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Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

Description: The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.
Date: March 11, 2002
Creator: Nelson, Donald G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid-Rock Characterization for NMR Well Logging and Special Core Analysis

Description: The overall objective of this effort is to develop, build and test a high-speed drilling motor that can meet the performance guidelines of the announcement, namely: 'The motors are expected to rotate at a minimum of 10,000 rpm, have an OD no larger than 7 inches and work downhole continuously for at least 100 hours. The motor must have common oilfield thread connections capable of making up to a drill bit and bottomhole assembly. The motor must be capable of transmitting drilling fluid through the motor'. To these goals, APS would add that the motor must be economically viable, in terms of both its manufacturing and maintenance costs, and be applicable to as broad a range of markets as possible. APS has taken the approach of using a system using planetary gears to increase the speed of a conventional mud motor to 10,000 rpm. The mud flow is directed around the outside of the gear train, and a unique flow diversion system has been employed. A prototype of the motor was built and tested in APS's high-pressure flow loop. The motor operated per the model up to {approx}4200 rpm. At that point a bearing seized and the performance was severely degraded. The motor is being rebuilt and will be retested outside of this program.
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Hirasaki, George & Mohanty, Kishore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

Description: The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were (1) the preliminary postcruise evaluation of the tools and measurement systems that were used during ODP Leg 204 to study hydrate deposits on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon from July through September 2002; and (2) the preliminary study of the hydrate-bearing core samples preserved in pressure vessels and in liquid nitrogen cryofreezers, which are now stored at the ODP Gulf Coast Repository in College Station, TX. During ODP Leg 204, several newly modified downhole tools were deployed to better characterize the subsurface lithologies and environments hosting microbial populations and gas hydrates. A preliminary review of the use of these tools is provided herein. The DVTP, DVTP-P, APC-methane, and APC-Temperature tools (ODP memory tools) were used extensively and successfully during ODP Leg 204 aboard the D/V JOIDES Resolution. These systems provided a strong operational capability for characterizing the in situ properties of methane hydrates in subsurface environments on Hydrate Ridge during ODP Leg 204. Pressure was also measured during a trial run of the Fugro piezoprobe, which operates on similar principles as the DVTP-P. The final report describing the deployments of the Fugro Piezoprobe is provided in Appendix A of this report. A preliminary analysis and comparison between the piezoprobe and DVTP-P tools is provided in Appendix B of this report. Finally, a series of additional holes were cored at the crest of Hydrate Ridge (Site 1249) specifically geared toward the rapid recovery and preservation of hydrate samples as part of a hydrate geriatric study partially funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, the preliminary results from gamma density non-invasive imaging of the cores preserved in pressure vessels are provided in Appendix C of this report. An initial visual inspection of the samples stored in liquid ...
Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Rack, Frank; Storms, Michael; Schroeder, Derryl; Dugan, Brandon; Schultheiss, Peter & Party, ODP Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

Description: A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Giles, J.R. & Dooley, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

Description: The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.
Date: May 23, 2002
Creator: Milliken, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this first quarter we made an organizational change in the project that should allow us to more easily meet the project milestones. This change consists of designing a new systems that will allow to simplify field operation and reduce survey costs. The new system design has been completed and we are in the process of completing the manufacture and test of the first prototype. Production of the final system for the survey should be completed by end of July. The new acquisition and processing software is in progress and will be ready by the end of July. The new processing software will include the robust processing developed by Larsen and Egbert.
Date: April 15, 2001
Creator: Nichols, Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors, large conventional-diameter wells are no longer necessary for obtaining subsurface information. Furthermore, microholes offer an environment for improved substance measurement. The combination of deep microholes having diameters of 1-3/8 in. at their terminal depth and 7/8-in. diameter logging tools will comprise a very low cost alternative to currently available technology for deep subsurface characterization and monitoring.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: ALBRIGHT, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

Description: On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two ...
Date: April 27, 1999
Creator: Staller, George E. & Whitlow, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Numerical Analysis of 3D EM Imaging from a Single Borehole

Description: In this study we analyze the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) imaging from a single borehole. The proposed logging tool consists of three mutually orthogonal magnetic dipole sources and multiple three component magnetic field receivers. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important sensor configuration for providing 3D geological information about the borehole consists of a transmitter with moment aligned parallel to the axis of the borehole, and receivers aligned perpendicular to the axis. The standard coaxial logging configuration provides the greatest depth of sensitivity compared to other configurations, but offers no information regarding 3D structure. Two other tool configurations in which both the source and receiver are aligned perpendicular to the borehole axis provide some directional information and therefore better image resolution, but not true 3D information. A 3D inversion algorithm has been employed to demonstrate the plausibility of 3D inversion using data collected with the proposed logging tool. This study demonstrates that an increase in image resolution results when three orthogonal sources are incorporated into the logging tool rather than a single axially aligned source.
Date: July 27, 1999
Creator: Alumbaugh, David L. & Wilt, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for ...
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Paulsson, Bjorn N.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objectives of this project is to demonstrate the use of a new geophysical system to collect economically competitive induced polarization (IP) data using natural electromagnetic (EM) field as a source. The proposed technology uses naturally-existing EM fields, which provides greater depth of exploration and significant economic, energy, environmental and safety benefits.
Date: January 15, 2002
Creator: Nichols, Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of a Prototype Continuous-Wave, Borehole, Ground-Penetrating Radar

