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High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

Description: This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.
Date: February 26, 2007
Creator: Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Applied to Small Samples

Description: We describe an adaptation of photon excited x-ray fluorescence analysis which is optimized for the analysis of small samples. A fine focus x-ray tube is used in conjunction with small diameter detector collimators in order to focus on a small sample volume with as high sensitivity as possible. Sample areas of less than 1 mm diameter can be analyzed with ppm detectability. In applications involving the analysis of human hair samples, a minimum detectable limit of 10 ppm Hg can be realized in a 1 mm long segment of a single hair in a counting time of 200 seconds. Simultaneous measurements of the sample mass can be obtained from the intensity of the incoherent scattering. An automated x-ray fluorescence analysis system using the technique for the scanning of elemental profiles in such hair samples will be described.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Jaklevic, J. M.; French, W. R.; Clarkson, T. W. & Greenwood, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the terawatt laser pressure vessel committee

Description: In 1995 the ATF project sent out an RFP for a CO2 Laser System having a TeraWatt output. Eight foreign and US firms responded. The Proposal Evaluation Panel on the second round selected Optoel, a Russian firm based in St. Petersburg, on the basis of the technical criteria and cost. Prior to the award, BNL representatives including the principal scientist, cognizant engineer and a QA representative visited the Optoel facilities to assess the company's capability to do the job. The contract required Optoel to provide a x-ray preionized high pressure amplifier that included: a high pressure cell, x-ray tube, internal optics and a HV pulse forming network for the main discharge and preionizer. The high-pressure cell consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel with various ports and windows that is filled with a gas mixture operating at 10 atmospheres. In accordance with BNL Standard ESH 1.4.1 ''Pressurized Systems For Experimental Use'', the pressure vessel design criteria is required to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code In 1996 a Preliminary Design Review was held at BNL. The vendor was requested to furnish drawings so that we could confirm that the design met the above criteria. The vendor furnished drawings did not have all dimensions necessary to completely analyze the cell. Never the less, we performed an analysis on as much of the vessel as we could with the available information. The calculations concluded that there were twelve areas of concern that had to be addressed to assure that the pressure vessel complied with the requirements of the ASME code. This information was forwarded to the vendor with the understanding that they would resolve these concerns as they continued with the vessel design and fabrication. The assembled amplifier pressure vessel was later hydro tested to 220 psi (15 Atm) ...
Date: September 25, 2000
Creator: Woodle, M.H.; Beauman, R.; Czajkowski, C.; Dickinson, T.; Lynch, D.; Pogorelsky, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle Accelerators

Description: In the most general sense, an accelerator is any device designed to give kinetic energy to ions or electrons. According to this definition the earliest cathode ray and canal ray tubes, made before the turn of the century were accelerators, the same principle is used in the x-ray tube, the cathode ray oscilloscope, the mass spectrograph, the electron microscope, and many other modern devices. However, we shall limit this discussion to those accelerators made for the particular purpose of inducing nuclear reactions, and to a few others that may be of interest in this connection, although they were originally designed for other purposes, such as high-voltage x-ray tubes intended for deep therapy or the radiography of metals. Although much work related to accelerators is thus omitted, it must not be forgotten that the principles learned and the practical experience gained by this work were of great importance in the development of the machiens now used in nuclear physics.
Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: McMillan, Edwin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary comparison of monolithic and aperture optics for XRMF

Description: Comparisons between standard aperture optics and a custom designed monolithic capillary x-ray optic for the Kevex Omicron are presented. The results demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting an Omicron with a monolithic capillary. Increased flux is observed especially at lower energies which results in an increase in sensitivity and potentially an increase in spatial resolution. Alignment is a critical factor in achieving optimal performance of the monolithic capillary. Further improvements in flux output, spot size and overall sensitivity are expected with better alignment.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Havrilla, G.J. & Worley, C.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A GUINIER CAMERA FOR SR POWDER DIFFRACTION: HIGH RESOLUTION AND HIGH THROUGHPUT.

Description: The paper describe a new powder diffraction instrument for synchrotron radiation sources which combines the high throughput of a position-sensitive detector system with the high resolution normally only provided by a crystal analyzer. It uses the Guinier geometry which is traditionally used with an x-ray tube source. This geometry adapts well to the synchrotron source, provided proper beam conditioning is applied. The high brightness of the SR source allows a high resolution to be achieved. When combined with a photon-counting silicon microstrip detector array, the system becomes a powerful instrument for radiation-sensitive samples or time-dependent phase transition studies.
Date: May 28, 2006
Creator: SIDDONS,D.P.; HULBERT, S.L. & STEPHENS, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of XRMF techniques for measurement of multi-layer film thicknesses on semiconductors for VLSI and ULSI integrated circuits. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0130

