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PowerJet Wind Turbine Project

Description: PROJECT OBJECTIVE The PowerJet wind turbine overcomes problems characteristic of the small wind turbines that are on the market today by providing reliable output at a wide range of wind speeds, durability, silent operation at all wind speeds, and bird-safe operation. Prime Energy’s objective for this project was to design and integrate a generator with an electrical controller and mechanical controls to maximize the generation of electricity by its wind turbine. The scope of this project was to design, construct and test a mechanical back plate to control rotational speed in high winds, and an electronic controller to maximize power output and to assist the base plate in controlling rotational speed in high winds. The test model will continue to operate beyond the time frame of the project, with the ultimate goal of manufacturing and marketing the PowerJet worldwide. Increased Understanding of Electronic & Mechanical Controls Integrated With Electricity Generator The PowerJet back plate begins to open as wind speed exceeds 13.5 mps. The pressure inside the turbine and the turbine rotational speed are held constant. Once the back plate has fully opened at approximately 29 mps, the controller begins pulsing back to the generator to limit the rotational speed of the turbine. At a wind speed in excess of 29 mps, the controller shorts the generator and brings the turbine to a complete stop. As the wind speed subsides, the controller releases the turbine and it resumes producing electricity. Data collection and instrumentation problems prevented identification of the exact speeds at which these events occur. However, the turbine, controller and generator survived winds in excess of 36 mps, confirming that the two over-speed controls accomplished their purpose. Technical Effectiveness & Economic Feasibility Maximum Electrical Output The output of electricity is maximized by the integration of an electronic controller and ...
Date: November 30, 2008
Creator: Bartlett, Raymond J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Offshore Wind Recommended Practice for U.S. Waters: Preprint

Description: This paper discusses how the American Petroleum Institute oil and gas standards were interfaced with International Electrotechnical Commission and other wind turbine and offshore industry standards to provide guidance for reliable engineering design practices for offshore wind energy systems.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Musial, W. D.; Sheppard, R. E.; Dolan, D. & Naughton, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.
Date: March 26, 2012
Creator: NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric & Hand, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

Description: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G. & Draxl, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

Description: Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post-construction assessment and mitigation, and sharing information that can be used in other assessments.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Day, Robin & Strickland, M. Dale
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Report of the Wind Characteristics Program Element for the Period April 1976 Through June 1977

Description: The Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) is a service element to provide meteorological information to other parts of the Wind Energy Conversion Program. In this role, the WCPE has as its general objective acceleration of the development, commercialization and utilization of reliable and economically viable wind energy conversion systems (WECS). This report discusses the work undertaken in the areas of design and performance evaluation, site selection, and presiting evaluation from April 1976 through June 1977. A systematic evaluation of wind descriptors has begun in the Design and Performance Evaluation Program Areas and is leading to the preparation of handbooks of meteorological information for use in design and performance evaluation. A conceptual framework has been established within the Site Selection Program Area that clearly defines the relationships between siting tools. The Presiting Evaluation Program Area is involved in the identification of large areas of high wind energy potential throughout the United States, and in the determination of wind characteristics related to the economic viability of wind energy conversion within these areas.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Elderkin, C. E. & Ramsdell, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Wind Data from Nuclear Power Plant Sites

Description: This study was undertaken to provide a summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites. National Weather Service archives are an immediately obvious source of wind data, but additional data sources are also available. Utility companies proposing to build nuclear power plants are required to establish on-site meteorological monitoring programs that include towers for collecting wind and temperature data for use in environmental impact assessments. These data are available for more than one hundred planned or operating nuclear power plant sites This site wind data provides a valuable addition to the existing NWS data sets, and significantly enlarges the multilevel data presently available. The wind data published through the NRC is assembled and assessed here in order to provide a supplement to existing data sets.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Verholek, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) provides wind information, through the Wind Energy Conversion Program (WECP), for those involved in: energy program planning, design and evaluation of performance of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), selection of sites for WECS instal lation, and WECS operations. Battell e, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) , provides the ERDA Wind Systems Branch (WSB) with technical and management support for the WCPE. A framework has been established to develop and disseminate needed wind information, and a Program Development Plan has been prepared and is continuously being updated to ensure that the needs of the WECP are met. Two invitational workshops have been held to obtain planning input and to encourage and facilitate information exchange. Currently the technical work within the WCPE is divided among four program areas. These areas are to provide wind characteristics for: Design and Performance Evaluation; Site Selection; Resource Assessment; and Operations. Work is being undertaken in the first three areas.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Elderkin, C. E. & Ramsdell, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of National Wind Energy Assessments

