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Application of software quality assurance to a specific scientific code development task

Description: This paper describes an application of software quality assurance to a specific scientific code development program. The software quality assurance program consists of three major components: administrative control, configuration management, and user documentation. The program attempts to be consistent with existing local traditions of scientific code development while at the same time providing a controlled process of development.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Dronkers, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processed seismic motion records from earthquakes (1982--1993): Recorded at Scotty`s Castle, California

Description: As part of the contract with the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), URS/John A. Blume & Associates, Engineers (URS/Blume) maintained a network of seismographs to monitor the ground motion generated by the underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The seismographs were located in the communities surrounding the NTS and the Las Vegas valley. When these seismographs were not used for monitoring the UNE generated motions, a limited number of seismographs were maintained for monitoring motion generated by other than UNEs (e.g. motion generated by earthquakes, wind, blast). Scotty`s Castle was one of the selected earthquake monitoring station. During the period from 1982 through 1993, numerous earthquakes with varied in magnitudes and distances were recorded at Scotty`s Castle. The records from 24 earthquakes were processed and included in this report. Tables 1 and 2 lists the processed earthquakes in chronological order and in the order of epicentral distances, respectively. Figure 1 shows these epicenters and magnitudes. Due to the potential benefit of these data for the scientific community, DOE/NV and the National Park Service authorize the release of these records.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Lum, P.K. & Honda, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Yucca Mountain Project: Information on Estimated Costs to Respond to Employee E-Mails That Raised Questions about Quality Assurance

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In March 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) reported the discovery of a series of e-mail messages written in the late 1990s by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) employees working under a contract with DOE on the Yucca Mountain Project. These e-mails alerted DOE that USGS workers may have falsified records for scientific work on the project and may have been disdainful of the project's quality assurance program and its requirements. In March 2006, we reported that DOE was engaged in a detailed review of these and other project e-mails and was reworking technical documents to ensure the credibility of the USGS's scientific analyses, particularly its conclusions on water infiltration. At Congress' request, we undertook follow-on work to determine the estimated costs incurred in DOE's response, which also included additional management and quality assurance training for project personnel. We briefed Congressional staff on October 23, 2006, on the results of this work. As Congress requested, we also briefed Congressional staff on the estimated cost of completing the Yucca Mountain Project, based on DOE's new schedule for receiving a license and opening the nuclear waste repository by 2017."
Date: January 19, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kriging for interpolation of sparse and irregularly distributed geologic data

Description: For many geologic problems, subsurface observations are available only from a small number of irregularly distributed locations, for example from a handful of drill holes in the region of interest. These observations will be interpolated one way or another, for example by hand-drawn stratigraphic cross-sections, by trend-fitting techniques, or by simple averaging which ignores spatial correlation. In this paper we consider an interpolation technique for such situations which provides, in addition to point estimates, the error estimates which are lacking from other ad hoc methods. The proposed estimator is like a kriging estimator in form, but because direct estimation of the spatial covariance function is not possible the parameters of the estimator are selected by cross-validation. Its use in estimating subsurface stratigraphy at a candidate site for geologic waste repository provides an example.
Date: December 31, 1986
Creator: Campbell, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

Description: Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W. & Bhattacharyya, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste package for a repository located in tuff

Description: The development of waste packages for emplacement in a tuff repository has been proceeding during the past year on a broad front. Experimental work has been focused on determination of important package environment parameters and testing the response of waste forms and package materials to the anticipated environment. Conceptual designs have been selected with alternatives to accommodate present uncertainties in the environment and material performance. Computational capabilities are being adapted to provide analyses of anticipated package performance, and plans are being developed for in-situ testing. The waste package activities have been integrated into the overall NNWSI project to assure timely completion consistent with the statutory and regulatory requirements leading to repository site selection around the end of the decade. 7 references.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Ballou, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent Fuel Test-Climax: core logging for site investigation and instrumentation

