10 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

ChaMP Serendipitous Galaxy Cluster Survey

Description: We present a survey of serendipitous extended X-ray sources and optical cluster candidates from the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP). Our main goal is to make an unbiased comparison of X-ray and optical cluster detection methods. In 130 archival Chandra pointings covering 13 square degrees, we use a wavelet decomposition technique to detect 55 extended sources, of which 6 are nearby single galaxies. Our X-ray cluster catalog reaches a typical flux limit of about {approx} 10{sup -14} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, with a median cluster core radius of 21''. For 56 of the 130 X-ray fields, we use the ChaMP's deep NOAO/4m MOSAIC g', r', and i' imaging to independently detect cluster candidates using a Voronoi tessellation and percolation (VTP) method. Red-sequence filtering decreases the galaxy fore/background contamination and provides photometric redshifts to z {approx} 0.7. From the overlapping 6.1 square degree X-ray/optical imaging, we find 115 optical clusters (of which 11% are in the X-ray catalog) and 28 X-ray clusters (of which 46% are in the optical VTP catalog). The median redshift of the 13 X-ray/optical clusters is 0.41, and their median X-ray luminosity (0.5-2 keV) is L{sub X} = (2.65 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup 43} ergs s{sup -1}. The clusters in our sample that are only detected in our optical data are poorer on average ({approx} 4{sigma}) than the X-ray/optically matched clusters, which may partially explain the difference in the detection fractions.
Date: April 3, 2006
Creator: Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Green, P.J.; Vikhlinin, A.; Kim, D.-W.; Perley, D.; Cameron, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Low-Power Nucleus of PKS 1246-410 in the Centaurus Cluster

Description: We present Chandra, Very Large Array (VLA), and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of the nucleus of NGC 4696, a giant elliptical in the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. Like M87 in the Virgo cluster, PKS 1246-410 in the Centaurus cluster is a nearby example of a radio galaxy in a dense cluster environment. In analyzing the new X-ray data we have found a compact X-ray feature coincident with the optical and radio core. While nuclear emission from the X-ray source is expected, its luminosity is low, < 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. We estimate the Bondi accretion radius to be 30 pc and the accretion rate to be 0.01 M{sub {circle_dot}} y{sup -1} which under the canonical radiative efficiency of 10% would overproduce by 3.5 orders of magnitude the radiative luminosity. Much of this energy can be directed into the kinetic energy of the jet, which over time inflates the observed cavities seen in the thermal gas. The VLBA observations reveal a weak nucleus and a broad, one-sided jet extending over 25 parsecs in position angle -150 degrees. This jet is deflected on the kpc-scale to a more east-west orientation (position angle of -80 degrees).
Date: October 21, 2005
Creator: Taylor, G.B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NRAO, Socorro /New Mexico U.; Sanders, J.S.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Allen, S.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The First Chandra Field

Description: Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ''Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Southern Observatory (ESO; La Silla, Chile), we find that Leon X-1 is a Type-1 (unobscured) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at a redshift z = 0.3207. Leon X-1 exhibits strong Fe II emission and a broad-line Balmer decrement that is unusually flat for an AGN. Within the context of the Eigenvector-1 correlation space, these properties suggest that Leon X-1 may be a massive ({ge} 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}}) black hole, accreting at a rate approaching its Eddington limit.
Date: September 9, 2005
Creator: Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Swift-BAT Survey of Galactic Sources: Catalog and Properties of the Populations

Description: We study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS distributions of the various source types and we analyze their variability and spectra. For the low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) we derive the luminosity functions to a limiting luminosity of L{sub X} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. Our results confirm the previously found flattening of the LMXB luminosity function below a luminosity of L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. The luminosity function of the HMXBs is found to be significantly flatter in the 15-55 keV band than in the 2-10 keV band. From the luminosity functions we estimate the ratios of the hard X-ray luminosity from HMXBs to the star-formation rate, and the LMXB luminosity to the stellar mass. We use these to estimate the X-ray emissivity in the local universe from X-ray binaries and show that it constitutes only a small fraction of the hard X-ray background.
Date: August 27, 2010
Creator: Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park & ,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Putative Detection of Z>0 X-Ray Absorption Features in the Spectrum of Mrk 421

