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Yield Functions and Plastic Potentials for BCC Metals and Possibly Other Materials

Description: Yield functions and plastic potentials are expressed in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor for polycrystalline metals and other isotropic materials. The plastic volume change data of Richmond is used to evaluate the embedded materials properties for some bcc metals and one polymer. A general form for the plastic potential is found that is intended to represent and cover a wide range of materials types.
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Christensen, R M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling Equation for yield strength of nanoporous open-cell foams

Description: A comprehensive study on the relationship between yield strength, relative density and ligament sizes is presented for nanoporous Au foams. Depth-sensing nanoindentation tests were performed on nanoporous foams ranging from 20 to 42% relative density with ligament sizes ranging from 10 to 900 nm. The Gibson and Ashby yield strength equation for open-cell macro-cellular foams is modified in order to incorporate ligament size effects. This study demonstrates that at the nanoscale, foam strength is governed by ligament size, in addition to relative density. Furthermore, we present the ligament length scale as a new parameter to tailor foam properties and achieve high strength at low densities.
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Hodge, A M; Biener, J; Hayes, J R; Bythrow, P M; A.Volkert, C & Hamza, A V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An overview on the characterization and mechanical behavior of nanoporous Gold

Description: In this paper we present what we believe are the most pressing issues in understanding the mechanical behavior of nanoporous foams. We have postulated that a gold foam presents the best candidate for a systematic study of nanoporous foams since it can be synthesized with a wide range of ligaments sizes and densities. We have also conducted preliminary tests that demonstrate (a) Au foams have a fracture behavior dictated by the ligament size, and (b) nanoporous Au is a high yield strength material. Thus, we have demonstrated the potential in developing nanoporous foams as a new class of high yield strength/low density materials.
Date: September 13, 2005
Creator: Hodge, A M; Hayes, J R; Caro, J A; Biener, J & Hamza, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive and Localized Measurements of Stress-Strain Curves and Fracture Toughness of Ferritic Steels at Various Temperatures Using Innovative Stress-Strain Microprobe Technology. Final Report for Period 8/13/1996--06/16/1999

Description: The results presented in this report demonstrate the capabilities of Advanced Technology Corporation's patented Portable/In Situ Stress-Strain Microprobe (TM) (SSM) System and its Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) test techniques to nondestructively measure the yield strength, the stress-strain curve, and the fracture toughness of ferritic steel samples and components in a reliable and accurate manner.
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: Haggag, Fahmy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A viscoplastic micromechanical model for the yield strength of nanocrystalline materials

Description: In this paper we present a micromechanical approach based on Fast Fourier Transforms to study the role played by dislocation glide and grain boundary (GB) accommodation in the determination of the plastic behavior of nanostructured materials. For this, we construct unit cells representing self-similar polycrystals with different grain sizes in the nanometer range and use local constitutive equations for slip and GB accommodation. We study the effect of grain size, strain rate and pressure on the local and effective behavior of nanostructured fcc materials with parameters obtained from experiments and atomistic simulations. Predictions of a previous qualitative pressure-sensitive model for the effective yield strength behind a shock front are substantially improved by considering strain partition between slip and GB activity. Under quasiestatic conditions, assuming diffusion-controlled mechanisms at GB, the model predicts a strain-rate sensitivity increase in nanocrystalline samples with respect to the same coarse-grained material of the same order as in recently published experiments.
Date: March 14, 2006
Creator: Lebensohn, R; Bringa, E & Caro, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Steinberg-Guinan model for High-Pressure Carbon, Diamond Phase

Description: Since the carbon, diamond phase has such a high yield strength, dynamic simulations must account for strength even for strong shock waves ({approx} 3 Mbar). We have determined an initial parametrization of two strength models: Steinberg-Guinan (SG) and a modified or improved SG, that captures the high pressure dependence of the calculated shear modulus up to 10 Mbar. The models are based upon available experimental data and on calculated elastic moduli using robust density functional theory. Additionally, we have evaluated these models using hydrodynamic simulations of planar shocks experiments.
Date: July 27, 2007
Creator: Orlikowski, D; Correa, A; Schwegler, E & Klepeis, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compaction wave profiles in granular HMX