Description: As an integral part of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax 5150 ft (1570 m) of granite core was obtained. This core was diamond drilled in various sizes, mainly 38-mm and 76-mm diameters. The core was teken with single tube core barrels and was unoriented. Techniques used to drill and log this core are discussed, as well as techniques to orient the core. Of the 5150 ft (1570 m) of core more than 3645 ft (1111 m) was retained and logged in some detail. As a result of the core logging, geologic discontinuities were identified, joint frequency and spacing characterized. Discontinuities identified included several joint sets, shear zones and faults. Correlations based on coring along were generally found to be impossible, even for the more prominent features. The only feature properly correlated from the exploratory drilling was the fault system at the end of the facility, but it was not identified from the exploratory core as a fault. Identification of discontinuities was later helped by underground mapping that identified several different joint sets with different characteristics. It was found that joint frequency varied from 0.3 to 1.1 joint per foot of core for open fractures and from 0.3 to 3.3/ft for closed or healed fractures. Histograms of fracture spacing indicate that there is likely a random distribution of spacing superimposed upon uniformly spaced fractures. It was found that a low angle joint set had a persistent mean orientation. These joints were healed and had pervasive wall rock alteration which made identification of joints in this set possible. The recognition of a joint set with known attitude allowed orientation of much of the core. This orientation technique was found to be effective. 10 references, 25 figures, 4 tables.
Date: May 28, 1982
Creator: Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr. & Thorpe, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic test system for fracture flow studies in crystalline rock

Description: A hydrologic test system has been designed to measure the intrinsic permeabilities of individual fractures in crystalline rock. This system is used to conduct constant pressure-declining flow rate and pressure pulse hydraulic tests. The system is composed of four distinct units: (1) the Packer System, (2) Injection system, (3) Collection System, and (4) Electronic Data Acquisition System. The apparatus is built in modules so it can be easily transported and re-assembled. It is also designed to operate over a wide range of pressures (0 to 300 psig) and flow rates (0.2 to 1.0 gal/min). This system has proved extremely effective and versatile in its use at the Climax Facility, Nevada Test Site.
Date: May 5, 1982
Creator: Raber, E; Lord, D. & Burklund, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trench logs from a strand of the Rock Valley Fault System, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

Description: The Rock Valley fault system trends northeasterly through the southeast corner of the Nevada Test Site. The system records left-lateral offset of Paleozoic and Tertiary rocks, although total offset amounts to only a few kilometers. Distinct scarps in alluvial deposits of Quaternary age and a concentration of seismicity, particularly at its north end, suggest that the Rock Valley fault system may be active. Two trenches were excavated by backhoe in 1978 across a 0.5-m-high scarp produced by a strand of the Rock Valley fault system. A detailed logging of the two Rock Valley fault trenches was undertaken during the spring of 1984. This report presents: (1) logs of both walls of the two trenches, (2) a general description of the lithologic units and the soils formed in these units that are exposed in and near the fault trenches, (3) observations of the clast fabric of unfaulted and faulted deposits exposed in the trench walls, and (4) a map of the surficial deposits in the vicinity of the trenches.
Date: December 31, 1987
Creator: Yount, J.C.; Shroba, R.R.; McMasters, C.R.; Huckins, H.E. & Rodriguez, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen speciation in hydrated layers on nuclear waste glass

