912 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities: Part 2 - Arranged by Wavelengths

Description: From Preface: "This new edition of the NBS Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities incorporates three improvements on the original edition of 1961. In the original edition only about 25 000 of the 39 000 lines in the tables had been classified. In the ensuing thirteen years, about 8500 more lines (chiefly rare-earths) have been classified and the new classifications are here incorporated."
Date: May 1975
Creator: Meggers, William F.; Corliss, Charles H. & Scribner, Bourdon F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Table of wavenumbers: Volume 1, 2000 A to 7000 A

Description: From Extension of Tables: "Because of its range and size, this table of wavenumbers is in two volumes, Volume I presenting wavenumbers for all wavelengths between 2000 and 7000 A, and Volume II giving wave-numbers for all wavelengths from 7000 A to 10000000 A=1 mm. In some cases Volume I may suffice for ionic spectra, and in others Volume II may be adequate for molecular spectra, but in general both volumes will needed to cover the entire range of spectral wavelengths measured in standard air."
Date: May 2, 1960
Creator: Coleman, Charles DeWitt; Bozman, William R. & Meggers, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Table of Wavenumbers: Volume 2, 7000 A to 1000 mu

Description: Report discussing "A two-volume table for converting wavelengths in standard air to wavenumbers in vacuum. Wave-numbers are given to the nearest 0.001 K (cm^-1) for wavelengths from 2000 to 7000 A in volume 1, and 7000 A to 1000 m in volume II."
Date: May 16, 1960
Creator: Coleman, Charles DeWitt; Bozman, William R. & Meggers, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities: Part 1, Arranged by Elements

Description: Abstract: "These data are presented by element in part I, and all 39,000 observed lines are given in order of wavelength in Part II." From Introduction: "In the beginning, most intensity data were reported on an arbitrary scale of 10 steps, weak lines being assigned an intensity of 1, and the strongest line intensity 10."
Date: December 29, 1961
Creator: Meggers, William F.; Corliss, Charles H. & Scribner, Bourdon F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities: Part 2, Arranged by Wavelengths

Description: From Abstract: "Comparisons with other intensity measurements in individual spectra indicate that the National Bureau of Standards spectral-line intensities may have average errors of 20 percent, but first of all they provide uniform quantitative values for the seventy chemical elements commonly determined by spectrochemists. These data are presented by element in part I, and all 39,000 observed lines are given in order of wavelength in part II."
Date: October 2, 1961
Creator: Meggers, William F.; Corliss, Charles H. & Scribner, Bourdon F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables of Spectral-Line Intensities: Part 1, Arranged by Elements

Description: From Abstract: "Comparisons with other other intensity measurements in individual spectra indicate that the National Bureau of Standards spectral-line intensities may have average errors of 20 percent, but first of all they provide uniform quantitative values for the seventy chemical elements commonly determined by spectrochemists. These data are presented by element in part I, and all 39000 observed lines are given in order of wavelength in part II."
Date: May 1975
Creator: Meggers, William F.; Corliss, Charles H. & Scribner, Bourdon F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Solar Spectrum 2935 Å to 8770 Å : Second Revision of Rowland's Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths

Description: From Abstract: "An introductory text gives a detailed description of each column of the solar ledger. Tables include counts of lines of each spectrum recorded in the identification column, leading lines in the first and second spectra, and summaries of molecules and elements present in the sun. About 73 percent of the lines are wholly or partially identified. Sixty-three elements are recorded as present."
Date: December 1966
Creator: Moore, Charlotte E.; Minnaert, M. G. J. & Houtgast J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Description of Thorium Spectra

Description: Report discussing wavelengths and estimated intensities in electrodeless lamp and spark sources presented for 15121 lines of ThI, ThII, ThIII, and ThIV in the spectral range from 2000 to 11550 A. Also contains tables of previously published interferometric values.
Date: June 21, 1960
Creator: Zalubas, Romuald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage

Description: The conditions under which optical materials are susceptible to laser-induced damage is a topic which has been the subject of considerable study. Laser parameters such as wavelength and temporal pulse duration have been studied extensively. Until this work the effect of temporal pulse shape has not been considered. We present here data from a simple single-parameter model and a supporting experiment which predicts that a Flat-In-Time-pulse will produce damage at approximately 80% of the fluence of a Gaussian pulse of the same FWHM duration.
Date: August 15, 2006
Creator: Carr, C W; Trenholme, J B & Spaeth, M L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of multiple wavelengths on Laser-induced damage in DKDP crystals

