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Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

Description: Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.
Date: November 23, 2010
Creator: Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M. & Copping, Andrea E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory implementation of variable-speed wind turbine generation

Description: To improve the performance of wind turbines, various control schemes such as variable speed operation have been proposed. Testing of these control algorithms on a full scale system is very expensive. To test these systems simulation, we developed programs and small scale laboratory experiments. We used this system to verify a control method that attempts to keep the turbine operating at its peak power coefficient. Both the simulations and the experiments verified the principle of operation of this control scheme.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Zinger, D.S.; Miller, A.A.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P. & Robinson, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines, Quartelry Report: 2nd Quarter, Issue No.1, October 2000

Description: The Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines quarterly report provides industry members with a description of the program, its mission, and purpose. It also provides a vehicle for participants to report performance data, activities, and issues during quarterly test periods.
Date: November 2, 2000
Creator: Tu, P. & Forsyth, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

Description: This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair & Veers, Paul S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue case study and reliability analyses for wind turbines

Description: Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines used to produce electrical power. To insure long term, reliable operation, their structure must be optimized if they are to be economically viable. The fatigue and reliability projects in Sandia`s Wind Energy Program are developing the analysis tools required to accomplish these design requirements. The first section of the paper formulates the fatigue analysis of a wind turbine using a cumulative damage technique. The second section uses reliability analysis for quantifying the uncertainties and the inherent randomness associated with turbine performance and the prediction of service lifetimes. Both research areas are highlighted with typical results.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Sutherland, H.J. & Veers, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Damage Detection Techniques Using Wind Turbine Modal Data

Description: As any structure ages, its structural characteristics will also change. The goal of this work was to determine if modal response data fkom a wind turbine could be used in the detection of damage. The input stimuli to the wind turbine were from traditional modal hammer input and natural wind excitation. The structural response data was acquired using accelerometers mounted on the rotor of a parked and undamaged horizontal-axis wind turbine. The bolts at the root of one of the three blades were then loosened to simulate a damaged blade. The structural response data of the rotor was again recorded. The undamaged and damage-simulated datasets were compared using existing darnage detection algorithms. Also, a novel algorithm for combining the results of different damage detection algorithms was utilized in the assessment of the data. This paper summarizes the code development and discusses some preliminary damage detection results.
Date: December 17, 1998
Creator: Gross, E.; Rumsey, M.; Simmermacher, T. & Zadoks, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An overview of the NREL/SNL flexible turbine characterization project

Description: There has been a desire to increase the generating capacity of the latest generation of wind turbine designs. In order to achieve these larger capacities, the dimensions of the turbine rotors are also increasing significantly. These larger structures are often much more flexible than their smaller predecessors. This higher degree of structural flexibility has placed increased demands on available analytical models to accurately predict the dynamic response to turbulence excitation, In this paper we present an overview and our progress to date of a joint effort of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). In this paper we present an overview and status of an ongoing program to characterize and analytically model the dynamics associated with the operation of one of the most flexible turbine designs currently available, the Cannon Wind Eagle 300 (CWE-300). The effort includes extensive measurements involving a detailed inventory of the turbine's physical properties, establishing the turbine component and fill-system vibrational modes, and documenting the dynamic deformations of the rotor system and support tower while in operation.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Bir, Gunjit; Kelley, Neil; McKenna, Ed; Osgood, Richard; Sutherland, Herbert & Wright, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced system identification technique for comparing ADAMS analytical results with modal test data for a MICON 65/13 wind turbine

Description: This work uses the theory developed in NREL/TP--442-7110 to analyze simulated data from an ADAMS (Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) model of the MICON 65/13 wind turbine. The Observer/Kalman Filter identification approach is expanded to use input-output time histories from ADAMS simulations or structural test data. A step by step outline is offered on how the tools developed in this research, can be used for validation of the ADAMS model.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bialasiewicz, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

Description: This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Kay, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing Bat Fatalities From Interactions with Operating Wind Turbines (Fact Sheet)

Description: One of the biggest advantages of wind energy is that, overall, it has fewer negative impacts on the environment than fossil fuel-generated energy. Most professionals in the wind industry would like to reduce the impact of energy generation on plants, animals, and their habitats. This is why the industry is highly motivated to find out why migrating bats have unexpectedly high fatality rates near operating wind farms. New research has provided quantitative data that indicates barotrauma is not a major cause of bat deaths around operating turbines.
Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Lawson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

Description: This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.
Date: September 30, 2012
Creator: Fleeter, Sanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

Description: Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Migliore, P G; Miller, L S & Quandt, G A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines: Quarterly Report for October-December 2000; 4th Quarter, Iss. No.3

Description: This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.
Date: July 3, 2001
Creator: Cardinal, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines, Quarterly Report: 3rd Quarter, Issue No.2, July-September 2000

