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Impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at a new industrial facility

Description: This paper presents the pros and cons of several energy, savings estimating methods considered as part of a recent impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at a lumber mill in the Pacific Northwest. The energy conservation measures (adjustable speed drives, programmable logic controllers, and high efficiency motors) were installed when the mill was initially constructed rather than being installed as a retrofit. Therefore, direct measurement of baseline energy consumption was impossible. As described in this paper, several reasonable methods can be formulated for estimating the energy savings when a physical baseline does not exist. The alternative methods will often result in radically different energy savings estimates, which may translate into significantly different conclusions regarding the efficacy of the energy conservation measures and/or the energy conservation program being evaluated. Therefore, it is critical to understand and carefully consider the options for estimating energy savings when a physical baseline does not exist.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E. & Riewer, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

Description: A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.
Date: September 19, 2006
Creator: Kronrad, Gary D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry

Description: This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Lang, K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Final technical report, September 26, 1994--September 27, 1996

Description: The final technical report for this project contains detailed technical results for the various tasks performed in the projects. The project scope was to develop an apparatus and process for second-stage drying of softwoods, such as southern yellow pine, for construction lumber. The focus of the project was on increasing the efficiency of high-temperature drying. The project tasks were: (1) computer simulation refinement and extension of the theory to commercial-sized kilns, (2) detailed heat exchanger equipment design, (3) pilot-scale design and fabrication, (4) experimental evaluation of the pilot-scale system, and (5) preliminary design of a prototype system. The effort on this project has been continuous and productive in gaining a better understanding of the processes involved in the drying of softwoods. 19 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.
Date: January 3, 1997
Creator: Taylor, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dehydration project report

Description: Catalytic Industrial Group became interested in the ability to use its catalytic infrared technology for the removal of moisture in substances after having had very positive experience in removing moisture from water-based coatings which are becoming increasingly popular as industry strives to comply with clean air mandates. The first attempts were crude but showed that the moisture could be removed, and intriguing enough that they started to think about a conveying-based system that would remove moisture from products. The initial tests were designed around sawdust. The authors felt that the market in particleboard and in the MDF board by itself justified the research into this concept. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment has been kept apprised of the on-going development of the infrared drying system by Catalytic Industrial Group. There were some early delays in the delivery of equipment needed to build the prototype machine. The design changes identified during the experimental phase of the development of the infrared dryer have been resolved and a process-testing device has been developed. This technical report outlines the progress made to date.
Date: August 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

Description: Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Boerner, J.; Su, Wei & Yan, Hui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest Products Industry of the Future

Description: Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and METHANE de-NOX{reg_sign} technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Rabovitser, Joseph & Bryan, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental enchancement using short-rotation tree crops: research results and directions

Description: Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and perennial grasses used as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber can provide multiple economic and environmental benefits. Site-specific environmental studies are providing information needed to help evaluate the economic and environmental impacts of biomass production at both local and regional scales. Erosion and chemical movement from an annual row crop, switchgrass, and tree crop with and without a groundcover are being compared in the Southeast. Studies of SRWC productivity on the South Carolina coastal plain are comparing surface and subsurface movement of chemicals applied under different fertilization and irrigation regimes, and addressing use of mill and agricultural residues to enhance crop production. Results are helping to assess the effects of biomass crops produced on different principal soil types and to match tree species with appropriate sites to maximize productivity and minimize environmental impacts. Studies are comparing wildlife use of biomass crops to row crops, grasslands, and natural forests. Results to date show that SRWCs support greater bird diversity than row crops, but less than natural forests; switchgrass plantings extend habitat for grasslands birds. Collaboration with an industrial partner on diverse SRWC plantings in the Southeast is addressing the relationship between plantings of different acreage, age, tree species, and landscape context and breeding bird use. Information from wildlife diversity, water, and soil quality studies can be used by the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), researchers, producers, and industry to identify management strategies to maintain productivity While enhancing the environment.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Tolbert, V.R. & Schiller, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

Description: The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.
Date: February 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of bed medium moisture on {alpha}-pinene removal by biofilters

