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An analysis of supersonic aerodynamic heating with continuous fluid injection

Description: From Introduction: "The aerodynamic heating problem assumes considerable importance at high-supersonic speeds. Sanger and Bredt (reference 1) have calculated the high-speed aerodynamic forces and equilibrium surface temperature at extremely high altitudes where the molecular mean free path is large (free-molecule-flow region) compared with a characteristic body dimension. The theoretical investigation of Lees (reference 2) on the stability of the laminar boundary layer in compressible flow indicates that the laminar boundary layer is completely stable at all Reynolds numbers at supersonic speeds for a sufficiently low ratio of surface temperature to stream temperature."
Date: September 29, 1949
Creator: Klunker, E G & Ivey, H Reese
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Mach 4 rocket-powered supersonic tunnel using ammonia-oxygen as working fluid

Description: From Summary: "A rocket-powered supersonic tunnel has been constructed to simulate the high heating rates encountered in hypersonic flow. A gas temperature of 4500 degrees Rankine at Mach 4 has been produced in the 15-inch test section of the tunnel. The calibration pressure data indicate reproducibility of test conditions in this facility. Physical, transport, and one-dimensional aerodynamic data from combustion products of ammonia and oxygen are included."
Date: September 1958
Creator: Graham, Robert W.; Guentert, Eleanor Costilow & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of total hemispherical emissivity of various oxidized metals at high temperature

Description: Report presenting the results of measurements of total hemispherical emissivity at high temperatures for various metals are presented together with a limited description of the equipment and procedures used. Results regarding stainless steel, mild steel, titanium alloy, titanium, copper, aluminum, molybdenum, and tantalum are provided.
Date: March 1958
Creator: Wade, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and theoretical determination of thermal stresses in a flat plate

Description: Report determining the thermal stresses induced in a flat, rectangular, 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy plate by nonuniform heating both experimentally and theoretically. Results regarding the temperature distribution, longitudinal direct stresses, shear stresses, transverse direct stresses, and agreement between theory and experiment are provided.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Heldenfels, Richard R. & Roberts, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The temperature of unheated bodies in a high-speed gas stream

Description: From Summary: "The present report deals with temperature measurements on cylinders of 0.2 to 3 millimeters diameter in longitudinal and transverse air flow at speeds of 100 to 300 meters per second. Within the explored test range, that is, the probable laminar boundary layer region, the temperature of the cylinders in axial flow is practically independent of the speed and in good agreement with Pohlhausen's theoretical values; Whereas, in transverse flow, cylinders of certain diameter manifest a close relationship with speed, the ratio of the temperature above the air of the body to the adiabatic stagnation temperature decreases with rising speed and then rises again from a Mach number of 0.6. The importance of this "specific temperature" of the body for heat-transfer studies at high speed is discussed."
Date: December 1941
Creator: Eckert, E. & Weise, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of aircraft structural models subject to aerodynamic heating and external loads

Description: Report examining the problem of investigating the simultaneous effects of transient aerodynamic heating and external loads on aircraft structures for the purpose of determining the ability of the structure to withstand flight to supersonic speeds.
Date: September 1957
Creator: O'Sullivan, William J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient temperature distribution in a two-component semi-infinite composite slab of arbitrary materials subjected to aerodynamic heating with a discontinuous change in equilibrium temperature or heat-transfer coefficient

Description: Report presenting a solution to the transient temperature distribution in a semi-infinite two-component composite slab of arbitrary materials subjected to an instantaneous application of aerodynamic heating. Results regarding some general principles and an illustrative example are provided.
Date: September 1958
Creator: Trimpi, Robert L. & Jones, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Motion of a ballistic missile angularly misaligned with the flight path upon entering the atmosphere and its effect upon aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic loads, and miss distance

Description: From Summary: "An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry."
Date: October 1957
Creator: Allen, H. Julian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-transfer and pressure measurements on flat-faced cylinders at a Mach number of 2

Description: Report presenting flat-faced cylinders tested at Mach number 2 and sea-level conditions in the preflight jet. Both pressure distributions and heat-transfer rates were measured. Results regarding pressure measurements and heat-transfer measurements are provided.
Date: July 1958
Creator: Stoney, William E., Jr. & Markley, J. Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on an 8-Inch-Diameter Hemisphere-Cylinder in Free Flight for a Mach Number Range of 2.00 to 3.88

Description: Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made along the hemisphere and cylinder of a hemisphere-cylinder rocket-propelled model in free flight up to a Mach number of 3.88. The test Reynolds number based on free-stream condition and diameter of model covered a range from 2.69 x l0(exp 6) to 11.70 x 10(exp 6). Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were obtained. The laminar data along the body agreed with laminar theory for blunt bodies whereas the turbulent data along the cylinder were consistently lower than that predicted by the turbulent theory for a flat plate. Measurements of heat transfer at the stagnation point were, in general, lower than the theory for stagnation-point heat transfer. When the Reynolds number to the junction of the hemisphere-cylinder was greater than 6 x l0(exp 6), the transitional Reynolds number varied from 0.8 x l0(exp 6) to 3.0 x 10(exp 6); however, than 6 x l(exp 6) when the Reynolds number to the junction was less, than the transitional Reynolds number varied from 7.0 x l0(exp 6) to 24.7 x 10(exp 6).
Date: April 18, 1957
Creator: Garland, Benjamine J. & Chauvin, Leo T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