Description: This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.
Date: May 16, 2001
Creator: J., Cardinal. & Tu, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines: Quarterly Report for January-March 2001; 1st Quarter, Issue No.4

Description: This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.
Date: October 30, 2001
Creator: Forsyth, T. & Cardinal, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic Characterization Testing of Wind Turbines

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. wind industry, is supporting the development and commercialization of utility-grade wind turbines. Under the Certification Program, the DOE, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will assist the U.S. industry in obtaining American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA)-type certification for their class of wind turbine. As part of the Certification Program, NREL is conducting a suite of certification tests that are specified by the International Electro-technical Commission standards. One emerging certification requirement is to characterize the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine's operation. Therefore, the purpose of the dynamic characterization tests is to document the wind turbine's fundamental dynamic characteristics under critical operational modes and fault conditions in light of turbine design specifications. Some of the dynamic characteristics that we determine from testing include the conformation of fundamental structural vibration frequencies and the system's dynamic response to typical rated and extreme modes of operation. This paper discusses NREL's approach in designing and implementing a dynamic characterization test for commercial wind turbines. One important objective of the dynamic characterization test is to provide a Certification Agent with test data to show that the wind turbine's mechanical equipment is operating within design vibration limits. For NREL's industry participant, the test results are an indication of the wind system's overall quality of mechanical operation that can be used to compare with established industry standards for a wind system's response under typical and extreme operating conditions.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Osgood, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind turbine testing in the NREL dynamometer test bed

Description: A new facility has recently been completed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory that allows full-scale dynamometer testing of wind turbine components, from generators to complete wind turbines. This facility is equipped with a 2.5 MW motor, gearbox, and variable speed drive system to deliver shaft torque. To simulate other aspects of wind turbine loading an MTS fatigue-rated loading system is fully integrated into the facility. This will allow actuators to cyclically load the structure in a variety of ways. Enron [formally Zond] Wind Corporation has installed the first test article in the facility to help mature the Z-750 series wind turbine design. Tests include brake and control system tuning, endurance testing of gear elements and bearings, and structural testing. Some aspects of the power converter will also be tested. This paper describes the Dynamometer Test Bed and its capabilities. Also, an overview of the Zond testing program is presented.
Date: June 29, 2000
Creator: Musial, W. & McNiff, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Avian risk behavior and fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - February 1999

Description: Since 1981, more than 7,000 wind turbines have been installed in the Altamont Wind Resource Area in north-central California. Currently, about 5,000 turbines are operating. Past research efforts demonstrated that wind turbines frequently kill birds, especially raptors. Little is known about the specific flight and perching behaviors by birds near wind turbines. A better understanding of these interactions may one day yield insights on how to minimize bird fatalities. This Phase 1 progress report summarizes research findings obtained at 20 study plots totaling 785 turbines of various configurations and conducted between March 1998 and February 1999. The authors examined bird use and behaviors and collected data on fatalities at the same turbines throughout the course of the surveys. They completed 745 30-minute point counts (1,702 bird observations) that quantified bird risk behaviors and bird use of the study plots. The four most frequently observed bird species were red-tailed hawks, common ravens, turkey vultures, and golden eagles. During the same period, the authors recorded 95 bird fatalities. Raptors represent 51% (n=49) of the kills found. The data indicate that the relative abundance of species observed does not predict the relative frequency of fatalities per species. Phase II of the research is underway.
Date: May 8, 2000
Creator: Thelander, C. & Rugge, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural Testing

Description: Structural testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) offers many benefits to wind turbine companies. NWTC includes a new high bay large enough to test any blade expected during the next 5 years. (There are four test bays.) In 1995, NWTC developed a saphisticated data acquisition system, known as the Blade Structural Testing Real-time Acquisition Interface Network (BSTRAIN), to monitor structural testing through 24-hour continuous video surveillance. NWTC recommends ultimate static-strength and fatigue testing, with nondestructive testing in some cases (vibrational testing is covered in a separate information sheet).
Date: June 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Considerations for an integrated wind turbine controls capability at the National Wind Technology Center: An aileron control case study for power regulation and load mitigation

Description: Several structural dynamics codes have been developed at, and under contract to, the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). These design codes capture knowledge and expertise that has accumulated over the years through federally funded research and wind industry operational experience. The codes can generate vital information required to successfully implement wind turbine active control. However, system information derived from the design codes does not necessarily produce a system description that is consistent with the one assumed by standard control design and analysis tools (e.g., MATLAB{reg_sign} and Matrix-X{reg_sign}). This paper presents a system identification-based method for extracting and utilizing high-fidelity dynamics information, derived from an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code (FAST), for use in active control design. A simple proportional-integral (PI) aileron control case study is then used to successfully demonstrate the method, and to investigate controller performance for gust and turbulence wind input conditions. Aileron control results show success in both power regulation and load mitigation.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D. & Butterfield, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department