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Wind Energy in the United States: Market and Research Update

Description: U.S. market activity has increased over the last two years. In 1998, new capacity totaled about 150 MW and projected 1999 capacity additions are over 600 MW. As the electricity market continues to evolve under restructuring, the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Wind Energy Program has positioned itself to work with industry to meet current challenges and opportunities, and prepare for the market of tomorrow. Some opportunities include green power markets and distributed applications, although a primary challenge involves the fact that avoided cost payments to renewable generators are not high enough to economically support projects. A recently incorporated power exchange in California, APX, Inc., has demonstrated that green power does attract a premium over prices on the conventional power exchange. The key elements of the U.S. DOE Wind Program are (1) Applied Research, which is critical for achieving advanced turbine designs capable of competing in a restructured market that emphasizes low cost generation; (2) Turbine Research, which supports the U.S. industry in developing competitive, high performance, reliable wind turbine technology for global energy markets; and (3) Cooperative Research and Testing, under which standards development and certification testing are the key activities for the current year.
Date: April 12, 1999
Creator: Goldman, P. R. (U.S. Department of Energy); Thresher, R. W. & Hock, S. M. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

Description: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation`s primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate.
Date: November 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

All wind farm uncertainty is not the same: The economics of common versus independent causes

Description: There is uncertainty in the performance of wind energy installations due to unknowns in the local wind environment, machine response to the environment, and the durability of materials. Some of the unknowns are inherently independent from machine to machine while other uncertainties are common to the entire fleet equally. The FAROW computer software for fatigue and reliability of wind turbines is used to calculate the probability of component failure due to a combination of all sources of uncertainty. Although the total probability of component failure due to all effects is sometimes interpreted as the percentage of components likely to fail, this perception is often far from correct. Different amounts of common versus independent uncertainty are reflected in economic risk due to either high probabilities that a small percentage of the fleet will experience problems or low probabilities that the entire fleet will have problems. The average, or expected cost is the same as would be calculated by combining all sources of uncertainty, but the risk to the fleet may be quite different in nature. Present values of replacement costs are compared for two examples reflecting different stages in the design and development process. Results emphasize that an engineering effort to test and evaluate the design assumptions is necessary to advance a design from the high uncertainty of the conceptual stages to the lower uncertainty of a well engineered and tested machine.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Veers, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory avian research program

Description: As wind energy use continues to expand, concern over the possible impacts of wind farms on birds continues to be an issue. The concern includes two primary areas: the effect of avian mortality on bird populations, and possible litigation over the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act or the Endangered Species Act or both. In order to address these concerns, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working collaboratively with all stakeholders including utilities, environmental groups, consumer advocates, utility regulators, government officials, and the wind industry, has an active avian-wind power research program. DOE/NREL is conducting and sponsoring research with the expectation of developing solutions to educe or avoid avian mortality due to wind energy development throughout the US. This paper outlines the DOE/NREL approach and summarizes completed, current, and planned projects.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Sinclair, K.C. & Morrison, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: Kotzebue Wind Installation Project, Kotzebue, Alaska

Description: The DOE is proposing to provide financial assistance to the Kotzebue Electric Association to expand its existing wind installation near Kotzebue, Alaska. Like many rural Alaska towns, Kotzebue uses diesel-powered generators to produce its electricity, the high cost of which is currently subsidized by the Alaska State government. In an effort to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce dependence on diesel fuel, and reduce air pollutants, the DOE is proposing to fund an experimental wind installation to test commercially available wind turbines under Arctic conditions. The results would provide valuable information to other Alaska communities experiencing similar dependence on diesel-powered generators. The environmental assessment for the proposed wind installation assessed impacts to biological resources, land use, electromagnetic interference, coastal zone, air quality, cultural resources, and noise. It was determined that the project does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact.
Date: May 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating wind turbines into the Orcas Island distribution system

Description: This research effort consists of two years of wind data collection and analysis to investigate the possibility of strategically locating a megawatt (MW) scale wind farm near the end of an Orcas Power and light Company (OPALCO) 25-kilovolt (kV) distribution circuit to defer the need to upgrade the line to 69 kV. The results of this study support the results of previous work in which another year of wind data and collection was performed. Both this study and the previous study show that adding a MW-scale wind farm at the Mt. Constitution site is a feasible alternative to upgrading the OPALCO 25-kV distribution circuit to 69 kV.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Zaininger, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INL Wind Farm Project Description Document

