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Continental Scientific Drilling Committee: comments on the Continental Scientific Drilling Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

Description: This program, which provides support for geoscience research, including advanced technology and data/information services, concerning drilling in the continental crust of the United States for scientific purposes, is described. The curatorial needs and comparative site assessment projects are discussed. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Godchaux Well No. 1, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana: completion and testing. Final report

Description: The Godchaux Well No. 1 was originally drilled too a total depth of 16,000 feet in January, 1981 by C and K Petroleum, Inc. and was temporarily abandoned. The well was re-entered by Eaton on 6 August 1981 in an effort to clean out the original open hole below the 7-5/8 inch liner and test a section of the Planulina sand at a depth ranging from 15,584 to 15,692 feet. The reservoir pressure was estimated to be 14,480 psi, and the temperature of the formation water was expected to be 298/sup 0/F. The water salinity was predicted to be 70,000 ppM. The well was expected to produce up to 20,000 BWPD, was a gas content of 44 SCF per barrel. An optional test of a zone from 14,905 to 15,006 feet was also proposed in the detailed completion prognosis, which preceded the attempted test. In the process of drilling the cement plug set by the original operators, the drill string became side-tracked from the original hole. While drilling at 14,510 feet a severe loss of circulation of drilling fluid occurred through a hole in the intermediate casing. The reduction in hydrostatic head resulting from lost circulation caused the open hole to close around and stick the drill string. Efforts to repair the intermediate casing and return to normal operations were estimated to be prohibitively expensive in view of the expected poor probability of success; accordingly, the decision to plug and abandon was carried out on September 12, 1981.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured-geothermal aquifers. Final contract report

Description: Task 1 is to provide petrophysical and reservoir analysis of wells drilled into geopressured-geothermal aquifers containing dissolved methane. The list of Design Wells and Wells of Opportunity analyzed: Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 (WOO), Pleasant Bayou No. 2 (Design), Amoco Fee No. 1 (Design), G.M. Koelemay No. 1 (WOO), Gladys McCall No. 1 (Design), P.R. Girouard No. 1 (WOO), and Crown Zellerbach No. 2 (WOO). Petrophysical and reservoir analysis of the above wells were performed based on availability of data. The analysis performed on each well, the assumptions made during simulation, and conclusions reached.
Date: August 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved geothermal well logging tools

Description: A geothermal well logging tool has been designed to operate at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi. The logging tool will initially consist of a manometer, a gradiomanometer and a thermometer; the electrical and mechanical design is such that a flowmeter and a caliper can be added as a later development. A unique feature of the logging tool is that it contains no downhole active electronics. The manometer is a standard high temperature pressure gauge. The gradiomanometer consists of a differential pressure gauge which is coupled to ports separated vertically by 2 ft. The differential pressure gauge is a new development; it is designed to measure a differential pressure up to 2 psi at a line pressure of 10,000 psi. The thermometer is a platinum resistance thermometer previously developed for oil well logging. The pressure gauges are both strain gauge types which allows all three gauges are both strain gauge types which allows all three gauges to be connected in series and driven from a constant current supply. This arrangement makes it possible to use a standard seven-conductor cable with no downhole switching. The joints in the sonde are electron beam welded, thus eliminating any sealed joints in the sonde wall. The logging tool will be tested first in an autoclave and in a geothermal well later in the program.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Kratz, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra high temperature instrumentation amplifier. Final report, September 1976-September 1977

Description: The results of a program to develop an instrumentation amplifier for downhole geothermal well logging at temperatures up to 500/sup 0/C are described. The performance and characteristics of this 500/sup 0/C amplifier are summarized. The circuit design of this amplifier and other circuits considered are discussed. The features of the packaging design are presented and the tests are detailed. Supporting information is contained in the Appendices. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Kelly, R.D.; Cannon, W.L. & Morse, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high resolution downhole pressure instrument for high temperature applications

