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THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR

Description: High resolution electron microscopy of a commercial ZnO based varistor reveals that the Bi-rich intergranular phase is found at all three and four grain junctions and that the majority of ZnO grains are not surrounded by an oxide barrier film as hitherto believed.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Clarke, D. E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solution-based nanoengineering of materials.

Description: Solution-based synthesis is a powerful approach for creating nano-structured materials. Although there have been significant recent successes in its application to fabricating nanomaterials, the general principles that control solution synthesis are not well understood. The purpose of this LDRD project was to develop the scientific principles required to design and build unique nanostructures in crystalline oxides and II/VI semiconductors using solution-based molecular self-assembly techniques. The ability to synthesize these materials in a range of different nano-architectures (from controlled morphology nanocrystals to surface templated 3-D structures) has provided the foundation for new opportunities in such areas as interactive interfaces for optics, electronics, and sensors. The homogeneous precipitation of ZnO in aqueous solution was used primarily as the model system for the project. We developed a low temperature, aqueous solution synthesis route for preparation of large arrays of oriented ZnO nanostructures. Through control of heterogeneous nucleation and growth, methods to predicatively alter the ZnO microstructures by tailoring the surface chemistry of the crystals were established. Molecular mechanics simulations, involving single point energy calculations and full geometry optimizations, were developed to assist in selecting appropriate chemical systems and understanding physical adsorption and ultimately growth mechanisms in the design of oxide nanoarrays. The versatility of peptide chemistry in controlling the formation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and zinc oxide/cadmium sulfide heterostructures was also demonstrated.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Spoerke, Erik David; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Machesky, Michael L. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report

Description: Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Gordon, R. G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D. & Teff, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters

Description: The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo & Capel, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic manufacturing technology monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrates. Annual technical progress report, 5 July 1995--4 June 1996

Description: Iowa Thin Film Technologies` goal is to develop the most cost-effective photovoltaic manufacturing process possible. During the first year, they developed the capability of sputtering a high-quality (Zn(Al)O) successfully implemented increased deposition rates for the ZnO top contact deposition; improved registration and ink-line width to reduce area loss due to interconnects; developed a new alignment process and sensor to improve the speed and accuracy of registration for the patterning processes; developed a new Silver ink composition that allows finer print lines and lower series resistance; demonstrated an 8% overall improvement in area utilization; evaluated water-based insulator inks for compatibility with their processes; investigated and tested the use of roll-based lamination as a means to reduce the cost of assembly; developed straight roll lamination capability using pressure-sensitive adhesives and thermally activated bonding; and evaluated the use of the standard EVA/Tefzel encapsulant with a roll laminator.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Jeffrey, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2}O{sub 2}(A = Ba, Sr): a rare example of square planar zinc

Description: Purpose of this study was to explore synthesis of novel solid-state compounds that could potentially exhibit interesting or useful physical properties. Goal was to extend the classes of compounds A{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}Pn{sub 2}O{sub 2} (A=Sr,Ba; Pn=P,As,Sb,Bi) to include a transition metal other than Mn. High-temperature fluxes were used to produce these new compounds.
Date: June 1994
Creator: Keane, P. M. & Burdett, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental Efficiency Limitations for Low Electron Energy Cathololuminescence