Description: The INL Wind Farm project proposes to install a 20 MW to 40 MW wind farm on government property, consisting of approximately ten to twenty full-sized (80-meter hub height) towers with 2 MW turbines, and access roads. This includes identifying the optimal turbine locations, building access roads, and pouring the tower foundations in preparation for turbine installation. The project successfully identified a location on INL lands with commercially viable wind resources (i.e., greater than 11 mph sustained winds) for a 20 to 40 MW wind farm. Additionally, the proposed Wind Farm was evaluated against other General Plant Projects, General Purpose Capital Equipment projects, and Line Item Construction Projects at the INL to show the relative importance of the proposed Wind Farm project.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Siefert, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind resource assessment and wind energy system cost analysis: Fort Huachuca, Arizona

Description: The objective of this joint DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project is to determine whether wind turbines can reduce costs by providing power to US military facilities in high wind areas. In support of this objective, one year of data on the wind resources at several Fort Huachuca sites was collected. The wind resource data were analyzed and used as input to an economic study for a wind energy installation at Fort Huachuca. The results of this wind energy feasibility study are presented in the report.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Olsen, T.L. & McKenna, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

Description: The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Kelley, N.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind resource characterization results to support the Sandia Wind Farm Feasibility Study : August 2008 through March 2009.

Description: Sandia National Laboratories Wind Technology Department is investigating the feasibility of using local wind resources to meet the requirements of Executive Order 13423 and DOE Order 430.2B. These Orders, along with the DOE TEAM initiative, identify the use of on-site renewable energy projects to meet specified renewable energy goals over the next 3 to 5 years. A temporary 30-meter meteorological tower was used to perform interim monitoring while the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the larger Wind Feasibility Project ensued. This report presents the analysis of the data collected from the 30-meter meteorological tower.
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Deola, Regina Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of WRF Physics and Grid Resolution on Low-level Wind Prediction: Towards the Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Future Wind Power

Description: The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used in short-range simulations to explore the sensitivity of model physics and horizontal grid resolution. We choose five events with the clear-sky conditions to study the impact of different planetary boundary layer (PBL), surface and soil-layer physics on low-level wind forecast for two wind farms; one in California (CA) and the other in Texas (TX). Short-range simulations are validated with field measurements. Results indicate that the forecast error of the CA case decreases with increasing grid resolution due to the improved representation of valley winds. Besides, the model physics configuration has a significant impact on the forecast error at this location. In contrast, the forecast error of the TX case exhibits little dependence on grid resolution and is relatively independent of physics configuration. Therefore, the occurrence frequency of lowest root mean square errors (RMSEs) at this location is used to determine an optimal model configuration for subsequent decade-scale regional climate model (RCM) simulations. In this study, we perform two sets of 20-year RCM simulations using the data from the NCAR Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations; one set models the present climate and the other simulates the future climate. These RCM simulations will be used to assess the impact of climate change on future wind energy.
Date: February 24, 2010
Creator: Chin, H S; Glascoe, L; Lundquist, J & Wharton, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cherokee Nation Enterprises Wind Energy Feasibility Study Final Report to U.S. DOE

Description: CNE has conducted a feasibility study on the Chilocco property in north-central Oklahoma since the grant award on July 20, 2003. This study has concluded that there is sufficient wind for a wind farm and that with the Production Tax Credits and Green Tags, there will be sufficient energy to, not only cover the costs of the Nation’s energy needs, but to provide a profit. CNE has developed a wind energy team and is working independently and with industry partners to bring its renewable energy resources to the marketplace. We are continuing with the next phase in conducting avian, cultural and transmission studies, as well as continuing to measure the wind with the SoDAR unit. Cherokee Nation Enterprises, Inc. is a wholly-owned corporation under Cherokee Nation and has managed the Department of Energy grant award since July 20, 2003. In summary, we have determined there is sufficient wind for a wind farm at the Chilocco property where Cherokee Nation owns approximately 4,275 acres. The primary goal would be more of a savings in light of the electricity used by Cherokee Nation and its entities which totals an estimated eight million dollars per year. Cherokee Nation Enterprises (CNE), working independently and with industry partners, plans to bring its renewable energy resources into the marketplace through a well-documented understanding of our undeveloped resource. Our plan is to cultivate this resource in a way that will ensure the development and use for our energy will be in an environmentally and culturally acceptable form.
Date: April 30, 2006
Creator: Wyatt, Carol E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

