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Special Welding Techniques : Final Summary Report

Description: From foreword: This is the final report on Special Welding Techniques. The work of the third and final year is discussed in detail, and the accomplishments of the first two years are summarized.
Date: January 1957
Creator: Mueller, John; Maxwell, William & Siltanen, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lamb-wave inspection of welds in stainless steel tubes

Description: An ultrasonic Lamb-wave inspection technique was developed for use in inspecting the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds in small diameter stainless steel tubes for lack of penetration. The particular technique was employed because of the ability to introduce the sound into the material a distance from the weld. A conventional shear-wave technique was tried without success. (auth)
Date: December 26, 1973
Creator: Schrick, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR FILL STEM MANUFACTURINGAND PINCH WELD PROCESSING

Description: A statistically designed experiment was conducted as part of a six sigma project for Fill Stem Manufacturing and Pinch Weld Processing. This multi-year/multi-site project has successfully completed a screening study and used those results as inputs to this optimization study. Eleven welds were made using fairly tight current and cycle range. The welds demonstrate increased burst strength, longer closure length, more net displacement, and improved bond rating with increased current. However, excessive melting remains a concern from a processing viewpoint and may cause adverse metallurgical interactions. Therefore, the highest current levels specified cannot be utilized. A Validation Study is proposed for the Defense Programs Inert Facility.
Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Korinko, P & Karl Arnold, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neural Network Modeling of Weld Pool Shape in Pulsed-Laser Aluminum Welds

Description: A neural network model was developed to predict the weld pool shape for pulsed-laser aluminum welds. Several different network architectures were examined and the optimum architecture was identified. The neural network was then trained and, in spite of the small size of the training data set, the network accurately predicted the weld pool shape profiles. The neural network output was in the form of four weld pool shape parameters (depth, width, half-width, and area) and these were converted into predicted weld pool profiles with the use of the actual experimental poo1 profiles as templates. It was also shown that the neural network model could reliably predict the change from conduction-mode type shapes to keyhole-mode shapes.
Date: November 16, 1998
Creator: Iskander, Y.S.; Oblow, E.M. & Vitek, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Towards predicting weld metal microstructure from fundamentals of transport phenomena

Description: Heat transfer and fluid flow during manual metal arc welding Of low alloy steels were investigated by solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy in three dimensions. Calculated cooling rates were coupled with an existing phase transformation model to predict the microstructure in low alloy steel welds. The computed results were found to be in good agreement with experimentally observed microstructures. The agreement indicates significant promise for predicting spatial distribution of weld metal microstructure from the fundamentals of transport phenomena.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Mundra, K.; DebRoy, T.; Babu, S. S.; David, S. A. & Paul, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

Description: Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM&T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA) & Norris, Jerome T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High power ultrasonic bond strength evaluation

Description: S>Bond strength of diffusion and adhesive bonds has long remained one of the unsolved problems facing the materials testing industry. Many techniques are available for the detection of unbonds but these tend to become inaccurate when the unbonded surfaces are in intimate contact. Weak bonds in almost all cases cannot be distinguished from bends which approach base material strengths. One must usually resort to destructive testing of samples cut from production parts to obtain bond strength information. This is not the most satisfactory method from a cost and reliabilily standpoint. The accuracy of this data is also in some doubt since the cutting procedure itself may disturb the bond and the residual stress pattern of the part. The ultrasonic approach has the potential of eliminating many of the limitations of existing bond testing technlques. The system is based on the use of high power ultrasonic waves to stress the bond interface with an acoustic pressure sufflcient to break bonds of below minimum allowable strengths. Acceptable production parts may be 100% inspected with no detrimental effects. The technique, equipment, and transducers developed for this test as well as tests which indicate the feasibility of the method are described. Suggestions for further development are also included. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1973
Creator: Becker, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of ultrasonic methods for examining stainless steel welds. Interim progress report