Description: The hydration of an outer layer on nuclear waste glasses is known to occur during leaching, but the actual speciation of hydrogen (as water or hydroxyl groups) in these layers has not been determined. As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, we have used infrared spectroscopy to determine hydrogen speciations in three nuclear waste glass compositions (SRL-131 & 165, and PNL 76-68), which were leached at 90{sup 0}C (all glasses) or hydrated in a vapor-saturated atmosphere at 202{sup 0}C (SRL-131 only). Hydroxyl groups were found in the surface layers of all the glasses. Molecular water was found in the surface of SRL-131 and PNL 76-68 glasses that had been leached for several months in deionized water, and in the vapor-hydrated sample. The water/hydroxyl ratio increases with increasing reaction time; molecular water makes up most of the hydrogen in the thick reaction layers on vapor-phase hydrated glass while only hydroxyl occurs in the least reacted samples. Using the known molar absorptivities of water and hydroxyl in silica-rich glass the vapor-phase layer contained 4.8 moles/liter of molecular water, and 0.6 moles water in the form hydroxyl. A 15 {mu}m layer on SRL-131 glass formed by leaching at 90{sup 0}C contained a total of 4.9 moles/liter of water, 2/3 of which was as hydroxyl. The unreacted bulk glass contains about 0.018 moles/liter water, all as hydroxyl. The amount of hydrogen added to the SRL-131 glass was about 70% of the original Na + Li content, not the 300% that would result from alkali=hydronium ion interdiffusion. If all the hydrogen is then assumed to be added as the result of alkali-H{sup +} interdiffusion, the molecular water observed may have formed from condensation of the original hydroxyl groups.
Date: January 15, 1987
Creator: Aines, R. D.; Weed, H. C. & Bates, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation doses in granite around emplacement holes in the Spent Fuel Test - Climax. Final report

Description: Final comparisons are made between measured and calculated radiation doses around the holes in which the spent fuel was emplaced in the Spent Fuel Test - Climax. Neutron doses were found to be negligible compared with gamma doses. Good agreement was found between the doses predicted by Monte Carlo calculations and those measured by short-exposure thermoluminescence dosimetry. Poor agreement was found between the calculational results and doses measured by exposure of LiF optical-absorption-type dosimeters for long periods, probably because of an inability to accurately correct for fade resulting from elevated temperature exposure over several months. The maximum dose to the rock occurred at the walls of the emplacement holes, and amounted to 1.6 MGy (1.6 x 10{sup 8} rad) in granite for the emplacement period of nearly 3 years. It is recommended that dose evaluations for future high-level nuclear waste storage facilities also be performed by combining calculations and dosimetry. Passive dosimetry techniques, if used, should involve short exposures, so that laboratory calibrations can be performed with duplicate time, temperature, dose rate, and dose parameters. An attractive alternative would be to use active ionization chambers, inserted only periodically. These could be calibrated under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions, and could be read directly. 23 references, 7 figures, 8 tables.
Date: July 26, 1984
Creator: Van Konynenburg, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Complete Bouguer gravity map of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada

Description: About 15,000 gravity stations were used to create the gravity map. Gravity studies at the Nevada Test Site were undertaken to help locate geologically favorable areas for underground nuclear tests and to help characterize potential high-level nuclear waste storage sites. 48 refs. (TEM)
Date: December 31, 1987
Creator: Healey, D.L.; Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A. & Oliver, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G. & Broxton, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

Description: Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Carman, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY1993 annual report to Congress

Description: As established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, the United States Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is responsible for managing and disposing of the Nation`s spent nuclear fuel from civilian nuclear power reactors and high-level radioactive waste from defense activities. The program will provide leadership in developing and implementing strategies that assure the health and safety of the public and workers, protect the environment, and merit public confidence, in an economically viable manner. To accomplish the program`s mission, we are developing a waste management system culminating in a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth. Our goals include: (1) determining whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 as the only site currently to be evaluated, is suitable for a geologic repository; (2) resolving the issue of acceptance of spent fuel from nuclear utilities in 1998; (3) developing more effective working relationships with external parties who have an interest in the waste disposal mission; and (4) establishing a new funding mechanism that will permit efficient and effective execution of our mission and achievement of our goals. This report contains details of the program`s accomplishments and activities over the past fiscal year and the audited financial statements for the Nuclear Waste Fund.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fran Ridge horizontal coring summary report hole UE-25h No. 1, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