Description: In this study, laboratory scale continuous flow bioifilters were used to determine the effect of bed medium moisture on biofilter performance when treating off-gases containing {alpha}-pinene. Biofilters were packed using a proprietary wood waste bed medium and were operated at a flow rate of 700 ml of air per min, yielding an empty bed residence time of 2 minutes. For the bed medium moisture levels tested, a biofilter bed held at 100% moisture on a dry weight basis demonstrated the best overall {alpha}-pinene removal results. Volumetric productivity and percent removal were higher, while the time to reach maximum removal efficiency was decreased compared to biofilters operated at 40, 60 and 80% bed medium moisture. Results indicate that control of moisture in a biofilter is important for maximum removal of {alpha}-pinene.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lee, B.D.; Apel, W.A.; Cook, L.L. & Nichols, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enabling technologies: Supporting the development and use of innovative, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly products and processes

Description: This pamphlet describes the Office of Industrial Technologies cooperative efforts to address industry needs for advanced materials, sensors and controls, process energy and energy efficiency. US industry needs enabling materials that are stronger and lighter, with resistance to high-temperature fatigue and improved resistance to corrosion and wear. New industrial materials such as intermetallic alloys and advanced ceramics have the potential to meet the challenges of the Industries of the Future. The manufacturing industries obtain over 85% of their energy from the on-site combustion of fuels. Enhancements to burners, boilers, and process heating systems can lower energy costs, reduce emissions, enhance fuel options, and increase safety and reliability. Robust, integrated measurement devices linked to intelligent control systems will enable US industry to use resources more efficiently and improve product quality. Through constant process monitoring and adjustment of parameters, these systems can reduce energy use and labor, minimize waste and pollution, and boost productivity. The Enabling Technologies Program is designed to address the cross-cutting needs of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT partners with industry to promote the development and use of energy-efficient, pollution-preventing technologies. The Nation`s environment benefits from greater use of these technologies, and industries benefit from cost savings, improved productivity, and increased competitiveness.
Date: February 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and waste reduction in the wood fiber and fuel industry utilizing a long wave length catalytic infrared drying system. Progress report Number 3

Description: Following the testing of the Cat-Tec handling system, detail design work commenced both at the Catalytic Industrial Systems (CIS) Kansas facility and at the Cat-Tec offices in Minneapolis for the mating of the heating and handling system elements of the catalytic infrared particulate dryer. A used equipment looped handling system designed to feed and recirculate the test material was procured and shipped to CIS in anticipation of the on-site testing. Evaluation of the findings of the test results led the joint CIS-Cat-Tec design team to conclude that the unit to be provided to Lignetics for testing needed to have approximately 120 square feet of agitation bed and approximately 100 feet of infrared generation surfaces. The overall size was thus increased approximately 50% from the initial test unit.
Date: January 15, 1998
Creator: Davis, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 6

Description: Twenty five Southern pine boards were machined into 2 x 4 inch pieces. Next, the 8 foot boards were cut in half into matched pairs. One of the two was irradiated with RF, while the other served as a control. Both sets were dried under a conventional temperature-time based schedule. Results and conclusions are: RF pretreatment of lumber does not affect strength; the amount of pinene lost into the headspace during low-VOC RF-treatment of wood approximately corresponds to the amount of material lost from the wood; virtually all the pinene can be removed from the low-VOC reactor with steam, suggesting that pinene can be collected when the small amount of steam released during low-headspace treatment is condensed; temperature and moisture loss profiles for particle at 105 C has been modeled using experimental data at 130 C and 160 C; the VOC-temperature curve from dried particle shows a break at about 156 C, the boiling point of {alpha}-pinene, demonstrating that pinene boil-off occurs beyond this threshold; VOC release from dry particle has been successfully modeled; the transport of VOC from sapwood to the atmosphere for pine is faster than the corresponding movement from heartwood to sapwood; and seasonal variations in pine extractives are small.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Yan, H.; Wild, M.P.; Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S.; Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CROW{trademark} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

