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A first-principles density functional theory study of the electronic structural and thermodynamic properties of M2ZrO3 and M2CO3 (M=Na, K) and their capabilities for CO2 capture

Description: Alkali metal zirconates could be used as solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The structural, electronic, and phonon properties of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are investigated by combining the density functional theory with lattice phonon dynamics. The thermodynamics of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption reactions of these two zirconates are analyzed. The calculated results show that their optimized structures are in a good agreement with experimental measurements. The calculated band gaps are 4.339 eV (indirect), 3.641 eV (direct), 3.935 eV (indirect), and 3.697 eV (direct) for Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, respectively.The calculated phonon dispersions and phonon density of states for M{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and M{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (M = K, Na, Li) revealed that from K to Na to Li, their frequency peaks are shifted to high frequencies due to the molecular weight decreased from K to Li. From the calculated reaction heats and relationships of free energy change versus temperatures and CO{sub 2} pressures of the M{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} (M = K, Na, Li) reacting with CO{sub 2}, we found that the performance of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} capturing CO{sub 2} is similar to that of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and is better than that of K{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Therefore, Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} are good candidates of high temperature CO{sub 2} sorbents and could be used for post combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Duan, Yuhua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal conductivity and tritium retention in Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}

Description: Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are promising ceramic breeder materials for fusion reactor blankets. The thermal and tritium transport databases for these materials are reviewed. Algorithms are presented for predicting both the temperature distribution and the retained tritium profile across sintered-product and pebble-bed regions. Sample design calculations are also performed to demonstrate the relative advantages of each breeder ceramic. For Li{sub 2}O, the thermal conductivity of sintered-product material has been measured over a wide range of temperatures and densities. Data are also available for the effective thermal conductivity of a pebble bed (in atmospheric helium) with 55% packing fraction for the 5-mm-diameter/75%-dense pebbles. Similar results are available for sintered-product and pebble-bed (60% packing fraction for 1.2-mm-diameter/80%-dense pebbles in atmospheric He) Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Hall and Martin model predictions are in reasonable agreement with both sets of pebble bed data. Thus, the databases and calculational algorithms are well established for performing thermal analyses. 15 refs., 5 figs.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Billone, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The crystallography of the domains and domain walls in PZT are studied using electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Both 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} domains are observed and the 90{sup o} domains are shown to be deformation twins with displacement along <110> on {l_brace}110{r_brace}. The thickness of the 90{sup o} domain wall is determined to be {approx}< 100 {angstrom}. Leadon Zirconate Titanate (PZT) is a ferroelectric material at room temperature and it is used extensively in piezoelectric devices. Above its Curie temperature (375 C), PZT is a cubic solid solution of lead titanate and lead zirconate. It undergoes a phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal phase on cooling below the Curie temperature. The strain, resulting from this transformation is accommodated by the formation of twins. Each of the twin plates is a ferroelectric domain. These domains have been examined by etching technique or by replica technique, both of which cannot provide any crystallographic information about the structure. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of the domains in PZT and also to study the structure of the domain walls using transmission electron microscopy methods.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Goo, E.K.W.; Mishra, R.K. & Thomas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

Description: Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A. & Tuttle, Bruce Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

Description: Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Sinsel, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method to remove Ammonia using a Proton-Conducting Ceramic Membrane

Description: An apparatus and method for decomposing NH{sub 3}. A fluid containing NH{sub 3} is passed in contact with a tubular membrane that is a homogeneous mixture of a ceramic and a first metal, with the ceramic being selected from one or more of a cerate having the formula of M' Ce{sub 1-x} M''O{sub 3-{delta}}, zirconates having the formula M'Zr{sub 1-x} M''3-{delta}, stannates having the formula M'Sn{sub 1-x}M''O{sub 3}-{delta}, where M' is a group IIA metal, M'' is a dopant metal of one or more of Ca, Y, Yb, In, Nd, Gd or mixtures thereof and {delta} is a variable depending on the concentration of dopant and is in the range of from 0.001 to 0.5, the first metal is a group VIII or group IB element selected from the group consisting of Pt, Ag, Pd, Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, V, Ni, Au, Cu, Rh, Ru and mixtures thereof. The tubular membrane has a catalytic metal on the side thereof in contact with the fluid containing NH{sub 3} which is effective to cause NH{sub 3} to decompose to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. When the H{sub 2} contacts the membrane, H{sup +} ions are formed which pass through the membrane driving the NH{sub 3} decomposition toward completion.
Date: September 22, 1999
Creator: Balachandran, Uthamalingam & Bose, Arun C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Objective of this research program is to develop a dense, non porous ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperatures (400-600 C). The research has been focused on addressing several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}). In the 2nd half research, we conducted various kinds of experiments to understand the CO{sub 2} sorption/desorption mechanism on the pure and modified Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with the help of TGA, DSC TGA and XRD. DSC TGA results suggest that the melting of Li/K carbonates mixture may play an important role in rapid CO{sub 2} sorption in the case of modified lithium zirconate. The CO{sub 2} desorption experiments show that CO{sub 2} desorption from the modified lithium zirconate follows the same mechanism as that from the pure lithium zirconate. This is different from the CO{sub 2} adsorption on the pure and modified lithium zirconates.
Date: September 1, 2001
Creator: Ida, Jun-ichi; Yang, Zhaohui & Lin, Jerry Y.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties and orientation of antiferroelectric lead zirconate thin films grown by MOCVD.