Description: As part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy, high resolution, quartz crystal based, downhole pressure instruments are being developed. Under a joint no-cost contract, Sandia and Paroscientific, Inc., of Redmond, Washington, are working to upgrade a Paroscientific transducer for operation at 275/sup 0/C. In addition, Sandia Laboratories has been investigating various design configurations and fabrication techniques for high temperature quartz resonators and their associated electronic circuits. The goal of these efforts is to achieve a resolution of 0.01 psi in a 0 to 7000 psi range and in temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C. The progress and plans for this project will be reviewed and hardware samples will be displayed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Eernisse, E.P.; McConnell, T.D. & Veneruso, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benefit/cost analysis for research in geothermal log interpretation. Final report

Description: Well log interpretation, the process of inferring subsurface geology from geophysical measurements made in boreholes, is the most versatile and direct means available of assessing important physical and structural reservoir properties. Historically, well logging has been developed primarily for use in oil and gas wells, and its application in a different environment such as a geothermal reservoir creates complex problems. Present geothermal development is severely hindered by lack of data. Adaptation of well logging techniques holds the promise of reducing development costs, encouraging investment, and assisting regulatory permitting. Such benefits will translate directly into lower power costs and an increased domestic energy supply. A significant acceleration of geothermal power-on-line is possible plus cost reductions through reduction of drilling failure rate, reduction of average well cost, earlier recognition of bad wells, reduced flow testing, and savings due to provision of better data for regulatory decisions. Net undiscounted benefits in 1979 dollars from improving logging and interpretation in geothermal areas can exceed half a billion dollars in slightly more than a decade, about 300 million of this should be regarded as the potential benefit of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Geothermal Log Interpretation Program or similar research.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Rigby, F.A. & Reardon, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pleasant Bayou No. 2: a review of rationale, ongoing research and preliminary test results

Description: The first well designed and drilled to evaluate Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal energy resouces was completed in 1979. Since then, the well has been tested and has entered a long-term production phase intended to provide data on pressure and fluid behavior and reservoir life. Preliminary results indicate that the producing reservoir has good permeability, is extensive, and meets most of the criteria and subsurface conditions predicted prior to drilling, with one exception; salinity is twice what was expected and consequently, methane solubility is about 25% lower than expected. Extensive logging and coring operations as well as continuous monitoring of production and injection activities have provided a wealth of data for ongoing research in areas of geological resource assessment, sandstone diagenesis, rock mechanics, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, chemical analyses of produced fluids, scaling and corrosion of equipment, disposal of spent brines, environmental considerations, economics, and commercial development of the resource.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Morton, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

Description: Useful design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes are discussed for application to the development of high temperature well logs. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data are presented in the appendix.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Kelly, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interpretation of drill cuttings from geothermal wells

Description: Problems in interpreting drill cuttings, as opposed to drill cores, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Hulen, J. B. & Sibbett, B. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equipment development report: borehole-fluid sampling tool

Description: The design and development of a tool for collecting fluid samples from hot, deep geothermal boreholes are discussed. This tool has performed satisfactorily in the field at downhole temperatures of 200/sup 0/C and pressures of 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). Assembly and operating instructions are included.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Archuleta, J.R.; Fink, C.F. & Kurtenbach, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Downhole memory-logging tools

Description: Logging technologies developed hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (i) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (ii) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions.'' Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about on year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400{degrees}C is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. 8 refs.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Lysne, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interpretation of interference data from the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal resource

Description: Data from a seven week pressure interference test in the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal resource have been analyzed. The data indicate that productive wells are fed by a highly permeable fracture network and that the less permeable matrix blocks contribute significantly to the reservoir storage capacity. Detailed analysis of data from two wells is presented. Data from both of the wells yield a reservoir permeability-thickness (kh) of approximately 1.3x10/sup 6/ md-ft and a storativity (phi c/sub t/h) of 6.8x10/sup -3/ ft/psi. The parameters (lambda and ..omega..), which are determined by the distribution of permeability and storativity between the matrix and fractures, vary by more than an order of magnitude. A sensitivity study shows that for these wells, the pressure transients are not very sensitive to the distribution of permeability and storativity between the fractures and matrix blocks. No hydrologic boundaries were detected during the test. This indicates that the fault which supplies hot water to the shallow hydrothermal system does not behave according to the classical model of either a barrier or constant potential boundary.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Benson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature geothermal cableheads

Description: Two high-temperature, corrosion-resistant logging cableheads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable-sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable-sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile-environment loggings in which these cableheads were used.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Coquat, J. A. & Eifert, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