Description: Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project for the contaminated aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site in New Brighton, Minnesota. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW) process, which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non- aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). While reviewing the site evaluation information, it became apparent that better site characterization would enhance the outcome of the project. Additional coring indicated that the areal extent of the contaminated soils was approximately eight times greater than initially believed. Because of uncertainties, it was determined that a pilot test would assist in the design of the full-scale CROW process demonstration. Based on the results from the pilot test, conditions and procedures were developed for implementing a full-scale CROW process demonstration to remediate the remaining contaminated soil at the Bell Pole site. After considering several options, WRI recommended implementing a three-phase approach to remediating the contaminated area. Phase 1 will involve a 30-gpm CROW process demonstration to remediate the upgradient, one-third of the contaminated area, which is believed to contain the largest amount of free organic material. As of late March 1996, the Phase 1 CROW process system is operating. However, hot-water response has not yet been observed at the extraction well. Phase 1 is expected to continue for at least 18 months or until 20 pore volumes have been injected.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Fahy, L.J. & Johnson, L.A. Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The economics of global timber markets. Final report

Description: This paper develops a global timber market model which captures how timber supply reacts to future predicted increases in the demand for timber. Higher future demand is expected to increase prices, reflecting greater land scarcity. Investments in growing timber are also expected to increase, expanding output and tempering the price response. A greater reliance on plantations in productive regions is predicted to allow large areas of natural forest in low valued regions to remain largely intact. The quantitative results are sensitive to the rate demand increases, the cost of plantations, and access costs of natural forests.
Date: September 2, 1997
Creator: Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert & Sedjo, Roger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and waste reduction in the wood fiber and fuel industry utilizing a long wave length catalytic infrared drying system. Progress report No.4, January 1--March 31, 1998

Description: During the past quarter significant headway was made on the project. The design and fabrication of the materials handling system by the subcontractor, Cat-Tech Industries, was completed in late January and was shipped in February to Catalytic Industrial System (CIS) Kansas facility. Unfortunately a part shipped directly from the manufacturer, for mating in Kansas to the unit, was determined to be the wrong size and nearly a month was lost in the process of ordering and receiving the correct parts. In early March the system was ready for agitation testing and performed perfectly. Design of the air circulation system was completed in late March and fabrication and installation of that element is expected to be completed this week (April 15--22). The insulation panels have been designed and ordered and are expected to be on site and ready for installation the last week of April. In a series of conference phone calls, it was decided to increase the amount of infrared energy input in Zone 1 (the first one-third of the 30 foot unit) of the dryer. These zones are presently being redesigned and fabricated and will likely be installed by the 10th of May. Product testing is expected to commence around the 15--20 of May. Work on the testing protocol was held in check while the discussion on increasing the total energy input was transpiring. It is scheduled to restart on or about May 1.
Date: April 15, 1998
Creator: Davis, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global carbon impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont

Description: Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. Carbon remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional carbon is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the global carbon balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered carbon present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, carbon emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of carbon emission reduction for district heating to carbon emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: McLain, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest--Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

Description: This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Forest Products. Information on what works for the Forest Products industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included.
Date: February 9, 2001
Creator: DOE Office of Industrial Technologies
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of wooden cabinets

Description: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088, May 1992). The WMAC team at Colorado state University performed an assessment at a plant that manufacturers wooden kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Components purchased from vendors are prepared for production through cutting, sanding, and routing operations. Stain, sealer, and top-coat are applied in separate spray booths. After the final coating, the components are dried and assembled. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint sludge from the spray booth water curtains is generated in a large amount and that significant cost savings could be achieved by dewatering the sludge before it is shipped offsite for disposal and reusing the water. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F. & Looby, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

Description: Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Leaman, D. & Irwin, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company

Description: This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company (Columbia Harbor Lumber), Chehalis, Washington, was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Columbia Harbor Lumber as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Columbia Harbor Lumber`s Completion Report and Proposal). The ECM itself consists of an adjustable speed drive for controlling the speed of nine fans on a lumber drying kiln. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 286,500 kWh/yr. On a per unit of output basis, this ECM will save 0.053 kWh/board foot, a 48% reduction. The ECM cost $24,086 to install, and Columbia Harbor Lumber received payment of $19,269 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. In all likelihood, this ECM would have been installed even without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 5.6 mills/kWh over the ECM`s expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 7.4 mills/kWh.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Spanner, G. E. & Sullivan, G. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department