Description: In a series of papers, Nicastro et al. have claimed the detection of z > 0 O VII absorption features in the spectrum of Mrk 421 obtained with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS). We evaluate those claims in the context of a high quality spectrum of the same source obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on XMM-Newton. The data comprise over 955 ksec of usable exposure time and more than 2.6 x 10{sup 4} counts per 50 m{angstrom} at 21.6 {angstrom}. We concentrate on the spectrally clean region (21.3 < {lambda} < 22.5 {angstrom}) where sharp features due to the astrophysically abundant O VII may reveal an intervening, warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). In spite of the fact that the sensitivity of the RGS data is higher than that of the original LETGS data presented by Nicastro et al., we do not confirm detection of any of the intervening systems claimed to date. Rather, we detect only three unsurprising, astrophysically expected features down to the log (N{sub i}) {approx} 14.6 (3{sigma}) sensitivity level. Each of the two purported WHIM features is rejected with a statistical confidence that exceeds that reported for its initial detection. While we can not rule out the existence of fainter, WHIM related features in these spectra, we suggest that previous discovery claims were premature. A more recent paper by Williams et al. claims to have demonstrated that the RGS data we analyze here do not have the resolution or statistical quality required to confirm or deny the LETGS detections. We show that the Williams et al. reduction of the RGS data was highly flawed, leading to an artificial and spurious degradation of the instrument response. We carefully highlight the differences between our analysis presented here and those published by Williams et al.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Rasmussen, Andrew P.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Paerels, Frits; /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Nature of Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources, Or What a Black Hole Should Look Like

Description: We derive the luminosity-temperature relation for the accreting black holes (BHs). At the accretion rates below the critical Eddington, the BHs are described by the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model resulting in the L {infinity} T{sup 4} {infinity} M relation. At super-Eddington rates, {dot m} = {dot M}/{dot M}{sub Edd} >> 1, a strong outflow forms within the spherization radius R{sub sp} {infinity} {dot M}. If the angular momentum of the outflowing matter is conserved and typical outflow velocities are of the order of Keplerian, the wind occupies 50-85 per cent of the sky as viewed from the BH, while the region around the rotation axis remains transparent. The bolometric luminosity in such a case is known to exceed the Eddington luminosity by a factor 1 + ln {dot m} and the observed luminosity is 2-7 times higher because of geometrical beaming. An edge-on observer sees only the soft emission from the extended envelope, with the photosphere radius exceeding R{sub sp} by orders of magnitude. The photosphere temperature follows the T{sub ph} {infinity} {dot M}{sup -3/4} or {dot M}{sup -1} relation depending on the velocity profile at R > R{sub sp} (constant velocity or a Keplerian profile). The resulting L-T{sub ph} dependence is consistent with that observed in the super-Eddington accreting BHs SS 433 and V4641 Sgr. A face-on observer has a direct view of the inner hot accretion disc which in stellar-mass BHs has temperature T{sub max} of a few keV. The effective temperature depends on radius as {infinity} R{sup -1/2} (up to the spherization radius) and the emitted spectrum is a power-law F{sub E} {infinity} E{sup -1} extending from {approx} 3T{sub max} down to the temperature at the spherization radius T{sub sp} {approx} {dot m}{sup -1/2} keV. It continues further as a power-law F{sub E} {infinity} E{sup 1/3} to the ...
Date: September 18, 2006
Creator: Poutanen, Juri; /Oulu U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabrika, Sergei; /Stavropol, Astrophys. Observ.; Butkevich, Alexey G.; /Oulu U. /Pulkovo Observ., St. Petersburg et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The O VII X-Ray Forest Toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

Description: Recently the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal to noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Ly{alpha} absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments towards Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar on the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Kaastra, J.S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J.W.A.den; /SRON, Utrecht; Paerels, F.B.S.; /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term X-ray Variability of NGC 4945