Description: The design of field emission displays is severely constrained by the universally poor cathodoluminescence (CL) efficiency of most phosphors at low excitation energies. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, the authors have measured the time decay of spectrally-resolved, pulsed CL and photoluminescence (PL) in several phosphors activated by rare earth and transition metal impurities, including Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Tb, and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn. Activator concentrations ranged from {approximately}0.25 to 10%. The CL decay curves are always non-linear on a log(CL)-linear(time) plot--i.e. they deviate from first order decay kinetics. These deviations are always more pronounced at short times and larger activator concentrations and are largest at low beam energies where the decay rates are noticeably faster. PL decay is always slower than that seen for CL, but these differences disappear after most of the excited species have decayed. They have also measured the dependence of steady state CL efficiency on beam energy. They find that larger activator concentrations accelerate the drop in CL efficiency seen at low beam energies. These effects are largest for the activators which interact more strongly with the host lattice. While activator-activator interactions are known to limit PL and CL efficiency in most phosphors, the present data suggest that a more insidious version of this mechanism is partly responsible for poor CL efficiency at low beam energies. This enhanced concentration quenching is due to the interaction of nearby excited activators. These interactions can lead to non-radiative activator decay, hence lower steady state CL efficiency. Excited state clustering, which may be caused by the large energy loss rate of low energy primary electrons, appears to enhance these interactions. In support of this idea, they find that PL decays obtained at high laser pulse energies resemble the non-linear decays seen in the CL data.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: SEAGER,CARLETON H. & TALLANT,DAVID R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride

Description: The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Whinnery, LeRoy; Goods, Steve; Buffleben, George & Sheppodd, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and optical properties of rare earth-doped zinc oxyhalide tellurite glasses

Description: Zinc tellurite glasses appear to be excellent candidates for hosting rare earth ions since they provide a low phonon energy environment to minimize non-radiative losses as well as possess good chemical durability and optical properties. The optical behavior of the rare earth ion can be manipulated by modifying its local environment in the glass host. The authors report measurements of the emission lifetime, optical absorption, and vibrational density of states of the glass system (ZnO){sub x}(ZnF{sub 2}){sub y}(TeO{sub 2}){sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}doped (0.1 mol%) with a series of rare earths. Phonon sideband spectroscopy has been successfully employed to probe vibrational structure in the immediate vicinity of the rare earth ion. The authors observe a significant increase in the emission lifetime (from approximately 150 {mu}s to 250 {mu}s) of Nd{sup 3+} with increasing fluorine substitution.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Sidebottom, D.L.; Hruschka, M.A.; Potter, B.G. & Brow, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time domain response of electrical ceramics -- Micro to megaseconds

Description: The electrical properties of ceramics can be measured in either the time domain or in the frequency domain. But for electrically nonlinear ceramics such as varistors, time-domain measurements provide insights that are different and more relevant to material performance as well as being more physically incisive. This article focuses specifically on the electrical properties of ZnO varistors, but much of it is of relevance for other materials, in particular those materials with grain-boundary barriers and disordered ceramics or glasses. The interpretation of electrical measurements in the time domain is profoundly influenced by such practical matters as source impedance and waveform characteristics. Experimental results are presented for both high and low source impedance relative to that of a test varistor, and the different in experimental difficulty and ease of interpretation is described. Time-domain measurements of capacitance and of the inductive response of varistors to large, fast electrical pulses are presented and their implications for varistor theory are given. Experimental evidence is given of short- and long-term memory in varistors. These memory phenomena are ascribed respectively to the life time of holes that become trapped in barriers and to polarization currents originating from deep electron traps. Polarization current measurements are presented for a wide range of time and temperature. The power-law time dependence and universal behavior of these currents is discussed. The exponent that describes the power law behavior is seen to change with temperature, and the change is interpreted as a double transition from diffusive to dispersive transport that originates with current from two different electron traps.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Modine, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of processing variables on the structure and properties of ZnO films

Description: Zinc oxide films of high optical quality have been deposited onto both silica and silicon substrates using reactive sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, and an aqueous solution based technique. Films have been characterized with respect to crystalline phase and phase stability, surface morphology, and optical response by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, optical transmission and ellipsometry measurements. All films studied were of the wurtzite phase, fine-grained, and exhibited varying degrees of c-axis orientation with respect to the substrate normal depending upon deposition conditions. Films showed some degree of residual tensile stress which was inferred from the E{sub 2} Raman line shift relative to the single crystal frequency. The wurtzite phase was found to be stable to temperatures near 800{degrees}C, but at higher temperatures, reaction with silica led to evolution of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} at the interface. Variations in Raman line intensities upon post deposition annealing has been correlated with oxidation of excess zinc in the lattice.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Exarhos, G.J. & Sharma, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarization relaxation in zinc oxide varistors from 77 K to 450 K