Description: Single-phase polycrystalline PbZrO{sub 3} (PZ) thin films, 3000-6000 {angstrom} thick, have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at {approximately}525 C. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the PZ films grown on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si (Pt/Ti/Si) showed preferred pseudocubic (110) orientation. In contrast, PZ films grown on 150 {angstrom} thick PbTiO{sub 3} (PT) template layers exhibited a pseudocubic (100) preferred orientation, and PZ films deposited on TiO{sub 2} template layers consisted of randomly oriented grains. The PZ films grown on Pt/Ti/Si with or without templates exhibited dielectric constants of 120-200 and loss tangents of 0.03-0.01. The PZ films with (110) orientation exhibited an electric-field-induced transformation from the antiferroelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase with a polarization of {approx}34 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, and the energy that was stored during switching was 7.1 J/cm{sup 3}. The field needed to excite the ferroelectric state and that needed to revert to the antiferroelectric state were 350 and 250 kV/cm, respectively. Relationships between the MOCVD processing and the film microstructure and properties are discussed.
Date: December 21, 1998
Creator: Chen, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Lin, Jerry Y.S. & Ida, Jun-ichi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Versatile two-step process for immobilizing excess plutonium.

Description: As a consequence of weapon stockpile reduction and the associated shutdown of weapons production facilities, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium (both weapons-grade and non-weapons-grade) has been declared excess by the US. Recent experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to immobilize plutonium. The most effective plutonium host phase identified in these experiments was a plutonium zirconate solid solution. Results of recent experiments are reported that show the feasibility of using the highly durable plutonium zirconate host phase as a feed material for high and low temperature encapsulation processes, thereby increasing the potential applications of this material for plutonium dispositioning.
Date: May 18, 1998
Creator: O'Holleran, T. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: We studied feasibility of two types of dense inorganic membranes which are fundamentally different from those porous inorganic membranes reported in the literature for separation of carbon dioxide from gas streams at high temperatures. The first is a symmetric, dense membrane made of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and the second is a dual-phase metal-carbonate membrane. We have identified a unique CO{sub 2} sorption/desorption mechanism on lithium zirconate. Considering the all obtained data, we proposed a double layer model to describe the CO{sub 2} sorption/desorption behavior of lithium zirconate. In the model, final product after CO{sub 2} sorption is a particle which consists of a ZrO{sub 2} core inside and a Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} shell. The understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption mechanisms suggests a means to improve CO{sub 2} sorption rate on this group of oxides. It also leads to the conclusion that lithium zirconate is not a suitable material for the proposed dense ceramic membrane for CO{sub 2} separation. Following the second concept of dense membrane for CO{sub 2} separation, we succeeded in preparing the hermetic (gas-tight) dense inorganic membrane consisting of a porous metal phase and a molten carbonate phase. The metal phase not only provides the mechanical support but also is electronically conducting, reducing the overall mass transfer resistance for CO{sub 2} permeation through the membrane. Permeation data showed that nitrogen or helium is not permeable through these membranes (only CO{sub 2}, with O{sub 2}, can permeate through the membrane based on the transport mechanism). This dual-phase membrane may offer promising properties for applications in membrane processes for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue (or coal gasification gas) at high temperatures (350-550 C).
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Lin, Jerry Y.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations of the effect of the morphology of Nb dopant on lead zirconate ceramic

Description: The microstructures of ferroelectric ceramics are a result of the dopants and of the many process variables associated with raw materials, powder processing, and ceramic firing. Metal ion substitutions of higher than normal valency are used as sintering aids to promote densification, to increase electrical resistivity, and to develop mature homogeneous microstructures with desirable piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. Investigations are reported for the barium modified lead zirconate system which is analogous to the lead zirconate titanate system, in which Nb is used as a sintering aid. The morphology and concentration of the Nb are shown to affect both electrical properties and the microstructure.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Keck, J.D. & Wilcox, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

