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Executive Correspondence – Letters dtd 08/15/05 to Commissioners Hansen, Gehman, Coyle and Bilbray from Colorado Senator Ken Salazar

Description: Executive Correspondence – Letters dtd 08/15/05 to Commissioners Hansen, Gehman, Coyle and Bilbray from Colorado Senator Ken Salazar thanking them for hearing the testimony regarding DFAS Denver and requesting that the Commission take a hard look at all the data underpinning the Secretary’s recommendations
Date: August 23, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

Description: Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year ...
Date: August 23, 2005
Creator: Akbari, Hashem
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

Description: Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year ...
Date: August 23, 2005
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William & Berdahl, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identifying Energy Savings Opportunities in Industrial Pumping Systems

Description: In most industrial settings, energy consumed by pumping systems is responsible for a major part of the overall electricity bill. In some cases, the energy is used quite efficiently; in others, it is not. Facility operators may be very familiar with pumping system equipment controllability, reliability, and availability, but only marginally aware of system efficiency. There are some good reasons to increase that awareness: As budgets shrink and the intensity of both domestic and international competition increases, the pressure to find additional methods to reduce operating costs will grow. The reliability of pumps correlates with their efficiency; that is, pumps operated near their design, or best efficiency point, will tend to perform more reliably and with greater availability. More frugal and efficient use of the earth's limited natural resources is essential. The cost of energy consumed by pumps usually dominates the pump life cycle cost. Many end users, already strained to support day-to-day facility operations, lack the time and resources to perform a methodical engineering study of the many pumps within their facilities to understand their associated energy costs and the potential opportunities for energy savings. Under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Motor Challenge Program, screening guidance documents and computer software have been developed to help end users, consultants, and equipment distributors recognize, both qualitatively and quantitatively, pumping system efficiency improvement opportunities. A key element in the Motor Challenge optimization strategy is to encourage a systems approach to how motors, drives, and motor-driven equipment are engineered, specified, operated, and maintained by industry. Because pumps have been identified as the single largest end use application, accounting for 25% of motor systems energy use in all manufacturing industries in the United States, they are a natural target in any effort to improve motor-driven systems' energy consumption. The ...
Date: August 23, 1999
Creator: Casada, D.A. & McElhaney, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

Description: In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant’s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control ...
Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can & Dannenhoffer, John F. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Atomic Products Operation, monthly report, July 1956

Description: This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July, 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.
Date: August 23, 1956
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1954

Description: This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for March 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.
Date: April 23, 1954
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, February 1954

Description: This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of February 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.
Date: March 23, 1954
Creator: McCune, F. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irradiation Processing Department Monthly Record Report: September 1956

Description: This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operations; and financial operation.
Date: October 23, 1956
Creator: Hanford Atomic Products Operation. Irradiation Processing Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Processing Department Monthly Report: September 1962

Description: This report, for September 1962 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following; Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.
Date: October 23, 1962
Creator: Hanford Atomic Products Operation. Chemical Processing Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Works Monthly Report: December 1952

Description: This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1952. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.
Date: January 23, 1953
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1955

Description: This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.
Date: June 23, 1955
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for April 1955

Description: This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for April 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.
Date: May 23, 1955
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Processing Department Monthly Report: July 1965

Description: This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.
Date: August 23, 1965
Creator: Hanford Atomic Products Operation. Chemical Processing Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value-impact analysis of regulations for the nuclear industry

Description: This paper summarizes a quantitative tool developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid the NRC in establishing Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) regulations for safeguarding Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Illustrative Value-Impact results of demonstrating the methodology at a facility handling SNM to evaluate alternative safeguards rules is given. The methodology developed also offers a useful framework for facility designers to choose safeguards measures that meet the NRC's criteria in a cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the methodology requires very modest computing capability and is straightforward to apply.
Date: June 23, 1980
Creator: Al-Ayat, R.; Judd, B. & Huntsman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department