Description: The time and temperature dependences of polarization currents are investigated to higher temperatures and with greater temperature resolution than has been reported previously for zinc oxide varistors. Arrhenius plots yield thermal activation energies near 140 and 8 meV, which are in reasonable agreement with values reported recently, as well as an additional thermally activated level at 0.66 eV, which emerges in the extension of the measurements to T > 300K. Conductance data in this higher temperature range for the same samples yield the nearly identical energy of 0.68 eV for the intergranular (Schottky) barrier height. The temperature dependence of the exponent m in the power-law expression for the current-time dependence I = I{sub o}t{sup {minus}m} was carefully examined and found to change twice from 0.5 to 1.0. The non-monotonic behavior of m with temperature is interpreted as due to resolution of the polarization currents from two different traps each of which makes the transition from diffusive to dispersive transport as temperature is lowered rather than, for example, a complicated distribution of relaxation times.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Major, R.W.; Werner, A.E.; Wilson, C.B. & Modine, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical injection probing of single ZnO tetrapod lasers

Description: The properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapod lasers are characterized by a novel ultrafast two-color pump/stimulated emission probe technique. Single legs of tetrapod species are isolated by a microscope objective, pumped by 267 nm pulses, and subjected to a time-delayed 400 nm optical injection pulse, which permits investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in the nanosize materials. With the optical injection pulse included, a large increase in the stimulated emission at 400 nm occurs, which partially depletes the carriers at this wavelength and competes with the normal 390 nm lasing. At the 390 nm lasing wavelengths, the optical injection causes a decrease in the stimulated emission due to the energetic redistribution of the excited carrier depletion, which occurs considerably within the time scale of the subpicosecond duration of the injection pulse. The effects of the optical injection on the spectral gain are employed to probe the lasing dynamics, which shows that the full width at half maximum of the lasing time is 3 ps.
Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Szarko, Jodi M.; Song, Jae Kyu; Blackledge, Charles Wesley; Swart, Ingmar; Leone, Stephen R.; Li, Shihong et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

Description: Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew & Bell, Nelson Simmons
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRANSPORT AND REDUCTION POSSIBILITIES DURING TPBAR EXTRACTION

Description: In light of the discovery of the activated zinc 65 in the TEF process piping, a discussion of potential sources and mechanisms for the production of this species has been initiated. A suspected source is the presence of Cu as a contaminant in many of the alloy components that comprise the TPBARs and the presence of Zn as a contaminant in the aluminide coating. These two sources are expected to produce metallic transmutation products that could be mobile and be extracted from the metallic components of the TPBARs. Another potential source is the presence of ZnO that is present as part of the crud on the external surfaces of the TPBARs. In addition, it is conceivable to have ZnO within the TPBARs from transmutation products and subsequent oxidation reactions with water. This memo does not attempt to address all of the possible sources, nor does it derive the most likely scenarios as to how Zn or ZnO may be present in the TPBARs it merely posits that it is present as a transmutation product and if present, elementally, it may be mobile under high vacuum conditions at high temperatures as indicated by the pressure temperature curve shown in Fig. 1. Further, this document shows that it is thermodynamically feasible to reduce ZnO to Zn by solid state reactions of the ZnO with other metallic components in the TPBARs. However, for these reactions to occur, the ZnO must be in contact with the more active metal so that the chemical reactions can occur. The proposed reactions are based on equilibrium thermodynamics. For simplicity, they do not take into account the quantities of the various materials, the compositions, the effect of alloying, or other technical issues, they are intended only to provide feasibility for the reduction reactions. A more complete thermodynamic model ...
Date: May 19, 2008
Creator: Korinko, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Crystal-Growth Methods for Producing Lattice-Matched Substrates for High-Temperature Superconductors