Description: This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. & Sarofim, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Samples of zirconate pyrochlore ceramic (REE)2(Zr,U)2O7 (REE = La-Gd) containing simulated REE-An fraction of HLW were synthesized by two routes: (1) conventional cold compaction of oxide mixtures in pellets under pressure of 200 MPa and sintering of the pellets at 1550 C for 24 hours; and (2) using preliminary mechanical activation of oxide powders in a linear inductive rotator (LIV-0.5E) and a planetary mill - activator with hydrostatic yokes (AGO-2U) for 5 or 10 min. All the samples sintered at 1550 C were monolithic and dense with high mechanical integrity. As follows from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, the ceramic sample produced without mechanical activation is composed of pyrochlore as major phase but contains also minor unreacted oxides. The samples prepared from pre-activated mixtures are composed of the pyrochlore structure phase only. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data also show higher structural and compositional homogeneity of the samples prepared from mechanically activated batches. The samples produced from oxide mixtures mechanically activated in the LIV for 10 min were slightly contaminated with iron resulting in formation of minor perovskite structure phase not detected by XRD but seen on SEM-images of the samples. Comparison of the samples prepared from non-activated and activated batches showed higher density, lower open porosity, water uptake, and elemental leaching for the samples fabricated from mechanically activated oxide mixtures.
Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Stefanovsky, S.V.; Kirjanova, O.I.; Chizhevskaya, S.V.; Yudintsev, S.V. & Nikonov, B.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical aspects of solid state reactions in a mixed particulate ensemble and kinetics of lead zirconate formation

Description: A theoretical analysis was carried out to estimate the quasi-steady-state external mass transport by lattice, surface and gaseous diffusion in terms of the stereologically measurable microstructural parameters of a mixed powder compact. It was shown that the gaseous transport can be described by a single dimensionless quantity termed sublimation transport modulus. Using these equations, the relative importance of the alternate external transport modes can be evaluated. Experimental work determined the reaction isotherms for the formation of lead zirconate from yellow PbO and monoclinic zirconia between 710/sup 0/C to 810/sup 0/C for two zirconia size distributions. The larger zirconia showed diffusion controlled shrinking core kinetics up to about 90 percent reaction while the smaller zirconia indicated a diffusion controlled spherical growth of up to 85 percent reaction after an instantaneous nucleation at a limited number of sites. The difference was attributed to the differences in the mixing time and not to the particulate sizes. It was observed that for the same size range, a longer mixing operation gave a better dispersion of reactants which resulted in a higher nucleation site density required for a shrinking core type of product morphology and faster kinetics. A microprobe profile analysis of partially reacted particles confirmed that for the shorter mixing period, reaction resultedin a nucleation-growth-impingement type of morphology. The activation energy as calculated from the nucleation-growth model fit to the data was 138 Kcal/mole which is close to 131 Kcal/mole reported for Pb/sup 2 +/ diffusion in PbZrO/sub 3/. Approximate calculations show that the gaseous external mass flux of PbO was negligible compared to the lattice or surface diffusive flux.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Chandratreya, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of porous PNZT polycrystalline ceramics

Description: Niobium-doped lead zirconate-titanate (PNZT) was used to investigate the effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of a polycrystalline ceramic. Spherical pores (110 to 150 ..mu..m diameter) were introduced by using organic materials in the initial specimen fabrication. The matrix grain size (2 to 5 ..mu..m) was kept constant. Small pores (2 to 3 ..mu..m diameter) of the order of the grain size were formed by varying the sintering conditions. The effect of porosity on strength was predicted quite well by Weibull's probabilistic approach. The Young's modulus showed a linear relationship with increase in porosity. A decrease in fracture toughness with increase in porosity was also observed. It was found that at equivalent porosities, small pore specimens gave higher strength, Young's modulus and fracture toughness compared to specimens containing large pores. Fracture surface analysis, by scanning electron microscopy, showed fracture originated either at the tensile surface or at the edge of the specimen.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Biswas, D.R. & Fulrath, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

Description: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue University and is detailed in Appendix A. Steam reforming proved ...
Date: April 14, 2010
Creator: McDeavitt, Sean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion-implanted PLZT ceramics: a new high-sensitivity image storage medium

