike for peak recovery from Mach 2.1 to 3.0 and angles of attack from 0 deg to 6 deg. When the inlet was unstarted, an erroneous signal was obtained from the normal-shock control through most of the starting cycle that prevented the inlet from starting. Therefore, it was necessary to over-ride the normal-shock control signal and not allow the control to position the terminal shock until the spike was positioned.
Date: September 23, 1958
Creator: Anderson, B. H. & Bowditch, D. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Report on Laminar-Flow Airfoils and New Methods Adopted for Airfoil and Boundary-Layer Investigations

Description: Recent developments in airfoil-testing methods and fundamental air-flow investigations, as applied to airfoils, are discussed. Preliminary test results, obtained under conditions relatively free from stream turbulence and other disturbances, are presented. Suitable airfoils and airfoil-design principles were developed to take advantage of the unusually extensive laminar boundary layers that may be maintained under the improved testing conditions. The results are of interest mainly in range of below 6,000,000.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Performance of Republic F-105 Wing-Root Inlet Configurations at Various Angles of Attack and a Mach Number of 2.01

Description: A 1/13-scale model of the forebody of the Republic F-105 with twin-duct wing-root inlets was tested in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel through a range of angle of attack from -4 deg to 15 deg at a Mach number of 2.01 and a Reynolds number of approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The tests were made with four configurations which incorporated varying amounts of sweep and stagger of the inlet leading edges, modifications to the areas of the boundary-layer diverter floor plate, and modifications to the area of the boundary-layer diverter bleed slots. The highest overall pressure recovery at an angle of attack of 0 deg (average total-pressure recovery, 0.84 mass-flow ratio, 0.98) was achieved with configuration having an inlet leading-edge sweep angle of 58 deg with no leading-edge stagger. Stagger was found to improve the angle-of- attack performance, but at a sacrifice in inlet efficiency for an angle of attack of 0 deg. The boundary-layer diverter floor height, of the order of one boundary-layer thickness, was satisfactory for bypassing the fuselage boundary layer. The boundary-layer diverter-plate bleed slots were effective in increasing the total-pressure recovery of the inlet. The total-pressure-recovery contour plots, taken at the compressor-face station, indicate the existence of high-velocity "cores" throughout the inlet operating range.
Date: January 15, 1957
Creator: Kouyoumjian, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Longitudinal Stability of Flying Boats as Determined by Tests of Models in the NACA Tank II : Effect of Variations in Form of Hull on Longitudinal Stability

Description: Data taken from tests at constant speed to establish trim limits of stability, tests at accelerated speeds to determine stable limits of center of gravity shift, and tests at decelerated speeds to obtain landing characteristics of several model hull forms were used to establish hull design effect on longitudinal stability of porpoising. Results show a reduction of dead rise angle as being the only investigated factor reducing low trim limit. Various methods of reducing afterbody interference increased upper trim limit.
Date: November 1, 1942
Creator: Olson, Roland E. & Truscott, Starr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of the Lateral Control Characteristics of an F6F-3 Airplane Equipped with Spring-Tab Ailerons

Description: Tests were made to determine whether spring-tab ailerons tended to oscillate or flutter in speed ranges up to 400 mph. Flight tests showed spring-tab ailerons had desirable light stick forces and no tendency to overbalance. No flutter tendencies were indicated up to 400 mph, and any oscillations following abrupt control deflections were heavily damped. Recommendations were made for modifications to increase aileron effectiveness at low speeds without affecting lateral control at high speeds by increasing available deflection and modifying spring-tab arrangement.
Date: April 1, 1945
Creator: Williams, Walter C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of Various Tail Modifications on the Brewster XSBA-1 Airplane II : Measurements of Flying Qualities with Tail Configuration Number Two

Description: Several tail modifications of the Brewster XSBA-1 scout-bomber were investigated and results compared. Modifications consisted of variation of the chord of the elevator and rudder while the total area of the surfaces is kept constant and variations of the total area of the vertical tail surface. Configuration number 2 reduced trim changes by 50 percent and reduced average elevator control force gradient from 30 to 27 pounds/g. Stick travel required to stall in maneuver was 4.6 inches.
Date: December 1, 1943
Creator: Phillips, W. H. & Crane, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Compressibility on Pressure Distribution over an Airfoil with a Slotted Frise Aileron