Description: Laser-induced damage is a key factor that constrains how optical materials are used in high-power laser systems. In this work the size and density of bulk laser-induced damage sites formed during frequency tripling in a DKDP crystal are studied. The characteristics of the damage sites formed during tripling, where 1053-nm, 526-nm, and 351-nm light is simultaneously present, are compared to damage sites formed by 351-nm light alone. The fluence of each wavelength is calculated as a function of depth with a full 4D(x,y,z,t) frequency conversion code and compared to measured damage density and size distributions. The density of damage is found be predominantly governed by 351-nm light with some lesser, though non-negligible contribution from 526-nm light. The morphology of the damage sites, however, is seen to be relatively insensitive to wavelength and depend only on total fluence of all wavelengths present.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Carr, C W & Auerbach, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing out-of-band flare effects at the wafer level for EUV lithography

Description: To accurately estimate the flare contribution from the out-of-band (OOB), the integration of a DUV source into the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA Micro-field Exposure tool is proposed, enabling precisely controlled exposures along with the EUV patterning of resists in vacuum. First measurements evaluating the impact of bandwidth selected exposures with a table-top set-up and subsequent EUV patterning show significant impact on line-edge roughness and process performance. We outline a simulation-based method for computing the effective flare from resist sensitive wavelengths as a function of mask pattern types and sizes. This simulation method is benchmarked against measured OOB flare measurements and the results obtained are in agreement.
Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Denham, Paul & Rekawa, Senajith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collecting EUV mask images through focus by wavelength tuning

Description: Using an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) microscope to produce high-quality images of EUV reticles, we have developed a new wavelength tuning method to acquire through-focus data series with a higher level of stability and repeatability than was previously possible. We utilize the chromatic focal-length dependence of a diffractive Fresnel zoneplate objective lens, and while holding the mask sample mechanically still, we tune the wavelength through a narrow range, in small steps. In this paper, we demonstrate the method and discuss the relative advantages that this data collection technique affords.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo & Huh, Sungmin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

Description: The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.
Date: January 30, 2005
Creator: Widener, KB & Johnson, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Holographic optical elements for the extreme-ultravioletregime

Description: As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. Here we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of EUV binary phase-only computer-generated holograms allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated.
Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M. & Anderson, Erik H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth of Laser Damage in SiO2 under Multiple Wavelength Irradiation

Description: In laser systems using frequency conversion, multiple wavelengths will be present on optical components. We have investigated the growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica in the presence of multiple wavelengths. In particular, we measured growth at 351 nm in the presence of 1053 nm near the threshold of growth for 351 nm alone. The data shows that the sum fluence determines the onset of growth as well as the growth rate. The measured growth coefficient is consistent with all the energy being delivered at 351 nm. Additionally, we measured growth at 527 nm in the presence of 1053 nm near the threshold of growth at 527 nm alone. In this case, the sum fluence also determines the growth coefficient but the rate is consistent with all the energy being delivered at 1053 nm. We present the measurements and discuss possible reasons for the behavior.
Date: October 28, 2005
Creator: Norton, M A; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hollingsworth, W G; Rubenchik, A M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists

Description: The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.
Date: July 30, 2007
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N. & Naulleau, Patrick P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMITS ON THE EMISSION FROM FE VIII-XII IN THE HOT LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM.

Description: The majority of the emitted power from an optically thin million degree plasma (such as the one thought to produce the soft xray background) originates in the EUV band at wavelengths longer than 170 degrees A. Lines from Fe VIII - Fe XII dominate the emission in this wavelength region. This paper describes work in progress on the analysis of three years of data from the ALEXIS mission in search of this flux.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Bloch, J. J. (Jeffrey J.); Roussel-Dupre, D. (Diane); Theiler, J. P. (James P.) & Johnson, E. M. (Elsa M.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of pulse duration on laser-induced damage by 1053-nm light in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

Description: Laser induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has previously been shown to depend significantly on pulse duration for 351-nm Gaussian pulses. In this work we studied the properties of damage initiated by 1053-nm temporally Gaussian pulses with 10ns and 3ns FWHM durations. Our results indicate that the number of damage sites induced by 1053-nm light scales with pulse duration ({tau}) as ({tau}{sub 1}/{tau}{sub 2}){sup 0.17} in contrast to the previously reported results for 351-nm light as ({tau}{sub 1}/{tau}{sub 2}){sup 0.35}. This indicates that damage site formation is significantly less probable at longer wavelengths for a given fluence.
Date: November 27, 2006
Creator: Cross, D A; Braunstein, M R & Carr, C W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4