Description: A CRADA with Kevex Instruments was carried out to develop improved XRMF instrumentation for the nondestructive analysis of electronic components during manufacture. Experiments conducted at Y-12 proved the feasibility of a new Kevex x-ray tube design. Tests also show that the current commercial supply of straight glass capillaries is unreliable; however, other vendors of tapered single and multiple glass capillaries were identified. The stability of the Y-12 x-ray microprobe was significantly enhanced as a result of this CRADA.
Date: February 3, 1997
Creator: Carpenter, D.A.; Golijanin, D.L. & Wherry, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

Description: Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It ...
Date: September 1999
Creator: Jones, Keith W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

Description: Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.
Date: February 17, 2001
Creator: DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

Description: High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Jones, K. W. & Feng, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Increased Radiation When an X-ray Tube is Placed in a Strong Magnetic Field

Description: When a fixed anode x-ray tube is placed in a magnetic field (B) that is parallel to the anode-cathode axis, the x-ray exposure increases with increasing B. It was hypothesized that the increase was caused by backscattered electrons which were constrained by B and reaccelerated by the electric field onto the x-ray tube target. We performed computer simulations and physical experiments to study the behavior of the backscattered electrons in a magnetic field, and their effects on the radiation output, x-ray spectrum, and off-focal radiation. A Monte Carlo program (EGS4) was used to generate the combined energy and angular distribution of the backscattered electrons. The electron trajectories were traced and their landing locations back on the anode were calculated. Radiation emission from each point was modeled with published data (IPEM Report 78), and thus the exposure rate and x-ray spectrum with the contribution of backscattered electrons could be predicted. The point spread function for a pencil beam of electrons was generated and then convolved with the density map of primary electrons incident on the anode as simulated with a finite element program (Opera-3d, Vector Fields, UK). The total spatial distribution of x-ray emission could then be calculated. Simulations showed that for an x-ray tube working at 65 kV, about 54% of the electrons incident on the target were backscattered. In a magnetic field of 0.5 T, although the exposure would be increased by 33%, only a small fraction of the backscattered electrons landed within the focal spot area. The x-ray spectrum was slightly shifted to lower energies and the half value layer (HVL) was reduced by about 6%. Measurements of the exposure rate, half value layer and focal spot distribution were acquired as functions of B. Good agreement was observed between experimental data and simulation results. The wide spatial distribution ...
Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Wen, Z.F.; /Stanford U., Dept. Radiol. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Pelc, N.J.; /Stanford U., Dept. Radiol. /Stanford U., Dept. Bioeng.; Nelson, W.R.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portable X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detector

Description: The X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detection System was designed and built by Ames Laboratory and the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. The system uses a C-frame inspection head with an X-ray tube mounted on one side of the frame and an imaging unit and a high purity germanium detector on the other side. the inspection head is portable and can be easily positioned around ventilation ducts and pipes up to 36 inches in diameter. Wide angle and narrow beam X-ray shots are used to identify the type of holdup material and the amount of the contaminant. Precise assay data can be obtained within minutes of the interrogation. A profile of the containerized holdup material and a permanent record of the measurement are immediately available.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: Fricke, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

Description: A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Havrilla, George J. & Gao, Ning
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

Description: A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Thoe, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of Strong Resonant Behavior in the Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Ce Oxide

Description: X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (RIPES) have been used to investigate the photon emission associated with the Ce3d5/2 and Ce3d3/2 thresholds. Strong resonant behavior has been observed in the RIPES of Ce Oxide near the 5/2 and 3/2 edges. Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (IPES) and its high energy variant, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), are powerful techniques that permit a direct interrogation of the low-lying unoccupied electronic structure of a variety of materials. Despite being handicapped by counting rates that are approximately four orders of magnitude less that the corresponding electron spectroscopies (Photoelectron Spectroscopy, PES, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS) both IPES and BIS have a long history of important contributions. Over time, an additional variant of this technique has appeared, where the kinetic energy (KE) of the incoming electron and photon energy (hv) of the emitted electron are roughly the same magnitude as the binding energy of a core level of the material in question. Under these circumstances and in analogy to Resonant Photoelectron Spectroscopy, a cross section resonance can occur, giving rise to Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy or RIPES. Here, we report the observation of RIPES in an f electron system, specifically the at the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} thresholds of Ce Oxide. The resonant behavior of the Ce4f structure at the 3d thresholds has been addressed before, including studies of the utilization of the technique as a probe of electron correlation in a variety of Ce compounds. Interestingly, the first RIPES work on rare earths dates back to 1974, although under conditions which left the state of the surface and near surface regions undefined. Although they did not use the more modern terminology of 'RIPES,' it is clear that RIPES was actually first performed in 1974 by Liefeld, Burr and Chamberlain on both La ...
Date: December 15, 2009
Creator: Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Damian, E; Duda, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Review of X-ray Diagnostic Calibrations in the 2 to 100 keV Region Using the High Energy X-ray Calibration Facility (HEX)

