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The Evolution of the Window as a Functional Part of the Home with Special Reference to Architectural Design

Description: This study will deal specifically with the architectural design of windows used in the homes, temples, cathedrals, and churches in Europe from primitive times to the eighteenth century, and during the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries in America. The study will not include the construction of windows nor the manufacture of the glass used in windows.
Date: 1951
Creator: Whitten, Mays Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

Description: This paper shows that the energy requirements for today's typical efficient window products (i.e. ENERGY STAR{trademark} products) are significant when compared to the needs of Zero Energy Homes (ZEHs). Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate. In heating dominated climates, windows with U-factors of 0.10 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K) will become energy neutral. In mixed heating/cooling climates a low U-factor is not as significant as the ability to modulate from high SHGCs (heating season) to low SHGCs (cooling season).
Date: October 9, 2006
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian & Mitchell, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Development of 6061-Aluminum Windows for the MICE LiquidAbsorber

Description: The thin windows for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid Absorber will be fabricated from 6061-T6-aluminum. The absorber and vacuum vessel thin windows are 300-mm in diameter and are 180 mm thick at the center. The windows are designed for an internal burst pressure of 0.68 MPa (100 psig) when warm. The MICE experiment design calls for changeable windows on the absorber, so a bolted window design was adopted. Welded windows offer some potential advantages over bolted windows when they are on the absorber itself. This report describes the bolted window and its seal. This report also describes an alternate window that is welded directly to the absorber body. The welded window design presented permits the weld to be ground off and re-welded. This report presents a thermal FEA analysis of the window seal-weld, while the window is being welded. Finally, the results of a test of a welded-window are presented.
Date: August 24, 2005
Creator: Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S. & Swanson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

Description: A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.
Date: July 11, 2007
Creator: Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian & Minen, Stefanie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DO -- antiMixing and Rare Charm Decays

Description: We review the current status of flavor-changing neutral currents in the charm sector. We focus on the standard-model predictions and identify the main sources of theoretical uncertainties in both charm mixing and rare charm decays. The potential of these observables for constraining short-distance physics in the standard model and its extensions is compromised by the presence of large nonperturbative effects. We examine the possible discovery windows in which short-distance physics can be tested and study the effects of various extensions of the standard model. The current experimental situation and future prospects are reviewed.
Date: October 6, 2003
Creator: Miller, Jeanne M & Burdman, Gustavo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Angers Cathedral]

Description: Photograph of a cathedral in Angers, France. The cathedral facade is visible in the foreground. A tower stands next to a lower section with a stained glass window. A clock is visible above the window.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Air Conditioned]

Description: Narrative by Junebug Clark: Image is from the 1940s and is shot in Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The image title is Air Conditioned and it is a scan from a contact print. This photo appears on the cover of the Joe Clark's soft-cover book "Photojournalism" which was published in the mid 60's. Clark PhotoFile: 0001-22
Date: 194u
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Boy Poking Head Through Window]

Description: Narrative by Junebug Clark: Image is from the 1940s and is shot in Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The image title is Air Conditioned and it is an outtake scanned from the negative. A similar photo appears on the cover of the Joe Clark's soft-cover book "Photojournalism" which was published in the mid 60's.
Date: 194u
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Boy Poking Head Through Window]

Description: Narrative by Junebug Clark: Image is from the 1940s and is shot in Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The image title is Air Conditioned and it is an outtake. A similar photo appears on the cover of the Joe Clark's soft-cover book "Photojournalism" which was published in the mid 60's.
Date: 194u
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

CONSERVATION OPTIONS IN RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE: STUDIES USING THE COMPUTER PROGRAM TWOZONE

Description: A computer model called TWOZONE, which differentiates between the thermal behavior of the north and south zones of a house, is used to study the heating and cooling loads of single-family residences. The model agrees well with the available field data and with the NBSLD (NBSFAST) computer program. In this paper we resolve the furnace output into component loads. We show that depending on the climate, there is an optimum glass area and location in the house from the viewpoint of minimizing the yearly heating bill. The effectiveness of several window management strategies is studied. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of various retrofit measures such as ceiling and wall insulation, storm windows, and clock thermostat are evaluated for two different climates.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Wall, L.W.; Dey, T.; Gadgil, A.J.; Lilly, A.B. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Energy Neutrinos from the Cold: Status and Prospects of the IceCube Experiment