Description: The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.
Date: September 13, 2011
Creator: Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission First Quarter - March 1983

Description: In the First Quarter of 1983, the number of signed contracts and committed projects rose from 204 to 224, with a total estimated nominal capacity of these projects of 1,246 MW. Of this nominal capacity, about 259 MW is operational, and the balance is under contract for development. Of the 224 signed contracts and committed projects, 70 were cogeneration and solid waste/biomass projects with a potential of 687 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 30 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 744 MW to 821 MW, and 12 solid waste/biomass projects with a potential of 118 MW to 126 MW. Two contracts have been signed with geothermal projects, capable of producing 83 MW. There are 6 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 36 MW, as well as another solar project under active discussion for 30 MW. Wind farm projects under contract number 17, with a generating capability of 330 MW. Also, discussions are being conducted with 9 wind farm projects, totaling 184 to 189 MW. There are 89 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of almost 1 MW, as well as 9 other projects under active discussion. There are 38 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 103 MW, as well as 65 projects under active discussion for 183 MW. In addition, there are 29 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 291 MW, that PG and E is constructing or planning to construct. Table A displays the above information. In tabular form, in Appendix A, are status reports of the projects as of March 31, 1983.
Date: March 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Illinois Wind Workers Group

Description: The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.
Date: May 28, 2012
Creator: Loomis, David G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

Description: In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor & Loose, Verne W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-flow variability on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass. [Final report]

Description: A central monitoring computer was installed on each ranch. The computers were connected by communication cables to 50 turbines on the Souza Ranch and 150 turbines on the Jess Ranch. Anemometers were installed on every other turbine on 12-foot booms at 35 feet above ground level (AGL). Spacing between anemometers was approximately 200 feet in the crosswind direction by 500 feet in the parallel direction. A total of 23 turbines on the Souza Ranch was instrumented in this fashion, as well as two multi-level meteorological towers. On the Jess Ranch, 77 turbines were instrumented; about half at 35 feet AGL and half at 50 feet AGL, plus four additional towers. Wind data were collected for approximately a 100 hour period on each ranch. All turbines were shut down during these periods so that no turbine wakes would be present. The data periods were selected by the meteorologist to insure that they occurred during typical spring-summer flow regimes. The terrain features upwind of the site appear to play as significant a role in the flow variability as terrain features within the site.
Date: April 25, 1988
Creator: Nierenberg, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VAWT in a windfarm array

Description: The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m VAWT were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind windfarm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. The field experiment was conducted within a VAWT array consisting of more than nine VAWTs with separations 3D crosswised by 8D downwind (where D is the turbine diameter) in a staggered configuration. The array is the upwind three rows of VAWTS in a total of six rows that are on top of the Cameron Ridge plateau. The terrain features in the vicinity are reasonably regular, with an upslope of 7 deg on the average; however, several local irregularities are present. The annual hourly averaged wind speed exceeds 8 m/s at the site. The wind field and the power-outputs of nine turbines within the array were measured with wind sensors and power transducers. Nine Gill propeller and 18 Maximum cup anemometers and one direction sensor were mounted on portable and stack-up towers installed upwind and within the turbine array. From the field measurements, the velocity and power/energy deficits were derived under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. Recommendations are made for optimizing windfarm design and operations as well as for wind energy management.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Liu, H. T.; Buck, J. W.; Germain, A. C.; Hinchee, M. E.; Solt, T. S.; LeRoy, G. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of wind technology progress

Description: US DOE`s Wind Energy Program, NREL, and Sandia periodically re-evaluate the state of wind technology. Since 1995 marked the conclusion of a number of DOE-supported advanced turbine design efforts, and results from the next major round of research are expected near the latter part of the century, this paper discusses future trends for domestic wind farm applications (bulk power), incorporating recent turbine research efforts under different market assumptions from previous DOE estimates. Updated cost/performance projections are presented along with underlying assumptions and discussions of potential alternative wind turbine design paths. Issues on market valuation of wind technology in a restructured electricity market are also discussed.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Cadogan, J B; Parsons, B; Cohen, J M & Johnson, B L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NEPA scoping averts agency funds from blowing in the wind: A NEPA success story