Description: From Summary: "It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory."
Date: December 28, 1955
Creator: Eggers, A. J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

Description: From Summary: "It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory."
Date: September 15, 1955
Creator: Eggers, A. J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds

Description: From Summary: "A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer."
Date: April 28, 1953
Creator: Allen, H. Julian & Eggers, A. J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of the simulation of atmospheric entry of ballistic missiles

Description: Report presenting a small-scale apparatus for simulating the motion and heating of ballistic missiles and its elements of design and operation. Experiments demonstrate that conditions for simulation are fulfilled according to theoretical requirements. Results regarding the application to full-scale missiles, shadowgraph observations, observations of recovered models, and spectroscopic observations are provided.
Date: December 12, 1957
Creator: Neice, Stanford E.; Carson, James A. & Cunningham, Bernard E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of surface temperatures in steady supersonic flight

Description: Report presenting the calculation of surface temperatures for bodies in steady supersonic flight at Mach numbers from 2 to 10, altitudes from 50,000 to 200,000 feet, and emissivites from 0 to 1. The importance of the effects of radiation and convection was determined. Some suggestions for further research into unsolved problems are also provided.
Date: December 1946
Creator: Wood, George P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Aerodynamic Heating on Ice Formations on Airplane Propellers

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the effect of aerodynamic heating on propeller-blade temperatures and its relation to propeller icing. Test results indicate that the outermost station at which ice formed on a propeller blade as determined by the blade temperature rise resulting from the aerodynamic heating at that point.
Date: March 1941
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient temperature distributions in simple conducting bodies steadily heated through a laminar boundary layer

Description: "An analysis is made of the transient heat-conduction effects in three simple semi-infinite bodies: the flat insulated plate, the conical shell, and the slender solid cone. The bodies are assumed to have constant initial temperatures and, at zero time, to begin to move at a constant speed and zero angle of attack through a homogeneous atmosphere. The heat input is taken as that through a laminar boundary layer. Radiation heat transfer and transverse temperature gradients are assumed to be zero" (p. 1).
Date: December 1953
Creator: Parker, Hermon M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbulent and laminar heat-transfer measurements on a 1/6-scale NACA RM-10 missile in free fight to Mach number of 4.2 and to a wall temperature of 1400 degrees R

Description: Report presenting aerodynamic-heating data obtained from Mach numbers 1.2 to 4.2 from a free-flight test of a model finless NACA RM-10. Skin temperatures were measured at six stations along the body. Results regarding experimental recovery factors and Stanton number are provided.
Date: July 3, 1956
Creator: Piland, Robert O.; Collie, Katherine A. & Stoney, William E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some experiments at high supersonic speeds on the aerodynamic and boundary-layer transition characteristics of high-drag bodies of revolution

Description: Report presenting measurements made at Mach numbers of 4.0 and 8.3 of the drag, static stability, damping in pitch, and boundary-layer transition characteristics of several high-drag bodies of revolution that might be used for high-speed entry into the earth's atmosphere. The static stability was found to be high with centers of pressure as far aft as 91 percent of the length from the nose. Results regarding the force and moment data, boundary-layer transition, a comparison of roughness height to boundary-layer thickness, other causes of boundary-layer instability, and Reynolds numbers for high-speed entry into the Earth's atmosphere are provided.
Date: January 14, 1957
Creator: Seiff, Alvin; Sommer, Simon C. & Canning, Thomas N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of an aerodynamically heated multiweb wing structure (MW-1) in a free jet at Mach number 2

Description: Report presenting testing of a multiweb wing structure, representing an airplane or missile wing, under simulated supersonic flight conditions to determine the transient temperature distribution. The aerodynamic loads caused the model to fail near the end of the test. The failure is analyzed and it is determined that the model failed as a result of the combined action of aerodynamic heating and loading.
Date: July 30, 1953
Creator: Heldenfels, Richard R.; Rosecrans, Richard & Griffith, George E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some aspects of the design of hypersonic boost-glide aircraft

Description: Report discussing factors influencing flight range and aerodynamic heating for hypersonic boost-glide aircraft. The possibility and advantages of flight at very high altitude to reduce aerodynamic heating and encourage the preservation of laminar flow on the surface of the aircraft is explored.
Date: August 15, 1955
Creator: Seiff, Alvin & Allen, H. Julian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-flight aerodynamic-heating data to Mach number 10.4 for a modified Von Karman nose shape

Description: Report presenting aerodynamic-heating data obtained on a modified-fineness-ratio-5.0 Von Karman nose shape at free-stream Mach numbers up to 10.4 with a rocket-propelled model. Transient skin temperatures were measured on the nose, and a maximum temperature of 1,663 degrees R was measured after maximum Mach number was obtained.
Date: July 10, 1956
Creator: Bland, William M., Jr. & Collie, Katherine A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tensile properties of Inconel X sheet under rapid-heating and constant-temperature conditions

Description: From Summary: "Results of rapid-heating tests of Inconel X sheet are presented for nominal temperature rates of 0.2 degrees F to 100 degrees F per second under constant tensile load conditions. Yield and rupture stresses obtained under rapid-heating conditions are compared with the results of conventional tensile stress-train tests at elevated temperatures. A marked increase in strength is observed with increased temperature rates."
Date: August 1957
Creator: Kurg, Ivo M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department