Description: An experimental technique has been utilized to measure the variation of bulk damage scatter with damaging fluence in plates of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) crystals. Bulk damage in unconditioned and laser-conditioned doubler-cut KDP crystals has been studied using 527 nm (2{omega}) light at pulselengths of 0.3-10 ns. It is found that there is less scatter due to damage at fixed fluence for longer pulselengths. In particular, there is {approx}4X increase in fluence for equivalent scatter for damage at 2{omega}, 10 ns as compared to 0.30 ns in unconditioned KDP. The results for the unconditioned and conditioned KDP show that for all the pulselengths the scatter due to the bulk damage is a strong function of the damaging fluence ({phi}{sup -5}). It is determined that the 2{omega} fluence pulselength-scaling for equivalent bulk damage scatter in unconditioned KDP varies as {tau}{sup 0.30{+-}0.11} and in 3{omega}, 3ns ramp-conditioned KDP varies as {tau}{sup 0.27{+-}0.14}. The effectiveness of 2{omega} and 3{omega} laser conditioning at pulselengths in the range of 0.30-23 ns for damage induced 2{omega}, 3 ns is analyzed in terms of scatter. For the protocols tested (i.e. peak conditioning irradiance, etc.), the 3{omega}, 300 ps conditioning to a peak fluence of 3 J/cm{sup 2} had the best performance under 2{omega}, 3 ns testing. The general trend in the performance of the conditioning protocols was shorter wavelength and shorter pulselength appear to produce better conditioning for testing at 2{omega}, 3 ns.
Date: October 28, 2005
Creator: Adams, J J; Bruere, J R; Bolourchi, M; Carr, C W; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

Description: In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.
Date: June 21, 2010
Creator: George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EUV micro-exposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography

Description: The resolution limit of present 0.3 NA 13.5 nm wavelength micro-exposure tools is compared to next generation lithography research requirements. Findings suggest that a successor design is needed for patterning starting at the 16 nm semiconductor process technology node. A two-mirror 0.5 NA optical design is presented, and performance expectations are established from detailed optical and lithographic simulation. Here, we report on the results from a SEMATECH program to fabricate a projection optic with an ultimate resolution limit of approximately 11 nm.
Date: September 26, 2008
Creator: Goldstein, Michael; Hudyma, Russ; Naulleau, Patrick & Wurm, Stefan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forbidden line wavelengths and transition probabilities measured using an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

Description: Several coronal lines posed a long-standing riddle to earth-bound spectroscopists, until - following up on a suggestion by Grotrian (1937) - B. Edlen (1942) confirmed that their wavenumbers indeed corresponded to fine structure intervals in the ground configurations of highly charged ions like Fe X and Fe XI. This in turn caused turmoil in solar physics, because the corona must be much hotter than the underlying chromosphere in order to produce such ions. X-ray and EUV spectra of the sun became available after World War II, by observations from sounding rockets and satellites. These spectra confirmed the presence of the highly charged ions. Laboratory observation of the (electric-dipole) forbidden lines, however, had to wait for the development of low-density plasma discharges like the tokamak fusion experiments, because in regular light sources, collisions would likely quench such long-lived levels. Since then, a fair number of forbidden transitions has been observed in the laboratory, and forbidden lines are being valued for plasma diagnostics. While forbidden transitions in light ions are often found in astrophysical light sources, similar transitions in highly charged heavy ions like Kr will be important for plasma machines like ITER, in which Kr will likely be used for radiative cooling and will therefore also be available for detailed diagnostics.
Date: September 10, 1998
Creator: Beiersdorfer, P.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Serpa, F. G.; Trabert, E. & Utter, S. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring the wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d <sup>1</sup>S<sub>0</sub> (arrow) 4p <sup>1</sup>P<sub>1</sub> and 4f <sup>1</sup>P<sub>1</sub> (arrow) 4d <sup>1</sup>P<sub>1</sub> x-ray laser lin

Description: In this work we present measurements of the wavelengths of the nickel-like 3d9 4d IS0 + 3d94p � P, X-ray laser line in several low-Z nickel-like ions ranging from yttrium (Z=39) to cadmium (Z=45). With the help of these laser results, we identify this line to very high accuracy in nonlasing plasmas from gallium (Z=3 1) to molybdenum (Z=42). The measured wavelengths are compared with optimized level calculations using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock code of Grant et al. As an example, for yttrium, we calculate a wavelength of 240.2 A, and measure wavelengths of 240.1 I i 0.30 A in the lasing plasma and 240.135 + 0.015 A in the nonlasing plasma. Accurate values of these wavelengths are essential for performing plasma imaging and interferometry experiments with multilayer optics which use the X-ray laser to backlight other plasmas. These results also provide important atomic data which is currently missing about the energy of the Id � S, level in the Ni I sequence and help guide evperimentalists who are looking for lasing in these materials for the first time. We also observe lasing on the nickel-like 3d9 4f � P, + 3d94d � P, X-ray laser line in Zr, Nb, and Iv10 and present measured wavelengths for these ions as well as predicted values for other nearby ions.
Date: September 21, 1998
Creator: Churilov, S; Nilsen, J & Ryobtsev, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department