Description: The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process has been successful without the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) or an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has used early application of the NEPA process to make an informed decision and thus avoid negative ecological and financial results. The NEPA process was initiated to assess the potential impacts of constructing and operating a 6--9 megawatt wind turbine farm. The farm was to consist of up to 18 turbines to be placed along the spine of Plum Island which lies in the Atlantic Ocean off the shore of eastern Long Island. The rationale for the proposal was to provide an alternative energy source and thus avoid the expenditure of more than one million dollars per year on electricity and the dependency on the mainland public utility companies. A sufficient wind resource is readily available on Plum Island. Complicating the issue was a window of opportunity to obtain federal production tax credits if the wind energy system could become operational before July 1, 1999.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Wade, M.C.; Van Dyke, J. & Crew, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline avian use and behavior at the CARES wind plant site, Klickitat County, Washington

Description: This report presents a literature review on avian-wind turbine interactions and the results of a one-year avian baseline study conducted in 1998 at the proposed Conservation and Renewable Energy System (CARES) wind development site in Klickitat County, Washington. Avian use of the site ranged from 1.11/survey in the winter to 5.69/survey in the spring. Average use by passerines in the study plots ranged from 1.15 minutes/survey in the winter to 40.98 minutes/survey in the spring. Raptors spent much less time within plots than other groups, ranging from 0.05 minutes/survey in the winter to 0.77 minutes/survey during the fall. Thirteen percent of all flying birds were within the rotor-swept height (25 to 75 m); 41.6% of all raptors were flying at this height. Raptors with the greatest potential turbine exposure are red-tailed hawks and golden eagles. Passerines with the highest turbine exposure are common ravens, American robins, and horned larks. Spatial use data for the site indicate that avian use tends to be concentrated near the rim, indicating that placing turbines away from the rim may reduce risk. Avian use data at the CARES site indicate that if a wind plant is constructed in the future, avian mortality would likely be relatively low.
Date: January 3, 2000
Creator: Erickson, W. P.; Johnson, G. D.; Strickland, M. D.; Kronner, K.; Becker, P. S. & Orloff, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint

Description: With the advent of competition in the electric power marketplace, this paper reviews changes that affect wind and other renewable energy technologies, and discusses the role of federal and state policies in the recent wind installations in the United States. In particular, it reviews the implications of ancillary service requirements on a wind farm and presents initial operating results of monitoring one Midwest wind farm. Under federal energy policy, each generator must purchase, or otherwise provide for, ancillary services, such as dispatch, regulation, operation reserve, voltage regulation, and scheduling required to move power to load. As a renewable technology that depends on the forces of nature, short-term output variations are inherently greater for a wind farm than for a gas-fired combined cycle or a supercritical coal-fired unit.
Date: September 21, 2001
Creator: Cadogan, J.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y. & Kirby, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 -- Balance-of-Station Cost

Description: DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW.
Date: July 24, 2001
Creator: Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; H., Guidinger J.; Wilkie, D. C. & Zellman, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue reliability of wind turbine fleets: The effect of uncertainty of projected costs

Description: The cost of repairing or replacing failed components depends on the number and timing of failures. Although the total probability of individual component failure is sometimes interpreted as the percentage of components likely to fail, this perception is often far from correct. Different amounts of common versus independent uncertainty can cause different numbers of components to be at risk of failure. The FAROW tool for fatigue and reliability analysis of wind turbines makes it possible for the first time to conduct a detailed economic analysis of the effects of uncertainty on fleet costs. By dividing the uncertainty into common and independent parts, the percentage of components expected to fail in each year of operation is estimated. Costs are assigned to the failures and the yearly costs and present values are computed. If replacement cost is simply a constant multiple of the number of failures, the average, or expected cost is the same as would be calculated by multiplying by the probability of individual component failure. However, more complicated cost models require a break down of how many components are likely to fail. This break down enables the calculation of costs associated with various probability of occurrence levels, illustrating the variability in projected costs. Estimating how the numbers of components expected to fail evolves over time is also useful in calculating the present value of projected costs and in understanding the nature of the financial risk.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Veers, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department