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Predicting effects of cold shock: modeling the decline of a thermal plume

Description: Predicting direct impact of cold shock on aquatic organisms after termination of power plant thermal discharges requires thermal tests that provide quantitative data on the resistance of acclimated species to lower temperatures. Selected examples from the literature on cold shock resistance of freshwater and marine fishes are illustrated to show predictive use. Abrupt cold shock data may be applied to field situations involving either abrupt or gradual temperature declines but yield conservative estimates under the latter conditions. Gradual cold shock data may be applied where heated plumes gradually dissipate because poikilotherms partially compensate for lowering temperature regimes. A simplified analytical model is presented for estimating thermal declines in terminated plumes originating from offshore, submerged discharges where shear current and boundary effects are minimal. When applied to site-specific conditions, the method provides time-temperature distributions for correlation with cold resistance data and, therefore, aids in assessing cold shock impact on aquatic biota.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Becker, C.D.; Trent, D.S. & Schneider, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic Environmental Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change

Description: This is one in a series of Advisory Notes that supplement the OECD/DAC Good Practice Guidance on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) (OECD/DAC 2006). The focus of this Advisory Note is to show how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approaches can help mainstream adaptation to climate change into strategic planning. It is used to integrate considerations related to climate change into national development or sectoral management planning or policymaking processes.
Date: October 2008
Creator: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Partner: UNT Libraries

Climate Change Adaptation: Strategic Federal Planning Could Help Government Officials Make More Informed Decisions

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Changes in the climate attributable to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases may have significant impacts in the United States and the world. For example, climate change could threaten coastal areas with rising sea levels. Greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere will continue altering the climate system into the future, regardless of emissions control efforts. Therefore, adaptation--defined as adjustments to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate change--is an important part of the response to climate change. GAO was asked to examine (1) what actions federal, state, local, and international authorities are taking to adapt to a changing climate; (2) the challenges that federal, state, and local officials face in their efforts to adapt; and (3) actions that Congress and federal agencies could take to help address these challenges. We also discuss our prior work on similarly complex, interdisciplinary issues. This report is based on analysis of studies, site visits to areas pursuing adaptation efforts, and responses to a Web-based questionnaire sent to federal, state, and local officials."
Date: October 7, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Adaptation: Information on Selected Federal Efforts To Adapt To a Changing Climate (GAO-10-114SP, October 7, 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-10-113

Description: Other written product issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This is a supplement to GAO-10-113. We obtained information from 13 selected federal departments and agencies on their current and planned climate change adaptation efforts as part of a broader review of climate change adaptation (see GAO-10-113). We present this information to provide a more complete picture of the activities that federal agencies consider to be related to climate change adaptation than has been available publicly. We obtained this information directly from the agencies participating in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Importantly, we did not modify the content of the agency submissions (except to remove references to named individuals) or assess its validity. In addition, because this information represents the efforts of a selected group of federal agencies, the agency activities compiled in this report should not be considered a comprehensive list of all recent and ongoing climate change adaptation efforts across the federal government."
Date: October 7, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Adaptation: Strategic Federal Planning Could Help Officials Make More Informed Decisions

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This testimony discusses our report to this committee on climate change adaptation and the role strategic federal planning could play in government decision making. Changes in the climate attributable to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases may have significant impacts in the United States and internationally. For example, climate change could threaten coastal areas with rising sea levels. In recent years, climate change adaptation--adjustments to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate change--has begun to receive more attention because the greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere are expected to continue altering the climate system into the future, regardless of efforts to control emissions. According to a recent report by the National Research Council (NRC), however, individuals and institutions whose futures will be affected by climate change are unprepared both conceptually and practically for meeting the challenges and opportunities it presents. In this context, adapting to climate change requires making policy and management decisions that cut across traditional economic sectors, jurisdictional boundaries, and levels of government. This testimony is based on our October 2009 report, which is being publicly released today, and addresses three issues: (1) what actions federal, state, local, and international authorities are taking to adapt to a changing climate; (2) the challenges that federal, state, and local officials face in their efforts to adapt; and (3) the actions that Congress and federal agencies could take to help address these challenges. We also provide information about our prior work on similarly complex, interdisciplinary issues."
Date: October 22, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

Description: The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C. & Gaddy, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Transportation Research Program for Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Conserving Energy Special Report 299

Description: This report from the Transportation Research Board suggests that federal, state, and local policy makers need informed guidance about the effectiveness, costs, feasibility, and acceptability of transportation strategies to mitigate transportation greenhouse gas emissions, to conserve energy, and to adapt to climate change. The report covers strategies affecting travel and mode choice, models and decision tools, infrastructure investment options and infrastructure construction, operation, and maintenance. The report recommends beginning a research and development initiative by making a modest investment of $40 million to $45 million annually in the next surface transportation authorization that would be used to develop the best available guidance quickly on the basis of existing information and then begin to improve that guidance over time as new research is completed.
Date: October 2009
Creator: Committee for Study on Transportation Research Programs to Address Energy and Climate Change
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

Description: The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Walia, D. S. & Srivastava, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Plant growth with limited water]. Performance report

Description: When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.
Date: October 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department