Description: Spurious ultrasonic (UT) signals obtained during the examination of austenitic stainless steel welds in LMFBR components have emphasized the need to develop more effective UT methods to supplement the examination processes presently employed during fabrication, and for use during subsequent in-service inspection of LMFBR plants. This interim report documents the first year's effort on a program that was designed to investigate this problem and develop viable solutions. Sixty-eight weld samples were acquired, cataloged, and subjected to a series of ultrasonic, radiographic, and metallographic examination procedures. It was determined that although spurious UT noise signals could usually be associated with major dendritic grain growth patterns, the existence and magnitude of some of the observed noise signals could not be explained simply on the basis of dendritic microstructure. The results obtained during application of a series of ultrasonic and radiographic characterization procedures are included, in addition to photomicrographs and photomicrographic montages taken in the vicinity of numerous sites which produced ultrasonic noise signals of various amplitudes. A concurrent investigation was conducted to evaluate the performance of conventional ultrasonic examination procedures. These results are compared with the laboratory investigation results, and a brief outline of future work planned under this program is presented. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Peterson, R.O.; Spanner, J.C. & Mech, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study on infrared electro-thermal NDE of stainless steel

Description: Electro-thermal examination, a branch of thermal testing (TT), is a promising method being developed for NDE of stainless steel welds. This report describes the first phase of development; i.e., preliminary demonstration and laboratory evaluation of the method's sensitivity to notches in Type 304 stainless steel plate specimens. It also includes a description of the basic principles, together with a description of the hardware and experimental results showing that electrical discharge machined notches down to 0.16 cm (0.06 in.) long x 0.08 cm (0.03 in.) deep were detected. A qualitative technique for interpreting the test results to determine whether defects are at the surface or deeper within the material is demonstrated. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Green, D.R. & Hassberger, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of eddy current measurement of ferrite content in stainless steel welds

Description: A phase-sensitive eddy current system was used to measure the presence of ferrite in an austenitic stainless steel matrix. Measurements were made on pressed powder specimens and on a weld in Type 304L stainless steel. The data obtained showed that small amounts of ferrite, on the order of 1 to 3%, could easily be detected. Variation in ferrite with position within the weld was also detected with good reproducibility. Absolute values for the ferrite content were not obtained as accurate standards for calibration were not available. (auth)
Date: December 17, 1973
Creator: Lassahn, G. D. & Moment, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FILL STEM MANUFACTURING CHANGES AND PINCH WELD QUALIFICATIONS

Description: In March of 2007 a document was issued, see attachment I, that defined the test protocol and required welding for the Kansas City Plant to change cutting oils from the recently approved 50:50 oil to an oil with similar characteristics but with different chemistry, additives, and possibly a different vendor due to plans by the current vendor to stop preparing the oils that are used in the KCP 50:50 mix. The KCP manufactured stems with the existing 50:50 oil blend in late FY07 and SRNL welded the stems and evaluated them in agreement with the test plan. This report provides all the data from these set-up and test welds. Set-up welds were shot and low and high voltages (currents) to ensure the window limits were applicable and then additional welds were made to validate the window. The purpose of this report is to ensure that the agreed upon path forward is still applicable.
Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Korinko, P & David Maxwell, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Scratches on Pinch Welds

Description: Fill stems for tritium reservoirs have stringent scratch requirements such that any indications that appear to have depth are cause for rework or rejection. A scoping study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of scratches approximately 0.0015 to 0.002 inch deep on the fitness for service and bond quality. The stems were characterized using borescope before and after welding. The four stems were welded with near optimal weld parameters, proof tested, and examined metallographically. The stems were radiographed, proof tested, and examined metallographically. The scratches did not adversely affect (1) the weld integrity based on radiography, (2) the ability to withstand the proof pressure, and (3) the weld quality based on metallographic cross-sections. Based on these limited results at a nominal weld current, the weld process is very robust. It may be able to recover from manufacturing defects and inspection anomalies worse than those expected for typical fill stem manufacturing processes; additional testing specific to each application over a range of weld heats is needed to verify applicability of these results.
Date: October 11, 2005
Creator: Korinko, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing mesoscale material response under shock & isentropic compression via high-resolution line-imaging VISAR.