Description: This effort addressed the technical problem of identifying and growing, on a commercial scale, suitable single-crystal substrates for the subsequent deposition of epitaxial thin films of high temperature semiconductors such as GaN/AlN. The lack of suitable lattice-matched substrate materials was one of the major problem areas in the development of semiconducting devices for use at elevated temperatures as well as practical opto-electronic devices based on Al- and GaN technology. Such lattice-matched substrates are necessary in order to reduce or eliminate high concentrations of defects and dislocations in GaN/AlN and related epitaxial thin films. This effort concentrated, in particular, on the growth of single crystals of ZnO for substrate applications and it built on previous ORNL experience in the chemical vapor transport growth of large single crystals of zinc oxide. This combined expertise in the substrate growth area was further complemented by the ability of G. Eres and his collaborators to deposit thin films of GaN on the subject substrates and the overall ORNL capability for characterizing the quality of such films. The research effort consisted of research on the growth of two candidate substrate materials in conjunction with concurrent research on the growth and characterization of GaN films, i.e. the effort combined bulk crystal growth capabilities in the area of substrate production at both ORNL and the industrial partner, Commercial Crystal Growth Laboratories (CCL), Naples, Florida, with the novel thin-film deposition techniques previously developed in the ORNL SSD.
Date: June 24, 2008
Creator: Boatner, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Epitaxial Growth of GaN-based LEDs on Simple Sacrificial Substrates

Description: The objective of this project is to produce alternative substrate technologies for GaN-based LEDs by developing an ALD interlayer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on sacrificial substrates such as ZnO and Si. A sacrificial substrate is used for device growth that can easily be removed using a wet chemical etchant leaving only the thin GaN epi-layer. After substrate removal, the GaN LED chip can then be mounted in several different ways to a metal heat sink/reflector and light extraction techniques can then be applied to the chip and compared for performance. Success in this work will lead to high efficiency LED devices with a simple low cost fabrication method and high product yield as stated by DOE goals for its solid state lighting portfolio.
Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Ferguson, Ian & Summers, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical properties of lanthanide-containing halide-modified zinc tellurite glasses

Description: As part of an ongoing investigation to characterize the properties and structure of Zn halide-Te oxide glasses, we report preliminary measurements of the optical properties of several Nd- and Er-doped tellurites. Measurements include fluorescence lifetimes and estimates of the theoretical radiative lifetimes (from traditional Judd-Ofelt analysis of optical absorption spectra) as well as phonon sideband studies sensitive to vibrational characteristics near the rare earth ion. Response of these optical features to the substitution of alternative halides is examined.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Sidebottom, D.L.; Hruschka, M.A.; Potter, B.G.; Brow, R.K. & Hudgens, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetism of cuprate oxides

Description: A review is given of current neutron scattering experiments on cuprate oxides. We first discuss the extensive neutron measurements on high-Tc oxides: La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and related (La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4})Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The second topic is the spin- Peierls system Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}GeO{sub 3}, where a new type of antiferromagnetic phase has been discovered. 17 refs, 8 figs.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Shirane, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nature of the green luminescent center in zinc oxide

Description: EPR, optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopies are used to characterize a wide range of different ZnO phosphor powders. A good correlation is generally observed between the 510-nm green emission intensity and the density of paramagnetic isolated oxygen vacancies. Both quantities are found to peak at a free-carrier density of about 1.4x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}. The green emission intensity can be strongly influenced by free-carrier depletion at the particle surface, especially for small particles and/or low doping. The data suggest that the green PL in ZnO phosphors is due to recombination of electrons in singly occupied oxygen vacancies with photoexcited holes in the valence band.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Vanheusden, K.; Warren, W.L.; Seager, C.H.; Tallant, D.R.; Caruso, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative window schemes for CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cells. Annual report, 1 November 1995--31 October 1996