Description: Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Heard, F.E. & Bauman, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slim-hole drilling for geothermal exploration

Description: Drilling production-size holes for geothermal exploration puts a large expense at the beginning of the project, and thus requires a long period of debt service before those costs can be recaptured from power sales. If a reservoir can be adequately defined and proved by drilling smaller, cheaper slim-holes, production well drilling can be delayed until the power plant is under construction, saving years of interest payments. In the broadest terms, this project's objective is to demonstrate that a geothermal resevoir can be identified and evaluated with data collected in slim holes. We have assembled a coordinated working group, including personnel from Sandia, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of Utah Research Institute, US Geological Survey, independent consultants, and geothermal operators, to focus on the development of this project. This group is involved to a greater or lesser extent in all decisions affecting the direction of the research. Specific tasks being pursued include: Correlation of fluid flow and injection tests between slim-holes and production size wells. Transfer of slim-hole exploration drilling and reservoir assessment to industry so that slim-hole drilling becomes an accepted method for geothermal exploration.Development and validation of a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator which can be used for reservoir evaluation from slim-hole flow data. Collection of applicable data from commercial wells in existing geothermal fields. Drilling of at least one new slim-hole and use it to evaluate a geothermal reservoir.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Finger, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wireline well logging an underutilized technique in reservoir evaluation

Description: Wireline well logs have three general uses in geothermal exploration and reservoir evaluation: reservoir parameter analysis, lithologic column determination, and reservoir size resolution. Reservoir flow testing data are acquired to understand the flow rate, life, and production potential of the geothermal reservoir. These data are a coarse subsurface measurement of the geothermal prospect. Wireline logs acquired from wells in a geothermal prospect are used to define in detail, or estimate the reservoir parameters of temperature, thickness, lateral size, amount of fracture and intergranular pore space, and the quantity and quality of fluid that might be produced. Laboratory measurements can be made on core samples and drill cuttings samples to define the intrinsic behavior of the materials and fluid that compose the geotheraml reservoir. Wireline log measurements are needed to correlate and link the reservoir testing and core analysis, reduce the amount of time needed for flow testing, and predict the production life (amount of heat and fluid available) in a geothermal field.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Mathews, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of LOGDEX data base

Description: A summary of LOGDEX, the digitized well log data base maintained by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin is presented. These well logs were obtained from various oil companies and then converted from paper well logs to numeric information on magnetic computer tapes for input into the well log data base. This data base serves as a resource for application programs in the study of geopressured geothermal energy resources, for well logging research, and for geological research. Currently the location and scope of well log data that may be found within the LOGDEX data base are limited to wells along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast that are known to have a potential as a geopressured geothermal energy resource. Additionally the location of these wells in that area is highly localized into areas that have been defined by Department of Energy researchers as having a high potential for geopressured geothermal energy. The LOGDEX data base currently contains data from more than 350 wells, representing more than 1600 logs and 16,600,000 curve feet of data. For quick reference to a given log, the summary listing has been indexed into seven divisions: well classification, location by county or parish, curve type, log type, operators, location by state, and well names. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Hill, T. & Sepehrnoori, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal well log interpretation. Progress report

Description: Progress is presented on the following tasks: review of the state-of-the-art, classification of geothermal reservoir types, data acquisition, problem definition and directions for solution, and refinement of existing interpretation techniques and development of new ones. Computerized literature searches were conducted. The classification system defines five major characteristics which will qualify a potential reservoir. A catalog lists well logs currently available for study. Rock and fluid parameters needed for reservoir studies are listed. A list of matrix characteristics for rocks and minerals is given. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices A through D

Description: These appendices include: a folio of county maps showing locations of well data across the state; a computerized tabulation of the wells depicted; an explanation of the computer coding procedures; and a selected bibliography on heat flow and geothermics. (MHR)
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L. & McBride, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recently developed well test insrumentation for low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal reservoirs

Description: The engineering drawings, assembly instructions, and recommended usage for several of the instruments developed for low and moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal well testing are presented. Included are the drawings for: a downhole pressure and temperature instrument, a multi-conductor cablehead, a line driver to be used with the downhole pressure and temperature instrument, and a fluid-level detector.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Solbau, R.; Goranson, C.B. & Benson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department