Description: The objective of this study is to perform a synthesis of existing national wind energy assessments t o develop an improved consistent assessment of the geographical distribution of the available wind power over the United States. Previous national wind energy assessments have been reviewed with respect to techniques, assumptions, data sets/summaries, and interpolation schemes used. The overall representativeness of the resource maps produced has been evaluated Discrepancies exist among 'previous assessments with regard to geographical variations and the estimated values of wind power. Information from the existiqg national wind energy assessments and various other sources has been selectively used to form a synthesized national assessment. As part of the synthesis, additional research was performed to further improve the national assessment. This included a more detailed examination of some of the inherent problems with respect to the representativeness and reliability of the surface and rawinsonde wind data, techniques employed in the vertical extrapolation of wind power, in the estimation of wind power over mountainous and offshore areas and areas of sparse data, and in the analysis and interpolation of the values.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Elliott, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Kansas Wind Working Group (WWG) is a 33-member group announced by former Governor Kathleen Sebelius on Jan. 7, 2008. Formed through Executive Order 08-01, the WWG will educate stakeholder groups with the current information on wind energy markets, technologies, economics, policies, prospects and issues. Governor Mark Parkinson serves as chair of the Kansas Wind Working Group. The group has been instrumental in focusing on the elements of government and coordinating government and private sector efforts in wind energy development. Those efforts have moved Kansas from 364 MW of wind three years ago to over 1000 MW today. Further, the Wind Working Group was instrumental in fleshing out issues such as a state RES and net metering, fundamental parts of HB 2369 that was passed and is now law in Kansas. This represents the first mandatory RES and net metering in Kansas history.
Date: October 27, 2010
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Reprot

Description: This report is the summary of research and a written report conducted by Energy Northwest with consultant Rhyno Stinchfield.
Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Knighten, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

Description: This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.
Date: October 9, 2012
Creator: Bailey, Brent & Hansen, Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The SecondWind Triton® is a SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) sonic wind profiler (Triton® sodar) system capable of profiling the wind characteristics up to 200m above the instrument. SODAR systems transmit acoustic chirps into the atmosphere and measure the backscattered signal returned to the device. The primary source of acoustic scattering is variations in air temperature, which cause changes in the refractive index of sound. By measuring the Doppler‐shifted frequency of these returned signals, the Triton® can calculate the wind’s speed and direction for the volume of air above the instrument, measured at ten fixed heights, known as station heights. The Triton® is specifically designed for the purpose of wind energy resource assessment as it can remotely capture wind data at heights above ground where wind turbine rotors operate. The measurements made include horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and turbulence. Other integrated sensors provide time and location via GPS, barometric pressure, humidity, and the tilt of the instrument. The study area is located east of Georgetown, South Carolina in North Inlet ‐ Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The monitoring period for data in this report begins 5/14/2009 9:30:00 AM EST and ends 8/2/2010 11:40:00 AM EST.
Date: April 29, 2013
Creator: Nichols, R.; Kohn, J.; Rigas, N.; Boessneck, E.; Kress, E. & Gayes, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Recent analysis of offshore wind turbine foundations using both applicable API and IEC standards show that the total load demand from wind and waves is greatest in wave driven storms. Further, analysis of overturning moment loads (OTM) reveal that impact forces exerted by breaking waves are the largest contributor to OTM in big storms at wind speeds above the operating range of 25 m/s. Currently, no codes or standards for offshore wind power generators have been adopted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) for use on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Current design methods based on allowable stress design (ASD) incorporate the uncertainty in the variation of loads transferred to the foundation and geotechnical capacity of the soil and rock to support the loads is incorporated into a factor of safety. Sources of uncertainty include spatial and temporal variation of engineering properties, reliability of property measurements applicability and sufficiency of sampling and testing methods, modeling errors, and variability of estimated load predictions. In ASD these sources of variability are generally given qualitative rather than quantitative consideration. The IEC 61400‐3 design standard for offshore wind turbines is based on ASD methods. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods are being increasingly used in the design of structures. Uncertainties such as those listed above can be included quantitatively into the LRFD process. In LRFD load factors and resistance factors are statistically based. This type of analysis recognizes that there is always some probability of failure and enables the probability of failure to be quantified. This paper presents an integrated approach consisting of field observations and numerical simulation to establish the distribution of loads from breaking waves to support the LRFD of fixed offshore foundations.
Date: October 14, 2013
Creator: Nichols, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional Community Wind Conferences, Great Plains Windustry Project

Description: Windustry organized and produced five regional Community Wind Across America (CWAA) conferences in 2010 and 2011 and held two CWAA webinars in 2011 and 2012. The five conferences were offered in regions throughout the United States: Denver, Colorado “ October 2010 St. Paul, Minnesota “ November 2010 State College, Pennsylvania “ February 2011 Ludington, Michigan (co-located with the Michigan Energy Fair) June 2011 Albany, New York October 2011
Date: February 28, 2013
Creator: Daniels, Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department