Description: The objectives of this program are to develop alternate heterojunction partner layers (buffer layers) for high efficiency CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cells, and improve the understanding of how these layers and the details of processing affect cell performance. Investigations have primarily involved three tasks: (1) MOCVD growth of non-cadmium containing buffer layers; (2) optimized processing of buffer layers for high efficiency solar cells; and (3) electrical and physical characterization of layers and devices. Investigations of alternative buffer layers emphasized studies of ZnO grown by MOCVD. Using CIS substrates obtained form Siemens for process development, it was determined that growth procedures that resulted in good results with Siemens CIS (non-sulfur containing material) substrates also worked well with NREL CIGS material. A two step process was developed for growing highly resistive ZnO buffer layers (i-ZnO). In particular, after growing 100 to 150 {angstrom} of ZnO at 250 C, an additional 600 {angstrom} to 800 {angstrom} were grown at 100 C. Collaboration with NREL resulted in a n-ZnO/i-ZnO/CIGS cell which was determined to have a total area efficiency of 12.7%, and an active area efficiency greater than 13%. After growing i-ZnO with the two-step process onto NREL CIGS material, the i-ZnO/CIGS film structure was sent to NREL for deposition of a TCO, namely, conducting ZnO (n-ZnO). Collector grids and a MgF{sub 2} AR coating were also deposited at NREL. Low level efforts were devoted to studies of ZnSe and InSe buffer layers. A total area efficiency of 9.5% was achieved for a completed ZnSe/CIS cell making use of a RF sputtered ZnO for a TCO. Investigations of In{sub x}Se{sub y} (InSe) buffer layers were also initiated this past year.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Olsen, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental studies of the inter-relationship between grain boundary properties and the macroscopic properties of polycrystalline materials. Final report, October 1991--December 1996

Description: The research performed under this grant has been principally devoted to understanding and quantifying the relationship between the macroscopic electrical transport properties of ZnO based materials and the properties of their grain boundaries. Two forms of polycrystalline ZnO have been extensively investigated, polycrystalline thin films, such as are used as optically transmitting, conducting electrodes and as piezoelectric films, and polycrystalline bulk forms, such as are widely used as surge arrestors. The former are essentially two-dimensional and the latter three-dimensional. The research has included both simulation and experimental studies. The simulation studies have been primarily addressing how the macroscopic properties of bulk ZnO ceramics are determined by the electrical and crystallographic properties of their grain boundaries. The behavior of varistors has been the focus since the highly nonlinear electrical characteristics provide an opportunity to test the models in much greater detail than is possible if the characteristics were simply ohmic. Furthermore, there is a continuing desire to improve varistor characteristics, such as the sharpness of the switching voltage and the degree of nonlinearity, so the effect of grain boundary variations on these parameters have been specifically addressed and found to quantitatively depend on the variation in both grain size and grain boundary barrier height. New methods of quantifying the effect of microstructural variations on the I-V characteristics have been introduced. The simulations have included both electrical network methods and effective medium methods. During the course of the research, the studies were extended to describe electrical breakdown, specifically on how microstructural variations lead to current localization which in turn leads to a form of electrical discharge failure, a common form of failure of varistors under electrical loading.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Clarke, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An XAS investigation of corrosion characteristics in AB{sub 5} type metal hydride electrodes

Description: Apart from the stress cracking due to lattice expansion and contraction during cycling, several substituents such as Ce and Co, and additions to the electrolyte such as ZnO have the ability to significantly improve the cycle life and corrosion characteristics in AB5 type metal hydride alloys. In situ XANES and SVET studies reveal that Ce substitution causes a protective passivation layer comprising of Ce oxides. This significantly reduces the extent of corrosion of substituents such as Ni despite greater percent volume expansion and contraction cycle compared with non Ce substituted samples. The Co substitution reduces the extent of percent volume expansion in the lattice cycle and hence the extent of stress cracking. It also segregates to the surface as Co(OH)2 which due to its higher conductivity counters the resistive effects due to build up of surface Ni(OH)2. Addition of ZnO to the electrolyte suppresses corrosion of substituents such as Ni in non Ce substituted alloys resulting in improved cycle life. The effects on Ce substituted alloys is negligible.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Adzic, G.D. & Marrero, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department