1,317 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

An Examination of the Accounting Debate over the Determination of Business Income: 1945-1952

Description: George O. May's (1952) prescient statement that "if accounting had not already become, it was well on its way to becoming a political phenomenon" provides the motivation for this study. Changing socioeconomic relationships in the post-World War II period make it an ideal period to examine the politicalization of accounting. Keynesian economic policies justified active government intervention in the economy to manage demand and ensure full employment. No longer could it be assumed that competitive market forces would ensure that corporations produced goods and services at a socially optimal level or that income would be distributed equitably. Claims that accounting profit provides a measure of managerial efficiency are based on these premises. This dissertation examines the political dynamics of one particular accounting measurement debate--the debate over the determination of business income. Policies, such as wage/price controls, the excess profits tax, and the undistributed profits tax, brought the accounting income determination debate to center stage. The perseverance of the historic cost allocation model in the face of significant economic changes presents a fascinating glimpse of the important role accounting played in justifying continued reliance on the private property rights paradigm. I use retrodiction (reasoning from present to past) to examine why the historic cost allocation model has been so enduring. In my examination, I use personal correspondence, transcripts of Congressional hearings, published financial statements, and relevant journal articles. My analysis indicates that, while accountants empathized with managers who claimed that inflation distorted reported earnings and recognized that a serious measurement scale issue existed, they also recognized that abandonment of historic cost would not be politically feasible. If accountants had adopted a strongly partisan position that favored management with respect to bargaining with labor, this could have undermined the profession's claim to neutrality and opened the standard-setting process to closer political scrutiny. ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Pence, Diana Kay
Partner: UNT Libraries

A comparison of the evolution of accounting institutions in Germany and the United States

Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to compare the evolution of the German accounting profession with that in the United States from the late 1800's to the early 1930's. Included is an analysis of the interaction of the accounting profession with each nation's corporate/ banking institutions in influencing financial reporting and the demand for audits.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Harston, Mary Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Situation-Type Problems for Use in Elementary Accounting

Description: The problem of this study is to develop a series of "situation-type" problems to be used in the teaching of the first course in elementary accounting at North Texas State College. The solutions for the problems were prepared contemporaneously with the problems to save the instructor's time when the problems are used. These problems are to include the phases of accounting of theory and principles in addition to the recording and classifying.
Date: 1957
Creator: Henderson, Porter Wyatt
Partner: UNT Libraries

A System of Farm Cost Accounting

Description: "This bulletin simply aims to give a description of a system of farm cost accounting which has been tried for three years in the State of New York with 53 farmers under widely differing conditions and has proved fairly successful. It is a method so simple that a farmer can keep it without assistance." -- p. 2
Date: 1914
Creator: Ladd, C. E. (Carl Edwin), 1888-1943
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full Costing in the Petroleum Industry and its Implications for Accounting Principles and Practices

Description: The study of the full cost method of accounting for finding costs in the petroleum industry is significant because it offers a unique opportunity to examine and emerging accounting practice and will indicate some of the reasons for a shift in the reporting practices of a portion of the industry.
Date: May 1969
Creator: Klingstedt, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Earnings Management and the Independence or Interdependence of Accounting Choices: the Decision to Adopt Mandated Accounting Changes

Description: This research examines whether firms managed earnings in the year they adopted SFAS 109, Accounting for Income Taxes (or its predecessor SFAS 96), by combining the choice to adopt SFAS 109 with other accounting choices in an interdependent rather than independent manner. Prior literature generally analyzes only one specific accounting choice, assuming that the decision is independent of other accounting procedure choices. However, it is unlikely that managers act in this manner. When attempting to achieve certain income goals, managers have numerous accounting tools available to them including the choice of accounting procedures and the exercise of judgment as to accrual amounts. This study investigates five choices consisting of: (1) the adoption of SFAS 109/96; (2) the adoption of SFAS 106; (3) the reporting of a restructuring of operations and/or a write-down of assets; (4) the reporting of asset sales; and (5) the choice of discretionary accruals. The study adopts both a portfolio and joint decision approach. The portfolio approach combines the earnings effects of the five choices into a single dependent variable and tests income smoothing, big bath, and debt hypotheses. The joint decision approach utilizes simultaneous equation methodology to investigate the interdependence of the five choices and the independent variables. The portfolio approach findings provide evidence that firms used the combined effect of the five accounting choices to smooth income in the year they adopted FAS 109/96. The results also provide support for the debt hypothesis but do not support the big bath hypothesis. The joint decision approach findings provide evidence that firms jointly determined at least two of the five accounting choices. The strong support for the income smoothing hypothesis under the portfolio approach combined with the joint significance of the individual accounting choices in the simultaneous equations suggests that firms use a multitude of accounting choices ...
Date: December 1997
Creator: Nichols, Nancy Brown
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the Cost Accounting Literature of the United States from 1925 to 1950

Description: This research examines the assertions made by Johnson and Kaplan (1987) that cost accounting lost relevance after 1925 due to the dominance of financial accounting, to an academic preoccupation with financial accounting, to the disappearance of engineers and to a managerial emphasis on financial measures of net income and earnings per share. Additionally, the research looks at environmental effects on cost accounting, both economic and governmental.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Vollmers, Gloria Lucey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Harmonization of Accounting Practices Among IAS Firms Listed in the U.S. and Its Capital Market Implications