Description: Though short-term X-ray variability has been studied for the active galaxy NGC 4945, long-term studies promise to contribute to our understanding of the processes involved in accretion onto supermassive black holes. In order to understand the relationship between black hole mass and breaks in the power spectral density (PSD), the long-term X-ray variability of NGC 4945 was studied over the energy range 8-30 keV. Observations occurred over the year 2006 using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The data was reduced using the package FTOOLS, most notably the scripts Rex and faxbary. Light curves were produced and a PSD was obtained using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Preliminary studies of the light curve show greater X-ray variability at higher frequencies. This result complements previous studies of NGC 4945 by Martin Mueller. However, the PSD produced must go through further study before accurate results can be obtained. A way to account for the window function of the PSD must be found before the behavior at lower frequencies can be studied with accuracy and the relationship between black hole mass and the break in NGC 4945's PSD can be better understood. Further work includes exploration into ways to subtract the window function from the PSD, as well as a closer analysis of the PSD produced by averaging the data into logarithmic bins. The possibility of a better way to bin the data should be considered so that the window function would be minimized.
Date: August 29, 2007
Creator: Miller, Amara & /UC, Davis /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fe Emission And Ionized Excess Absorption in the Luminous Quasar 3C109 With XMM-Newton

Description: We report results from an XMM-Newton observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 109 (z=0.3056). Previous ASCA data revealed the presence of a broad iron line from the accretion disc with which the XMM-Newton spectrum is fully consistent. However, although improving the ASCA constraints on the line parameters, the quality of the data is not high enough to distinguish between an untruncated accretion disc extending down to small radii close to the black hole and a scenario in which the innermost 20-30 gravitational radii are missing. For this reason, our results are model-dependent and the hard data can be modeled equally well by considering an absorption scenario in which a large column of neutral gas partially covers the X-ray continuum source. However, the absorber would have to comprise hundreds/thousands very compact clouds close to the X-ray source, which seems rather extreme a requirement. The 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosity of 3C 109 is of the order of 2-3 x 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} regardless of the adopted model. A recent black hole mass estimate of {approx} 2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} implies that L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} > 1. If partial covering is excluded, the observed reflection fraction (of the order of unity), steep photon index (1.86), and Fe line equivalent width (about 100 eV) all suggest to exclude that the X-ray continuum is strongly beamed indicating that the large Eddington ratio is associated with a radiatively efficient accretion process and making it unlikely that the innermost accretion disc is replaced by a thick radiatively inefficient medium such as in advection-dominated accretion models. We also confirm previous findings on the detection of low energy absorption in excess of the Galactic value, where we find excellent agreement with previous results obtained in X-rays and at other wavelengths (optical and infrared). The ...
Date: June 9, 2006
Creator: Miniutti, Giovanni; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ballantyne, D.R.; U., /Arizona; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of a XMM-Newton EPIC Monte Carlo to Analysis And Interpretation of Data for Abell 1689, RXJ0658-55 And the Centaurus Clusters of Galaxies

Description: We propose a new Monte Carlo method to study extended X-ray sources with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard XMM Newton. The Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) technique, described in a companion paper, is applied here to the EPIC data for the clusters of galaxies Abell 1689, Centaurus and RXJ 0658-55 (the ''bullet cluster''). We aim to show the advantages of this method of simultaneous spectral-spatial modeling over traditional X-ray spectral analysis. In Abell 1689 we confirm our earlier findings about structure in temperature distribution and produce a high resolution temperature map. We also confirm our findings about velocity structure within the gas. In the bullet cluster, RXJ 0658-55, we produce the highest resolution temperature map ever to be published of this cluster allowing us to trace what looks like the motion of the bullet in the cluster. We even detect a south to north temperature gradient within the bullet itself. In the Centaurus cluster we detect, by dividing up the luminosity of the cluster in bands of gas temperatures, a striking feature to the north-east of the cluster core. We hypothesize that this feature is caused by a subcluster left over from a substantial merger that slightly displaced the core. We conclude that our method is very powerful in determining the spatial distributions of plasma temperatures and very useful for systematic studies in cluster structure.
Date: April 17, 2007
Creator: Andersson, Karl E.; /SLAC, /Stockholm U.; Peterson, J.R.; /Purdue U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Madejski, G.M. & /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department