Description: Borehole radar systems can provide essential subsurface structural information for environmental evaluation, geotechnical analysis, or energy exploration. Sandia developed a prototype continuous-wave Borehole Radar (BHR) in 1996, and development of a practical tool has been continuing at a Russian institute under a Sandia contract. The BHR field experiments, which were planned for the summer of 2001 in Russia, provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the latest Sandia algorithms with actual field data. A new three-dimensional code was developed to enable the analysis of BHR data on modest-sized desktop workstations. The code is based on the staggered grid, finite difference technique, and eliminates 55% of the massive storage associated with solving the system of finite-difference linear equations. The code was used to forward-model the Russian site geometry and placement of artificial targets to anticipate any problems that might arise when the data was received. Technical software and equipment problems in the Russian field tests, conducted in August 2001, invalidated all but one of the data sets. However, more field tests with improved equipment and software are planned for 2002, and analysis of that data will be presented in a future report.
Date: July 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of a neutron log in partially saturated media. Part II. Error analysis

Description: Four sources or error (uncertainty) are studied in water content obtained from neutron logs calibrated in partially saturated media for holes up to 3 m. For this calibration a special facility was built and an algorithm for a commercial epithermal neutron log was developed that obtains water content from count rate, bulk density, and gap between the neutron sonde and the borehole wall. The algorithm contained errors due to the calibration and lack of fit, while the field measurements included uncertainties in the count rate (caused by statistics and a short time constant), gap, and density. There can be inhomogeneity in the material surrounding the borehole. Under normal field conditions the hole-size-corrected water content obtained from such neutron logs can have an uncertainty as large as 15% of its value.
Date: March 20, 1981
Creator: Hearst, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W. & Dreiling, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

Description: Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K. & Archuleta, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Measurement System for Systematic Hydrological Characterization of Unsaturated Fractured Welded Tuff in a Mined Underground Tunnel

Description: A field investigation of unsaturated flow through a lithophysal unit of fractured welded tuff containing lithophysal cavities has been initiated. To characterize flow in this spatially heterogeneous medium, a systematic approach has been developed to perform tests in boreholes drilled at regular intervals in an underground tunnel (drift). In this paper, we describe the test equipment system that has been built for this purpose. Since the field-scale measurements, of liquid flow in the unsaturated, fractured rocks, require continuous testing for periods of days to weeks, the control of test equipment has been fully automated, allowing operation with no human presence at the field site. Preliminary results from the first set of tests are described. These tests give insight into the role of the matrix (perhaps also lithophysal cavities) as potential storage during the initial transient flow prior to the breakthrough of water at the drift crown, as well as the role of connected fractures that provide the subsequent quasi-steady flow. These tests also reveal the impact of evaporation on seepage into the drift.
Date: November 21, 2001
Creator: Cook, R. J.; Salve, R.; Freifeld, B.M. & Tsang, Y.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

Description: This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.
Date: August 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this quarter we completed the manufacture and bench testing of the first prototype of the MT-24/LF system to be used in the natural IP survey. The MT-24/LF will dramatically reduce field costs by simplifying field operations through the use of high accuracy GPS synchronization between wide band high accuracy (24 bit) autonomous recording systems. The simplification of field operations comes about from the elimination of the need for long lengths of telemetry cable and also from the elimination of trained operators for field data acquisition. Instead, all data is now synchronized by GPS and recorded to compact Flash media which is quickly and efficiently recovered and brought back to base for processing.
Date: July 11, 2001
Creator: Nichols, Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional Requirements for Continuation Period Equipment and Drilling

Description: For geophysical measurements, creating a functional requirement based on finding a specific-sized target at a specific depth is difficult because of the wide variation of subsurface and surface geologic conditions that can be encountered. An alternative approach used in this paper is to specify functional requirements based on what is needed to search for the effects of a given target within a reasonable background of environmental or geological variation (noise). There is a gap between what the state-of-the-art expert with a large amount of experience can be expected to accomplish and what a non-expert inspector with limited experience can do. There are also limitations because of the Treaty environment (equipment certification, transparency, managed access, etc.); thus, for OSI, we must opt for pragmatic approach. Equipment must be easy to use, rugged, and functional over a wide range of environmental conditions. Equipment should consist of commercially available technology. Well-established operational procedures should be used for taking measurements, reducing data, and presenting data, with software mostly provided by the manufacturer along with the equipment. Equipment should be used in conjunction with WGB-approved position-finding equipment capable of relative position determinations pertinent to the type of equipment and measurement.
Date: June 20, 2000
Creator: Sweeney, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole Inspection System for large diameter holes

Description: A color camera developed for underwater applications has been adapted for use as a large diameter Borehole Inspection System (BIS). This video/photographic system has pan and tilt capabilities and remotely interchangeable lenses. A compass provides an azimuth for orientation. It is designed to operate in boreholes ranging in diameter from 1.2 m to 3.0 m. The system has a 180 degree ''fisheye'' lens and an inspection lens with zoom. 35 mm photographs can be taken of the same view as the video for precise location. Video tape and 35 mm film is annotated. The primary function of the BIS is geologic investigation. Various characteristics of the geologic medium can be viewed. Lithologic types and textures can be determined. Structural features such as faults, fractures, and bedding can be scrutinized. Detail descriptions of stratigraphic sequences and contacts are possible. In combination with other borehole data and sample information, many questions about hole conditions and the geologic medium can be resolved. Field operations often demand immediate resolution of borehole problems. This system offers on-the-spot visual inspection of the drill hole and associated hardware. Large eroded zones can be evaluated and casings and liners can be inspected. Other applications such as the location and configuration of hardware left in the hole and fluid entry points are possible.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Hawkins, W.L.; Oliver, R.D. & Lavelle, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description of a high temperature downhole fluid sampler

Description: Downhole fluid samplers have been used for years with limited success in high temperature geothermal wells. This paper discusses the development and operating principles of a high temperature downhole fluid sampler, reliable at obtaining samples at temperatures of up to 350/sup 0/C. The sampler was used successfully for recovering a brine sample from a depth of 10,200 ft in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Solbau, R.; Weres, O.; Hansen, L. & Dudak, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department