Description: The focus of the study is on financial reporting for non-U.S. firms registered with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) but using International Accounting Standards (IAS). This study addresses two issues, (1) whether the comparability of financial reporting among firms using IAS in credit and equity financing jurisdictions increases over time and (2) the associated capital market implications. The motivation for the study is the SEC's ongoing assessment of IAS for possible use by non-U.S. registrants for listing and capital raising in the U.S. Previous research on variations in financial reporting practices has revealed distinctly different types of financial reporting depending on country of origin. Moreover, some research suggests that such differences in financial reporting tend to persist in spite of harmonization efforts of accounting standards. This study suggests that there may be a systematic difference between credit and equity firms' financial reporting that is manifested by the fact that credit firms' adjustments to U.S. GAAP are greater than the adjustments made by equity firms. This systematic difference has had the following capital market consequences for credit firms, (1) a decreasing strength of association between accounting earnings and share prices post-1994, (2) an increased bid-ask spread post-1994, and (3) a decreased trading volume post-1994. This may be an indication that on the average firms reporting under IAS fail to meet an important part of the SEC's second assessment criterion with respect to high quality and full disclosure, namely comparability. In addition, it seems that the revisions made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) have not resulted in more congruent financial reporting among firms reporting under IAS over time.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Paananen, Mari
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of a Diary for Farm Accounts

Description: "It is the purpose of this bulletin to explain the different types of diaries available and the methods of utilizing them for farm records, attention being given to a discussion of such accounts as can readily be kept in a farm diary and which will be found of value to the average farmer." -- p. 4
Date: 1917
Creator: Thomson, E. H. (Edward H.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accounting for Self-Insurance--Theory and Practice

Description: This study is an investigation of the theoretical accounting viewpoints and the accounting procedures used in business practice for the origination and administration of a self-insurance program. The purpose of this study is to compare the correct theoretical accounting procedures for self-insurance planning with those used in practice today.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Saleh, John Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Different Forms of Accounting Feedback, Cost Aggregation and Pricing Knowledge on Profitability and Profit Estimation

Description: This study extends a research stream calling for further research regarding pricing and accounting feedback. Marketing executives rely heavily on accounting information for pricing decisions, yet criticize accounting feedback usefulness. To address this criticism, this research integrates the cognitive psychology and accounting literature addressing feedback effectiveness with pricing research in the marketing discipline. The research extends the scope of previous accounting feedback studies by using a control group and comparing two proxies of subject task knowledge; years of pricing experience and a measure of the cognitive structure of pricing knowledge. In addition, this research manipulates task complexity by using two different accounting systems. These systems vary in the number of cost pools used in allocating overhead, resulting in differentially projected cost and profit information. A total of 60 subjects participated in a computer laboratory experiment. These subjects were non-accountants with varying amounts of pricing knowledge. Subjects were randomly assigned to six experimental groups which varied by feedback type (no accounting feedback, outcome feedback only, or a combination of outcome and task properties feedback) and task complexity (high or low number of overhead cost pools). The subjects attempted to (1) maximize profits for a product during 15 rounds of pricing decisions, and (2) accurately estimate their profit for each round. The experimental results indicate no difference in performance between the three feedback types examined. However, increases in both subjects' pricing knowledge and the number of cost pools do influence feedback effectiveness. This study suggests that the amount of the users' task knowledge may influence the effectiveness of current accounting reports. In addition, increasing the number of cost pools in accounting systems may be beneficial for all users.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Smith, David M., 1961-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of the gain/loss provisions of Financial Accounting Standard no. 88 on benefit settlements

Description: This research analyzes the relationship between specific firm characteristics and firms' settlement/replacement plan decisions under Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 88 (FAS88) . It examines firms that effected either a settlement of their pension obligations without a benefit plan termination, a partial termination with a replacement benefit plan or a complete termination with no replacement of a benefit plan.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Ranganathan, Krishnan Ayengar
Partner: UNT Libraries

A System of Public School Accounting

Description: The purpose of the study is to show a system of public school accounting that will provide more information for the use of the school in: (1) spending and in planning future expenditures, (2) eliminating unnecessary details commonly found in school accounting systems, and (3) showing the working process of public school accounting to the student that plans to enter this type of work.
Date: 1948
Creator: Shields, Mayron
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cost Accounting for Oil Producers

Description: From Introduction: "The Bureau of Mines publishes this report in recognition of a distinct need for a simple treatise on accounting methods adapted to the peculiarities of the petroleum industry."
Date: 1917
Creator: Smith, Clarence G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accounting Regulation and Information Asymmetry in the Capital Markets: An Empirical Study of Accounting Standard SFAS no 87

Description: This study uses both basic and self-selection regression models to test three hypotheses about the effect of SFAS 87 disclosures on information asymmetry during 1985- 1987. Both types of models test the hypotheses after controlling for changes in the inventory holding and order processing costs of the spread, while the self-selection models also control for potential self-selection bias.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Lin, Wen-shan
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Alternative Accounting Signals to Market Beta and to Changes in Security Prices

Description: One of the critical issues that face the accounting profession today involves choosing among alternative accounting information modes. This dissertation provides comparative empirical evidence on the predictive power of accrual-based accounting signals versus cash-flow accounting signals versus both of these signals jointly. The empirical hypotheses compare the degrees of association between the market evaluative criteria, market beta and security price behavior, and the different accounting signals. The research methodology employed includes the following. 1. Market beta and changes in security prices are used as the evaluative criteria. 2. Two regression models are developed and used to test the predictive power of the alternative accounting signals. 3. Several specifications for each model are used. These specifications are simple regression, multiple regression, interaction effect, partial correlation, incremental correlation, and time series and cross sectional analysis.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Hammad, Ahmed-Hany B.
Partner: UNT Libraries