Description: The primary motivation for building neutrino telescopes is to open the road for neutrino astronomy, and to offer another observational window for the study of cosmic ray origins. Other physics topics, such as the search for WIMPs, can also be developed with neutrino telescope. As of March 2008, the IceCube detector, with half of its strings deployed, is the world largest neutrino telescope taking data to date and it will reach its completion in 2011. Data taken with the growing detector are being analyzed. The results of some of these works are summarized here. AMANDA has been successfully integrated into IceCube data acquisition system and continues to accumulate data. Results obtained using only AMANDA data taken between the years 2000 and 2006 are also presented. The future of IceCube and the extensions in both low and high energy regions will finally be discussed in the last section.
Date: February 29, 2008
Creator: Collaboration, IceCube; Portello-Roucelle, Cecile & Collaboration, IceCube
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ProTec Tear-Offs: A Preliminary Assessment

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has conducted a series of ''scoping'' tests (referred to as Phase 1) to assess the potential use of a Mylar{reg_sign} tear-off system as a primary or secondary protective barrier to minimize acid etching (''frosting''), accidental scratching, and/or radiation damage for shielded cells windows. Conceptually, thin, multi-layered sheets of Mylar (referred to as a ''tear-off'' system) could be directly applied to the Lexan{reg_sign} sheet or glovebox/hood sash window to serve as a secondary (or primary) barrier. Upon degradation of visual clarity due to accidental scratching, spills/splatters, and/or radiation damage, the outer layer (or sheet) of Mylar could be removed ''refreshing'' or restoring the view. Due to the multi-layer aspect, the remaining Mylar layers would provide continued protection for the window from potential reoccurrences (which could be immediate or after some extended time period). Although the concept of using a tear-off system as a protective barrier was conceptually enticing, potential technical issues were identified and addressed as part of this Phase 1 feasibility study. These included resistance to: (1) acid(s) (concentrated (28.9 M) HF, concentrated (15.9M) HNO{sub 3}, 6M HCl, and 0.6M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), (2) base (a simulated sludge with pH of 12.9), (3) gamma radiation (cumulative dose of {approx}200,000 rad), and (4) scratch resistance (simulating accidental scratching with the manipulators). Not only can these four factors play a significant role in determining the visual clarity of the integrated system, they can also contribute to the mechanical integrity issues which could dictate the ability to remove the outer layer when visual clarity has degraded. The results of the Phase 1 study clearly indicate that the Mylar tear-off concept (as a primary or secondary protective barrier) is a potential technical solution to prevent or retard excessive damage that would result from acid etching, base damage (as ...
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Peeler, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Appreciation of the Scientific Life and Acheivements of Bruce Merrifield

Description: Bruce Merrifield's scientific biography, 'Life During a Golden Age of Peptide Chemistry: The Concept and Development of Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis', provides a history of solid phase-peptide synthesis (SPPS) from 1959 to 1993 [1]. While many readers will be familiar with SPPS literature after 1963, the inclusion of unpublished material from Merrifield's early laboratory notebooks opens a fascinating window on the development of SPPS from the formulation of concept in 1959 (p. 56, ref. 1) to the synthesis of a tetrapeptide four years later [2]. This early period was characterized by slow progress interrupted by numerous setbacks that led Bruce to later record (p. 90, ref. 1): 'At the end of the first two years the results were so poor, I wonder what made me think that this approach would ever succeed; but from the outset I had a strong conviction that this was a good idea, and I am glad that I stayed with it long enough'. Garland Marshall, Bruce's first graduate student (1963-1966), as well as later colleagues, were essentially unaware of the many highways, byways and dead ends that Bruce had explored in the early years [3].
Date: June 15, 2007
Creator: Mitchell, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

Description: To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating ...
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C. & Bauman, Nathan N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

Description: The building energy simulation program, Energy Plus (E+), cannot use standard window performance indices (U, SHGC, VT) to model window energy impacts. Rather, E+ uses more accurate methods which require a physical description of the window. E+ needs to be able to accept U and SHGC indices as window descriptors because, often, these are all that is known about a window and because building codes, standards, and voluntary programs are developed using these terms. This paper outlines a procedure, developed for E+, which will allow it to use standard window performance indices to model window energy impacts. In this 'Block' model, a given U, SHGC, VT are mapped to the properties of a fictitious 'layer' in E+. For thermal conductance calculations, the 'Block' functions as a single solid layer. For solar optical calculations, the model begins by defining a solar transmittance (Ts) at normal incidence based on the SHGC. For properties at non-normal incidence angles, the 'Block' takes on the angular properties of multiple glazing layers; the number and type of layers defined by the U and SHGC. While this procedure is specific to E+, parts of it may have applicability to other window/building simulation programs.
Date: October 12, 2009
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian & Griffith, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department