Description: The precise and accurate measurement of X-rays in the 2 keV to 100 keV region is crucial to the understanding of HED plasmas and warm dense matter in general. With the emergence of inertially confined plasma facilities as the premier platforms for ICF, laboratory astrophysics, and national security related plasma experiments, the need to calibrate diagnostics in the high energy X-ray regime has grown. At National Security Technologies High Energy X-ray Calibration Facility (HEX) in Livermore, California, X-ray imagers, filter-fluorescer spectrometers, crystal spectrometers, image plates, and nuclear diagnostics are calibrated. The HEX can provide measurements of atomic line radiation, X-ray flux (accuracy within 10%), and X-ray energy (accuracy within 1%). The HEX source is comprised of a commercial 160 kV X-ray tube, a fluorescer wheel, a filter wheel, and a lead encasement. The X-ray tube produces a Tungsten bremsstrahlung spectrum which causes a foil to fluoresce line radiation. To minimize bremsstrahlung in the radiation for calibration we also provide various foils as filters. For experimental purposes, a vacuum box capable of 10{sup -7} Torr, as well as HPGe and CdTe radiation detectors, are provided on an optical table. Most geometries and arrangements can be changed to meet experimental needs.
Date: May 19, 2010
Creator: Ali, Zaheer; Pond, T; Buckles, R A; Maddox, B R; Chen, C D; DeWald, E L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

Description: A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. The polycapillary optic will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site. This will effectively screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. This dual-capillary design is essentially a confocal (having the same foci) design, i.e. the detected X-rays are only emitted from the overlap of the two focal spots. This increases spatial resolution and reduce s background. The integration of the X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Havrilla, George J. & Gao, Ning
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

Description: A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. The polycapillary optic will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site. This will effectively screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. This dual-capillary design is essentially a confocal (having the same foci) design, i.e. the detected X-rays are only emitted from the overlap of the two focal spots. This increases spatial resolution and reduces background. The integration of the X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Havrilla, George J. & Gao, Ning
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLAC pulsed x-ray facility

Description: The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the rf power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The x-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminium 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 ..mu..s. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the x-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Ipe, N.E.; McCall, R.C. & Baker, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facilities and techniques for x-ray diagnostic calibration in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a pioneer in the field of x-ray diagnostic calibration for more than 20 years. We have built steady state x-ray sources capable of supplying fluorescent lines of high spectral purity in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range, and these sources have been used in the calibration of x-ray detectors, mirrors, crystals, filters, and film. This paper discusses our calibration philosophy and techniques, and describes some of our x-ray sources. Examples of actual calibration data are presented as well.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Gaines, J.L. & Wittmayer, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR

Description: The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R. & Vogtlin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia Mark II X-Ray System

Description: The Sandia Mark II X-Ray System was designed and developed to provide an intense source of mononergetic, ultra-soft x rays with energies between 0.282 and 1.486 keV. The x-ray tube design is similar to one developed by B.L. Henke and incorporates modifications made by Tom Ellsberry. An operations manual section is incorporated to help the experimenter/operator.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Morrison, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of miniaturized proximity focused streak tubes for visible light and x-ray applications. Final report and progress, April-September 1977

Description: Research performed to develop miniaturized proximity focused streak camera tubes (PFST) for application in the visible and the x-ray modes of operation is described. The objective of this research was to provide an engineering design and to fabricate a visible and an x-ray prototype tube to be provided to LASL for test and evaluation. Materials selection and fabrication procedures, particularly the joining of beryllium to a suitable support ring for use as the x-ray window, are described in detail. The visible and x-ray PFST's were successfully fabricated. (LCL)
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Cuny, J.J. & Knight, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a pulsed x-ray system for fluorescent lifetime measurements with a timing accuracy of 109 ps

Description: We describe the design of a table-top pulsed x-ray system for measuring fluorescent lifetime and wavelength spectra of samples in both crystal and powdered form. The novel element of the system is a light-excited x-ray tube with a tungsten anode at +30 kV potential. The S-20 photocathode is excited by a laser diode with a maximum rate of 10 MHz, each pulse having [lt]100 ps fwhm (full-width at half-maximum) and [gt]107 photons. In a collimated 2 mm [times] 2 mm beam spot 40 mm from the anode we expect [gt]1 x-ray per pulse. A sample is exposed to these x-rays and fluorescent photons are detected by a microchannel PMT with a photoelectron transit time spread of 60 ps fwhm, a sapphire window, and a bialkali photocathode (wavelength range 180--600 nm). The combined time spread of a laser diode, the x-ray tube, and a microchannel tube has been measured to be 109 ps fwhm. To measure wavelength spectra, a reflection grating monochromator is placed between the sample and the PMT.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Blankespoor, S.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ito, M. & Oba, K. (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu City (Japan))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department