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Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Description: This report discusses the Clean Water Act that contains two different permitting regimes: (1) Section 402 permits (called the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, or NPDES, permit program) address the discharge of most pollutants, and (2) Section 404 permits address the discharge of dredged or fill material into navigable waters of the United States at specified sites. These permit programs differ in nature and approach.
Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

Description: A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.
Date: December 1, 2012
Creator: Mattson, Earl D & Hull, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-Temperature Data Acquisition Activities in the United States

Description: In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council.
Date: November 1972
Creator: Pauszek, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA's Proposed Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues

Description: In November 2011 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed two Clean Water Act permits to regulate certain types of discharges from vessels into U.S. waters. This report is an overview of the proposed permits and two key issues: inclusion of numeric performance standards to limit ballast water discharges from vessels, and controversies about the role of states in regulating vessel discharges.
Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

Description: A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.
Date: December 1, 2012
Creator: Mattson, Earl D.; Hull, Larry & Cafferty, Kara
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Salt-Water Movement in the Lower Withlacoochee-Cross-Florida Barge Canal Complex

Description: The intent of the investigation was to determine how salt water from the Gulf moves in the river-canal complex under the influence of various combinations of fresh-water discharge and ocean tide. Information about the extent of inland movement, concentration, frequency of occurrence, and residence times of salt water in the river and canal was sought, particularly during times of farthest upstream movement of the salt water.
Date: January 1973
Creator: Bush, Peter W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inland Travel of Tide-Driven Saline Water in the Altamaha and Satilla Rivers, Georgia, and the St. Mary's River, Georgia-Florida

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the distance the tide-driven saline water from the ocean traveled upstream and to define the specific-conductance and chloronity gradients in the lower reaches of the Altamaha, Satilla, and St. Marys Rivers during the high spring tide and low-flow event.
Date: 1983
Creator: Brooks, Myron H. & McConnell, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Stream Quality in the Yampa River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming

Description: From introduction: This report relates to the first of the above objectives by describing stream quality in the Yampa River basin through 1976, with particular emphasis on conditions from August 1975 through September 1976. The content of this report is, at times, relatively technical. This is intentional. The report is aimed not at planners and decision makers but rather at those persons assigned the task of having to design, implement, and interpret a river basin assessment. The techniques and procedures used to determine ambient stream quality in the Yampa River basin have been presented in detail so that their applicability to other river basins can be determined. For the planner and decision maker, the results presented in this report are summarized in less technical terms in phase-l (Steele and others, 1979) and phase-ll summary reports.
Date: April 1980
Creator: Wentz, Dennis A. & Steele, Timothy Doak
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Source, Use, and Disposition of Water in Florida, 1980

Description: From introduction: This report documents the results of the 1980 Florida water assessment made by personnel of the five Water Management Districts in a joint effort with U.S. Geological Survey personnel. The study was made as part of a statewide cooperative program with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Northwest Florida Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, South Florida Water Management District, Southwest Florida Water Management District, and the Suwannee River Management District.
Date: 1983
Creator: Leach, Stanley D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: April 8, 2015
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: February 6, 2015
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Description: On May 3, 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) announced a final rule redefining two key terms, “fill material” and “discharge of fill material,” in regulations that implement Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This report discusses the revised rule, focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: April 10, 2014
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law

Description: This report presents a summary of the law, describing the essence of the statute without discussing its implementation. Other CRS products do discuss implementation, including CRS Report RL33800, Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation, and numerous products cited in that report.
Date: March 17, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Description: On May 3, 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) announced a regulation redefining two key terms, "fill material" and "discharge of fill material," in rules that implement Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This report discusses the 2002 rule, focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department