Description: Meso-scale simulations of a compaction wave in a granular bed of HMX have been performed. The grains are fully resolved in order that the change in porosity across the wave front is determined by the elastic-plastic response of the grains rather than an empirical law for the porosity as a function of pressure. Numerical wave profiles of the pressure and velocity are compared with data from a gas gun experiment. The experiment used an initial porosity of 36%, and the wave had a pressure comparable to the yield strength of the grains. The profiles are measured at the front and back of the granular bed. The transit time for the wave to travel between the gauges together with the Hugoniot jump conditions determines the porosity behind the wave front. In the simulations the porosity is determined by the yield strength and stress concentrations at the contact between grains. The value of the yield strength needed to match the experiment is discussed. Analysis of the impedance match of the wave at the back gauge indicates that the compaction wave triggers a small amount of burn, less than 1% mass fraction, on the micro-second time scale of the experiment.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Menikoff, Ralph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the structural response of a containment vessel for high-explosive (HE) experiments. The probabilistic dynamic response of the vessel is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS with the non-linear structural dynamics code, DYNA-3D. The probabilistic model includes variations in geometry and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and material flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to vessel failure, is determined.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.); Thacker, B. H. (Ben H.) & Riha, D. S. (David S)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxide dispersion strengthening of nickel electrodeposits for microsystem applications.

Description: Oxide dispersion strengthened nickel (ODS-Ni) electrodeposits were fabricated to net shape in a nickel sulfamate bath using the LIGA process. A 20 g/l charge of 10 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder was suspended in the bath during electrodeposition to produce specimens containing an approximately 0.001-0.02 volume fraction dispersion of the alumina particulate. Mechanical properties are compared to baseline specimens fabricated using an identical sulfamate bath chemistry without the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder charge. Results reveal that the as-deposited ODS-Ni exhibited significantly higher yield strength and ultimate tensile strength than the baseline material. This increase in as-deposited strength is attributed to Orowan strengthening. The ODS-Ni also showed improved retention of room temperature strength after annealing over a range of temperatures up to 600 C. Microscopy revealed that this resistance to anneal softening was due to an inhibition of grain growth in the presence of the oxide dispersion. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the properties of the dispersion strengthened deposit were uniform through its thickness, even in narrow, high aspect ratio structures. At elevated temperatures, the strength of the ODS-Ni was approximately three times greater than that of the baseline material although with a significant reduction in hot ductility.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Janek, Richard P.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Michael, R. P. & Goods, Steven Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

Description: The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.
Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P. & Ritchie, Robert O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing the Variability of HSLA Sheet Steels (TRP 9807)

Description: The sensitivity of the yield strength of a 70 ksi HSLA steel to changes in processing variables was investigated using a laboratory hot-rolling mill. Along with a detailed examination of the hot-rolled microstructures, auxiliary experiments were conducted to determine how the decomposition of the austenite phase and the occurrence of ultra-fine precipitate formation could account for the yield strength variability. A set of guidelines was recommended for the reduction of the yield strength variability.
Date: March 12, 2004
Creator: DeArdo, Anthony J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural Changes Accompanying Annealing of Cold-Worked Uranium

Description: Recovery of the capacity for plastic deformation by annealing previously cold-worked uranium plays a key role in the mechanism proposed for the cavitational swelling observed in irradiated uranium. Consequently, an investigation of recovery of yield strength was undertaken for unalloyed uranium and several selected alloys. During the course of this study, variations in the volume fraction of twins in the various specimens of unalloyed uranium suggested that twinning might be a mechanism of the recovery process. Results of four experiments in this study are described in this report.
Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: Caskey, G.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isochronous stress versus strain curves for normalized-and-tempered 2 {1/4}Cr-1Mo steel

Description: Tensile and creep data were collected for normalized-and-tempered 2 {1/4}Cr - 1Mo steel and used to construct isochronous stress versus strain curves to 100,000 h for temperatures to 566{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F). A plasticity equation was selected that normalized the flow curves to the yield strength, and a creep equation was formulated that included a parabolic primary creep term and a linear term. Due to the early initiation of tertiary creep in the normalized-and-tempered steel, the isochronous curves were limited to 1% total strain.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Swindeman, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strain hardening of fcc metal surfaces induced by microploughing

Description: Microploughing experiments were used as a method for better understanding the ploughing mechanism in gold and iridium single crystals. The plough depths ranged from 20 nm in iridium to 1,600 nm in gold. Yield stress profiles and TEM analyses indicate that both materials strain harden even when very small volumes of material are involved. Strain hardening theory, as applied to bulk material, is useful in analyzing the results.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Day, R.D.; Dickerson, R.M. & Russell, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A model for the yield strength anomaly in FeAl

Description: A phenomenological model is used to explain the yield strength anomaly in FeAl. The model incorporates hardening by thermal vacancies at intermediate temperatures, and dislocation creep at elevated temperatures. Since the vacancy concentration increases exponentially with temperature, the model predicts an exponential increase in strength with temperature. This increase is terminated by onset of dislocation creep. The model captures the experimentally observed strain rate dependency of the yield stress at high temperatures and yields an activation enthalpy for vacancy formation which is in excellent agreement with a previously measured value.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Baker, I. & George, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bicrystals with strain gradient effects