Description: Results were presented of our studies of photoferroelectric (PFE) image storage in H- and He-ion implanted PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) ceramics which demonstrate that the photosensitivity of PLZT can be significantly increased by ion implantation in the ceramic surface to be exposed to image light. More recently, implantations of Ar and Ar + Ne into the PLZT surface have produced much greater photosensitivity enhancement. For example, the photosensitivity after implantation with 1.5 x 10/sup 14/ 350 keV Ar/cm/sup 2/ + 1 x 10/sup 15/ 500 keV Ne/cm/sup 2/ is increased by about four orders of magnitude over that of unimplanted PLZT. Measurements indicate that the photosensitivity enhancement in ion-implanted PLZT is controlled by implantation-produced disorder which results in marked decreases in dielectric constant and dark conductivity and changes in photoconductivity of the implanted layer. The effects of Ar- and Ar + Ne-implantation are presented along with a phenomenological model which describes the enhancement in photosensitivity obtained by ion implantation. This model takes into account both light- and implantation-induced changes in conductivity and gives quantitative agreement with the measured changes in the coercive voltage V/sub c/ as a function of near-uv light intensity for both unimplanted and implanted PLZT. The model, used in conjunction with calculations of the profiles of implantation-produced disorder, has provided the information needed for co-implanting ions of different masses, e.g., Ar and Ne, to improve photosensitivity.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Peercy, P.S. & Land, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photosensitivity enhancement of PLZT ceramics by positive-ion implantation

Description: The photosensitivity of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic material used in high resolution, high contrast, and nonvolatile photoferroelectric image storage and display devices is enhanced significantly by positive ion implantation of the PLZT near its surface. Implanted ions include H/sup +/, He/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, as well as chemically reactive ions from Fe, Cr, and Al. The positive ion implantation advantageously serves to shift the absorption characteristics of the PLZT material from near-uv light to visible light. As a result, photosensitivity enhancement is such that the positive ion implanted PLZT plate is sensitive even to sunlight and conventional room lighting, such as fluorescent and incandescent light sources. The method disclosed includes exposing the PLZT plate to the positive ions at sufficient density, from 1 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 17/, and with sufficient energy, from 100 to 500 keV, to provide photosensitivity enhancement. The PLZT material may have a lanthanum content ranging from 5 to 10%, a lead zirconate content of 62 to 70 mole %, and a lead titanate content of 38 to 30%. The ions are implanted at a depth of 0.1 to 2 microns below the surface of the PLZT plate.
Date: January 28, 1982
Creator: Peercy, P.S. & Land, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrooptic shutter devices utilizing PLZT ceramic wafers

Description: Optical transparency was achieved in lead zirconate-titanate ferroelectric ceramics by substituting moderate amounts of the element lanthanum (8 to 12%) for lead. These compositions exhibit the quadratic (Kerr) electrooptic effect. The excellent optical qualities of these materials (designated PLZT) has permitted the practical utilization of their electrooptic properties in a number of devices. All of these devices utilize the classic Kerr cell arrangement. A PLZT wafer with optical axis oriented at 45/sup 0/ with respect to the axes of polarization is sandwiched between crossed polarizers. Application of an electric field via an interdigital array of electrodes on opposing wafer surfaces forces the PLZT material into a tetragonal state with the resulting induced birefringence proportional to the square of the applied electric field. Hence, the electrooptic wafer provides a retardation of light so that a component is passed by the second crossed polarizer to achieve an ON or open state. Maximum transmission is achieved when the retardation is half-wave. Shutter devices developed by Sandia and those in continuing development are described with respect to operational characteristics and physical configuration. The devices range in size from very small apertures of 50 ..mu..m x 2 mm with center-to-center repeat dimensions of 125 ..mu..m - to very large - apertures of 15.2 cm in single pieces and mosaics with apertures of 15.2 cm x 20.3 cm. Major efforts have centered on shutter development for the protection of aircrew from eye-damaging weapon effects. Other devices are also described which: provide eye protection for welders, protect vidicon tubes, function as page composers for holographic memories serve as large aperture photographic shutters, provide stereoscopic three-dimensional TV displays, and serve as data links in a fiber-optic transmission path.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Thornton, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boxcar photography

Description: A simple, inexpensive diagnostic has been developed for time-resolved imaging of repetitive self-luminescent phenomena. An electro-optic birefringent ceramic shutter is employed to perform photographic sampling and yields time resolution of 100 ..mu..sec. Methods of image enhancement in the presence of background light from a finite-contrast shutter are discussed. The system has been applied to the study of plasma evolution in the CDX device. 21 refs., 4 figs.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Greene, G.J.; Cutsogeorge, G. & Ono, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of structure in ion movement of glasses

Description: Three kinds of experiments were performed: modified random network model and ion movement; role of melt structure in ion transport in glassy state; and ion movement in fluorozirconate glass (breakdown of correspondence between electrical and nuclear spin relaxation). A comment is offered on dielectric loss peak in glasses. 11 refs, 1 fig. (DLC)
Date: November 3, 1992
Creator: Jain, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department