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Oblique ion texturing of yttria-stabilized zirconia: The {l_brace}211{r_brace}<111> structure

Description: Amorphous (Zr,Y)O{sub x} films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by oblique ion bombardment. Crystalline texture nucleated by the ion beam was replicated by solid-phase epitaxial growth throughout the formerly amorphous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) film. The resulting YSZ films have (211) orientation normal to the substrate with in-plane directions (111), parallel, and (110), transverse, to the azimuth of the ion beam. We hypothesize that the texture mechanism involves ion-induced film compression and shear. The results, taken together with prior work, show that oblique ion texturing of amorphous films is a general phenomenon that can be used to fabricate substrates with more than one type of crystallographic orientation.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Berdahl, Paul; Reade, Ronald P.; Liu, Jinping; Russo, Richard E.; Fritzemeier, Les; Buczek, David et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joining of melt-textured YBCO : a direct contact method.

Description: We report a method for making weld joints, capable of transmitting high supercurrent densities, in bulk samples of melt textured YBCO. The joining procedure is carried out in a flowing atmosphere of O{sub 2} to eliminate problems associated with nitrogen gas, which can become trapped in the joint. No filler or fluxing material is used. The method can be used to join large areas (several cm{sup 2}) that are capable of transmitting supercurrent densities exceeding 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}.
Date: December 19, 2001
Creator: Chen, L.; Claus, H.; Paulikas, A. P.; Zheng, H. & Veal, B. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indentation and oxidation studies on silicon nitride joints

Description: Si nitride ceramics have been joined with a Y oxide-SiO{sub 2} interlayer. A 1:2 molar ratio of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to SiO{sub 2} was chosen to obtain the desired Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} stoichiometry, which should give the interlayer better oxidation resistance compared to other interlayer materials. Mechanical characterization of the joints performed by indentation shows it to have good room temperature strength.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Gopal, M.; De Jonghe, L.C. & Thomas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meissner holes in remagnetized superconductors

Description: Flux distributions on different faces of YBCO single crystals remagnetized by unidirectional and rotating fields are studied using advanced magneto-optical techniques. Unusual structures corresponding to the appearance of strong current concentration along certain fronts are found. At such fronts the vortex lines bend into closed loops which then collapse and form flux free cylinders. Strong magnetization currents along these Meissner holes result in essential flux redistribution and development of dynamical instabilities in the samples.
Date: April 1996
Creator: Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Welp, U. & Crabtree, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The nature of twin boundaries in the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}

Description: Twin boundaries are the most commonly observed lattice defect in the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}. Furthermore, the region around a twin boundary for which the structure and composition are seriously affected is of a scale comparable to the coherence length for the superconducting order parameter. Thus, twin boundaries can be important in the behavior of magnetic vortices and the critical current density in this material. In this paper the authors review the results of a wide range of investigations of twin boundary structure and composition by advanced transmission electron microscopy methods, both imaging and analytical in nature. A simple Landau model of twin boundary energy and width is proposed.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Zhu, Y. & Welch, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of defects on the critical points in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}

Description: The upper and lower critical points are investigated in untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} single crystals with dilute columnar defects. Dilute columnar defects raise the upper critical point, indicating that the transition near the upper critical point is a vortex entanglement transition. The lower critical point is very sensitive to columnar defect disorder and its position can be described by a Lindemann-like criterion similar to that for melting. Dilute columnar defects induce non-linear behavior in the I-V curves of the vortex liquid state above the lower critical point, which the authors interpret as a vestige of the critical region associated with the Bose glass transition below the lower critical point.
Date: January 26, 2000
Creator: Kwok, W. K.; Olsson, R. J.; Karapetrov, G.; Paulis, L. M.; Moulton, W. G.; Hofman, D. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental Efficiency Limitations for Low Electron Energy Cathololuminescence

Description: The design of field emission displays is severely constrained by the universally poor cathodoluminescence (CL) efficiency of most phosphors at low excitation energies. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, the authors have measured the time decay of spectrally-resolved, pulsed CL and photoluminescence (PL) in several phosphors activated by rare earth and transition metal impurities, including Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Tb, and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn. Activator concentrations ranged from {approximately}0.25 to 10%. The CL decay curves are always non-linear on a log(CL)-linear(time) plot--i.e. they deviate from first order decay kinetics. These deviations are always more pronounced at short times and larger activator concentrations and are largest at low beam energies where the decay rates are noticeably faster. PL decay is always slower than that seen for CL, but these differences disappear after most of the excited species have decayed. They have also measured the dependence of steady state CL efficiency on beam energy. They find that larger activator concentrations accelerate the drop in CL efficiency seen at low beam energies. These effects are largest for the activators which interact more strongly with the host lattice. While activator-activator interactions are known to limit PL and CL efficiency in most phosphors, the present data suggest that a more insidious version of this mechanism is partly responsible for poor CL efficiency at low beam energies. This enhanced concentration quenching is due to the interaction of nearby excited activators. These interactions can lead to non-radiative activator decay, hence lower steady state CL efficiency. Excited state clustering, which may be caused by the large energy loss rate of low energy primary electrons, appears to enhance these interactions. In support of this idea, they find that PL decays obtained at high laser pulse energies resemble the non-linear decays seen in the CL data.
Date: August 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of intergranular phases in tetragonal and cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia

Description: Achieving superplasticity in fine grained ceramics is a potential method to lower energy costs associated with ceramic manufacturing via net shape forming. Superplasticity is intrinsic in 3-mol%- yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP); and can be enhanced by addition of glass to form intergranular phases which are thought to both limit grain growth and promote grain boundary sliding during processing (sintering and hot isostatic pressing). This permits processing at lower temperatures. However, superplasticity has not been observed in 8-mol%-yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (8Y-CSZ), ostensibly due to its larger grain size and high grain growth rates. As part of a larger study, high-spatial-resolution energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) has been performed on 3Y-TZP and 8Y-CSZ specimens doped with various glassy phases to characterize intergranular compositions.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Evans, N.D.; Imamura, P.H.; Mecartney, M.L. & Bentley, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ real-time studies of oxygen incorporation in complex oxide thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and ion scattering and recoil spectrometry

Description: The surface termination of c-axis oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) and the oxygen incorporation mechanism has been investigated using a unique combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectrometry (ToF-ISARS). The high surface sensitivity of the ToF-ISARS technique combined with the bulk oxygen sensitivity of SE are shown to yield complimentary information. The SE provided the film orientation and quality, while ToF-ISARS supplied surface compositional and structural information and enabled isotopic {sup 18}O tracer studies. It was determined that the O content of the film had little effect on the surface termination of the film, indicating a lack of labile Cu(1) sites at the c-axis oriented YBCO surface. Also, strong evidence for a Ba or BaO terminated structure is shown. The data related to the {sup 18}O tracer studies indicate that O from the reaction ambient incorporates only into the labile Cu(1) sites during both deposition and annealing, while stable O sites were populated with O from the sputtered target, indicating either the need for sputtered atomic O or sputtered YCuO complexes to occupy the stable Cu(2) sites.
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Mueller, A. H.; Gao, Y.; Irene, E. A.; Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R. & Achultz, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical current density and dissipation in sintered YBCO filaments

Description: Critical current density and dissipation of four sintered YBCO filaments were measured using a continuous DC power supply. Each sample exhibited somewhat different characteristics from the others even though 3 of the 4 samples are from the same batch. The data suggest that it is possible for the YBCO filament to be in a state of stable equilibrium when part of the filament is in the flux-flow state and part of the filament is in the normal state (local hot spots). This behavior may be advantageous for resistive fault current limiters because the intermediate state (partly flux-flow and partly normal) has an overall resistance much higher than that of the flux-flow state but it does not lead to thermal runaway (burnout) or excessive heating compared to a YBCO filament driven into normal state over its entire length. Two of the samples were broken as a result of local burnout.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R. & Seol, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High J{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} Films via Rapid, Low pO{sub 2} Pyrolysis

Description: In this investigation, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) films were fabricated via a metal acetate, trifluoroacetic acid based sol-gel route, and spin-coat deposited on (100) LaAlO{sub 3} with a focus on maximizing J{sub c}, while minimizing processing time. We demonstrate that the use of a low pO{sub 2} atmosphere during the pyrolysis stage can lead to at least a tetiold reduction in pyrolysis time, compared to a 1 atm. O{sub 2} ambient. High-quality YBCO films on LaAlO{sub 3}, with J{sub c} values up to 3 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, can be routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films.
Date: September 21, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsed laser deposition of thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films on flexible substrates

Description: As an alternative to bulk processing of high-{Tc} materials for conductor applications, we have been studying the applicability of physical vapor deposition to the problem of developing flexible superconducting elements with high I{sub c}. Specifically, we have used a two-step process consisting of ion-assisted sputtering of textured buffer layers on nickel-based substrates, followed by pulsed laser deposition of YBaCu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films. The films have been analyzed by measuring the J{sub c} of microbridges, I{sub c} for 1 cm-wide strips, and field dependence up to 9 T. In addition tests have been conducted to determine minimum bending radius of the films.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Foltyn, S. R.; Arendt, P. N. & Wu, X. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department