Description: Boundary between two perfectly bonded single crystals plays an important role in determining the deformation of the bicrystals. This work addresses the role of the grain boundary by considering the elevated hardening of a slip system due to a slip gradient. The slip gradients are associated with geometrically necessary dislocations and their effects become pronounced when a representative length scale of the deformation field is comparable to the dominant microstructural length scale of a material. A new rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory is presented and has been implemented within the finite element method framework. A planar bicrystal under uniform in-plane loading is studied using the new crystal theory. The strain is found to be continuous but nonuniform within a boundary layer around the interface. The lattice rotation is also nonuniform within the boundary layer. The width of the layer is determined by the misorientation of the grains, the hardening of slip systems, and most importantly by the characteristic material length scales. The overall yield strength of the bicrystal is also obtained. A significant grain-size dependence of the yield strength, the Hall- Petch effect is predicted.
Date: January 9, 1997
Creator: Shu, J.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime

Description: Measurements of Kanel et. al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. Failure (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study the authors have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Furnish, M.D. & Chhabildas, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report Auto/Steel Partnership Phase II

Description: This is the final report in which effects of strain-rate, temperature, and stress-state on the yield stress and the strain hardening behavior of many common steels used in automobile construction were investigated. The yield and flow stresses were found to exhibit very high rate sensitivities for most of the steels while the hardening rates were found to be insensitive to strain rate and temperature at lower temperatures or at higher strain rates. This behavior is consistent with the observation that overcoming the intrinsic Peierls stress is shown to be the rate-controlling mechanism in these materials at low temperatures. The dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain rate was found to decrease while the strain hardening rate increased. The Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model was adopted to model the stress-strain behavior of the steels. Parameters for the constitutive relations were derived for the MTS model and also for the Johnson-Cook (JC) and the Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) models. The results of this study substantiate the applicability of these models for describing the high strain-rate deformation of these materials. The JC and ZA models, however, due to their use of a power strain hardening law were found to yield constitutive relations for the materials which are strongly dependent on the range of strains for which the models were optimized.
Date: June 9, 1999
Creator: Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R. & Gray, G.T. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probabilistic structural response of a valve assembly to high impact loading

Description: Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are currently developing capabilities, in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty associated with the structural response of an explosive actuated valve-piston assembly. The probabilistic dynamic response of the piston upon impact is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) [1] with the non-linear structural dynamics code, ABAQUS/Explicit [2]. The probabilistic model includes variations in piston mass and geometry, and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to piston fracture, is determined.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: Rodriguez, E.A. & Thacker, B.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weld Properties of a Free Machining Stainless Steel

Description: The all weld metal tensile properties from gas tungsten arc and electron beam welds in free machining austenitic stainless steels have been determined. Ten heats with sulfur contents from 0.04 to 0.4 wt.% and a wide range in Creq/Nieq ratios were studied. Tensile properties of welds with both processes were related to alloy composition and solidification microstructure. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths increased with increasing Creq/Nieq ratios and ferrite content, whereas the ductility measured by RA at fracture decreased with sulfur content. Nevertheless, a range in alloy compositions was identified that provided a good combination of both strength and ductility. The solidification cracking response for the same large range of compositions are discussed, and compositions identified that would be expected to provide good performance in welded applications.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Brooks, J. A.; Goods, S. H. & Robino, C. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imploding Liner Material Strength Measurements at High-Strain and High Strain Rate

Description: Imploding, cylindrical liners provide a unique, shockless means of simultaneously accessing high strain and high-strain-rate for measurement of strength of materials in plastic flow. The radial convergence in the liner geometry results in the liner thickening as the circumference becomes smaller. Strains of up to {approximately}1.25 and strain rates of up to {approximately}10{sup 6} sec{sup -1} can be readily achieved in a material sample placed inside of an aluminum driver liner, using the Pegasus II capacitor bank. This provides yield strength data at conditions where none presently exists. The heating from work done against the yield strength is measured with multichannel pyrometry from infrared radiation emitted by the material sample. The temperature data as a function of liner position are unfolded to give the yield strength along the strain, strain-rate trajectory. Proper design of the liner and sample configuration ensures that the current diffused into the sample adds negligible heating. An important issue, in this type of temperature measurement, is shielding of the pickup optics from other sources of radiation. At strains greater than those achievable on Pegasus, e.g. the LANL Atlas facility, some materials may be heated all the way to melt by this process. Recent data on 6061-T6 Aluminum will be compared with an existing model for strain and strain-rate heating. The liner configuration and pyrometry diagnostic will also be discussed.
Date: October 18, 1998
Creator: Bartsch, R.R.; Lee, H.; Holtkamp, D.; Wright, B.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department