Description: Hole UE-25h No. 1 was core drilled during December 1982 and January 1983 within several degrees of due west, 400 ft horizontally into the southeast slope of Fran Ridge at an altitude of 3409 ft. The purpose of the hole was to obtain data pertinent for radionuclide transport studies in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This unit had been selected previously as the host rock for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, adjacent to the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site. The hole was core drilled first with air, then with air mist, and finally with air, soap, and water. Many problems were encountered, including sloughing of tuff into the uncased hole, vibration of the drill rods, high rates of bit wear, and lost circulation of drilling fluids. On the basis of experience gained in drilling this hole, ways to improve horizontal coring with air are suggested in this report. All of the recovered core, except those pieces that were wrapped and waxed, were examined for lithophysal content, for fractures, and for fracture-fill mineralization. The results of this examination are given in this report. Core recovery greater than 80% at between 209 and 388 ft permitted a fracture frequency analysis. The results are similar to the fracture frequencies observed in densely welded nonlithophysal tuff from holes USW GU-3 and USW G-4. The fractures in core from UE-25h No. 1 were found to be smooth and nonmineralized or coated with calcite, silica, or manganese oxide. Open fractures with caliche (porous, nonsparry calcite) were not observed beyond 83.5 ft, which corresponds to an overburden depth of 30 ft.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Norris, A.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr. & Merson, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

Description: Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft.
Date: December 31, 1986
Creator: Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G. & Glover, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophysical tomography for imaging water movement in welded tuff

Description: Alterant tomography has been evaluated for its ability to delineate in-situ water flow paths in a fractured welded-tuff rock mass. The evaluation involved a field experiment in which tomographs of electromagnetic attenuation factor (or attenuation rate) at 300 MHZ were made before, during, and after the introduction to the rock of two different water-based tracers: a plain water and dye solution, and salt water and dye. Alterant tomographs were constructed by subtracting, cell by cell, the attenuation factors derived from measurements before each tracer was added to the rock mass from the attenuation factors derived after each tracer was added. The alterant tomographs were compared with other evidence of water movement in the rock: borescope logs of fractures, and postexperiment cores used to locate the dye tracer on the fractured surfaces. These comparisons indicate that alterant tomography is suitable for mapping water flow through fractures and that it may be useful in inferring which of the fractures are hydrologically connected in the image plane. The technique appears to be sensitive enough to delineate flow through a single fracture and to define fractures with a spatial resolution of about 10 cm on an imaging scale of a few meters. 9 refs., 3 figs.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Daily, W. & Ramirez, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of alterant geophysical tomography in welded tuff

Description: The ability of alterant geophysical tomography to delineate flow paths in a welded tuff rock mass has been preliminarily evaluated based on the results of a field experiment. Electromagnetic measurements were made before, during and after a water-based, dye tracer flowed through the rock mass. Alterant geophysical tomographs were generated and compared with independent evidence - borescope logs, neutron logs and dyed rock samples. Anomalies present in the tomograph match the location and orientation of fractures mapped with a borescope. The location of tracer-strained fractures coincides with the location of some image anomalies; other geophysical anomalies exist where tracer-strained fractures were not observed, perhaps due to poor core recovery. Additional drilling to locate stained flow paths and other experiments are planned so that the applicability of the technique can be further evaluated. 7 refs., 5 figs.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Ramirez, A.L. & Daily, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of borehole deformation modulus values before and after extensive heating of a granitic rock mass

Description: An extensive campaign of in situ deformation modulus measurements was recently completed using a standard NX borehole jack. These results were obtained in a granite intrusive where spent nuclear-fuel assemblies and electrical heaters had raised the rock temperatures 10{sup 0}C to 40{sup 0}C above ambient. We present an analysis of temperature effects based on 41 preheat and 63 post-heat measurements in three boreholes. Using analysis of covariance statistical techniques, we found that the deformation modulus is affected by heat, loading direction, and position within the borehole. The analysis also uncovered a significant interaction between the effects of heating and loading direction. We used 123 measurements from the same boreholes to evaluate the "Draft Standard Guide for Estimating the In Situ Modulus of Rock Masses Using the NX-Borehole Jack" which was recently proposed by Heuze. In particular, we examined the criterion for screening measurements in those cases where contact between the jack platen and the borehole wall was incomplete. We found that the proposed screen appears to operate randomly on the data and is therefore ineffective. 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L. Jr. & Axelrod, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department