Description: Of special promise for providing dynamic mesoscale response data is the line-imaging VISAR, an instrument for providing spatially resolved velocity histories in dynamic experiments. We have prepared two line-imaging VISAR systems capable of spatial resolution in the 10-20 micron range, at the Z and STAR facilities. We have applied this instrument to selected experiments on a compressed gas gun, chosen to provide initial data for several problems of interest, including: (1) pore-collapse in copper (two variations: 70 micron diameter hole in single-crystal copper) and (2) response of a welded joint in dissimilar materials (Ta, Nb) to ramp loading relative to that of a compression joint. The instrument is capable of resolving details such as the volume and collapse history of a collapsing isolated pore.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Hall, Clint Allen; Furnish, Michael David; Podsednik, Jason W.; Reinhart, William Dodd; Trott, Wayne Merle & Mason, Joshua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure/property relationships in multipass GMA welding of beryllium.

Description: Beryllium is an interesting metal that has a strength to weight ratio six times that of steel. Because of its unique mechanical properties, beryllium is used in aerospace applications such as satellites. In addition, beryllium is also used in x-ray windows because it is nearly transparent to x-rays. Joining of beryllium has been studied for decades (Ref.l). Typically joining processes include braze-welding (either with gas tungsten arc or gas metal arc), soldering, brazing, and electron beam welding. Cracking which resulted from electron beam welding was recently studied to provide structure/property relationships in autogenous welds (Ref. 2). Braze-welding utilizes a welding arc to melt filler, and only a small amount of base metal is melted and incorporated into the weld pool. Very little has been done to characterize the braze-weld in terms of the structure/property relationships, especially with reference to multipass welding. Thus, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple passes on microstructure, weld metal composition, and resulting material properties for beryllium welded with aluminum-silicon filler metal.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Hochanadel, P. W. (Patrick W.); Hults, W. L. (William L.); Thoma, D. J. (Dan J.); Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Kelly, A. M. (Anna Marie); Pappin, P. A. (Pallas A.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

Description: One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials containers, the FSW process can perform final closure welding in a single pass (GTAW requires multiple passes) ...
Date: October 29, 2008
Creator: GR, CANNELL; BE, HILL & GJ, GRANT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fitness-for-Service Criteria for Assessing the Significance of Fatigue Cracks in Offshore Structure

Description: Abstract: Results of a research program to develop fitness-for-service criteria for assessing the significance of fatigue cracks in offshore structures are presented in five papers. Each paper describes the goals and approaches to a specific task and details the results of the study.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Cheng, Yi-Wen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical prediction of the location of ductility dip cracking in the trans-varestraint test

Description: Some NiCrFe weld metals exhibit decreased ductility over a temperature range known as the {open_quotes}ductility dip{close_quotes} temperature (DDT) range. Ductility dip cracking (DDT) is a phenomenon which occurs in a zone bounded by the DDT range on its sides and a threshold plastic strain on its bottom as shown in figure 1. Figure 1 illustrates how ductility varies as weld metal cools from the solidus temperature for materials with and without a ductility dip. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the ability to predict the location of the DDC in a Trans-Varestraint Test (TVT) for a specimen machined from a weld deposited EN52 plate. The DDC predictions require a combination of Trans-Varestraint testing and finite element analysis. The test provides the threshold value of externally applied nominal strain below which DDC does not occur. The analysis provides the corresponding threshold local or peak strain. The threshold local plastic strain level and the DDT range are used to predict the location of the DDC. The ultimate purpose of this work is to evaluate susceptibility of highly constrained, component welds to DDC. Test results for Trans-Varestraint Testing for a weld deposited EN52 plate are reported in reference. The ability to predict the location of the DDC in the Trans-Varestraint Test using the techniques reported herein is demonstrated by showing good comparison between the analytical results and the test data.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Singh, I.; Kroenke, W. & Cola, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department