Description: Pressure distribution measurements were made over an airfoil with slotted Frise aileron up to 0.76 Mach at various angles of attack and aileron defections. Section characteristics were determined from these pressure data. Results indicated loss of aileron rolling power for deflections ranging from -12 Degrees to -19 Degrees. High stick forces for non-differential deflections incurred at high speed, which were due to overbalancing tendency of up-moving aileron, may precipitate serious control difficulties. Detailed results are presented graphically.
Date: July 1, 1944
Creator: Luoma, Avro A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

Description: An empirical relation has been obtained by which the change in drag coefficient caused by ice formations on an unswept NACA 65AO04 airfoil section can be determined from the following icing and operating conditions: icing time, airspeed, air total temperature, liquid-water content, cloud droplet impingement efficiencies, airfoil chord length, and angles of attack. The correlation was obtained by use of measured ice heights and ice angles. These measurements were obtained from a variety of ice formations, which were carefully photographed, cross-sectioned, and weighed. Ice weights increased at a constant rate with icing time in a rime icing condition and at progressively increasing rates in glaze icing conditions. Initial rates of ice collection agreed reasonably well with values predicted from droplet impingement data. Experimental droplet impingement rates obtained on this airfoil section agreed with previous theoretical calculations for angles of attack of 40 or less. Disagreement at higher angles of attack was attributed to flow separation from the upper surface of the experimental airfoil model.
Date: February 1, 1958
Creator: Gray, Vernon H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag measurements at low lift of a four- nacelle airplane configuration having a longitudinal distribution of cross-sectional area conductive to low transonic drag rise

Description: Drag measurements at low lift of four-nacelle aircraft configuration with longitudinal distribution of cross-sectional area conducive to low transonic drag rise.
Date: November 18, 1953
Creator: Hall, J. R.; Hopko, R. N. & Piland, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Forces and Moments on a Large Ogive-Cylinder Store at Various Locations Below the Fuselage Center Line of a Swept-Wing Bomber Configuration at a Mach Number of 1.61

Description: A supersonic wind-tunnel investigation on store interference has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 1.61. Forces and moments were measured on a large ogive-cylinder store in the presence of a 45 deg swept-wing-fuselage bomber configuration for a number of store locations below the fuselage center line. Results of the investigation show that large variations of store lift, drag, and pitch occur with changes in store or airplane angle of attack, store vertical location, and store horizontal location. The variation of the store forces and moments with respect to the chordwise location of the wing plan form indicates that the wing is a large factor in producing the interference loads on the store. Comparison of data for underfuselage and underwing store locations at an angle of attack of 0 deg showed maximum store drag interferences of similar magnitudes, but showed considerably smaller maximum interference on store lift an pitching moments for underfuselage store locations.
Date: January 14, 1957
Creator: Morris, O. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Zero-Lift Wave-Drag Results for Various Wing-Body-Tail Combinations at Mach Numbers up to 1.9

Description: Comparisons are made of experimental and theoretical zero-lift wave drag for several nose shapes, wing-body combinations, and models of current airplanes at Mach numbers up to 1.0. The experimental data were obtained from tests in the Ames 6- by6-foot supersonic wind tunnel and at the NACA Wallops Island facility. The theoretical drag was found by use of linear theory utilizing model area distributions. The agreement between theoretical and experimental zero-lift wave-drag coefficients was generally very good, especially for a fuselage or for fuselage-wing combinations that were vertically symmetrical. For other models that had rapid changes in body shape and/or were not vertically symmetrical, the agreement of theory with experiment ranged from fair to poor, depending on the severity of the change in shape.
Date: March 27, 1957
Creator: Petersen, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

Description: The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Munk, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

Description: This report describes the new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airship, which was used in the investigation of the navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose. It presents the general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned, and an attempt has been made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics without reference to some of the modern highly developed conceptions, which may not yet be thoroughly known to readers uninitiated into modern aerodynamics, and which may, perhaps, for all time remain restricted to a small number of specialists.
Date: 1924
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Completed Tabulation in the United States of Tests of 24 Airfoils at High Mach Numbers (Derived from Interrupted Work at Guidonia, Italy in the 1.31- by 1.74-Foot High-Speed Tunnel)

Description: Two-dimensional data were obtained in Mach range of from 0.40 to 0.94 and Reynolds Number range of (3.4 - 4.2) X 10 Degrees. Results indicate that thickness ratio is dominating shape parameter at high Mach numbers and that aerodynamic advantages are attainable by using thinnest possible sections. Effects of jet boundaries, Reynolds Number, and Data presented are free from jet-boundary and humidity effects.
Date: June 1, 1945
Creator: Ferri, Antonio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department