637 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Supersaturation in the Spontaneous Formation of Nuclei in Water Vapor

Description: "According to experience, a certain supersaturation is required for condensation of water vapor in the homogeneous phase; that is, for inception of the condensation, at a prescribed temperature, the water vapor partial pressure must lie above the saturation pressure. The condensation starts on so-called condensation nuclei. Solid or liquid suspended particles may serve as nuclei; these particles may either a priori be present in the gas phase (dust, soot), or may spontaneously be formed from the vapor molecules to be condensed themselves" (p. 1).
Date: November 1953
Creator: Sander, Adolf & Damköhler, Gerhard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Compressor-Inlet Water Injection on Engine and Afterburner Performance

Description: Report presenting testing of a turbojet engine incorporating a conventional-type afterburner over a range of afterburner pressure levels and engine-inlet water-air ratios. At each pressure level and water-air ratio, the afterburner fuel flow was varied from lean blowout to maximum burner-outlet temperature. Results regarding the effects of water vapor on engine performance, effects of water vapor on afterburner performance, and high Mach number performance with water injection are provided.
Date: July 22, 1958
Creator: Sivo, Joseph N.; Wanhainen, John P. & Jones, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.
Date: January 10, 1935
Creator: Fiock, Ernest F. & King, H. Kendall
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rate of reaction of gaseous fluorine with water vapor at 35 degrees C

Description: Report presenting testing of fluorine and water vapor, which react extremely slowly or not at all in the gas phase at 35 degrees Celsius at partial pressures of the reactants up to 40 mm of mercury. Results regarding the gross nature of the reaction, order of the reaction, kinetics of surface and gas-phase reactions, relative importance of surface and gas-phase reactions, and rate of surface reaction are provided.
Date: September 1958
Creator: Slabey, Vernon A. & Fletcher, Edward A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

Description: Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.
Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Hnilo, J J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Sensitivity of Spectral Radiative Fluxes to Atmospheric Water Vapor in the 940 nm Region (Numerical Simulation)

Description: Water vapor is well known to be a critical component in many aspects of atmospheric research, such as radiative transfer and cloud and aerosol processes. This requires both improved measurements of the columnar water vapor and its profiles in the atmosphere in a wide range of conditions, and adjustment of water vapor parameterizations in radiation codes including the perfection of spectroscopic parameters. In this paper we will present the results of comparison of our calculations and downward solar fluxes measured with Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer under conditions of horizontally homogeneous clouds. We also will discuss the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation characteristics to variations of water vapor in the band 940 nm: these results may be useful for development of new methods of retrieval of the total column water vapor content (WVC) in the atmosphere from data of radiation observations.
Date: March 18, 2005
Creator: Zhuravleva, T.B. & Firsov, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS

Description: Water vapor is a primary element in the Earth’s climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and it’s utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.
Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Braun, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A COMPARISON OF FOUR METHODS FOR DETERMINING PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR CONTENT FROM MULTI-SPECTRAL DATA

Description: Determining columnar water vapor is a fundamental problem in remote sensing. This measurement is important both for understanding atmospheric variability and also from removing atmospheric effects from remotely sensed data. Therefore discovering a reliable and if possible automated method for determining water vapor column abundance is important. There are two standard methods for determining precipitable water vapor during the daytime from multi-spectral data. The first method is the Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) (see for example King et al. 1996). This method assumes a baseline and measures the depth of a water vapor feature as compared to this baseline. The second method is the Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption technique (APDA) (see Schlaepfer et al. 1998); this method accounts for the path radiance contribution to the top of atmosphere radiance measurement which is increasingly important at lower and lower reflectance values. We have also developed two methods of modifying CIBR. We use a simple curve fitting procedure to account for and remove any systematic errors due to low reflectance while still preserving the random spread of the CIBR values as a function of surface reflectance. We also have developed a two-dimensional look-up table for CIBR; CIBR using this technique is a function of both water vapor (as with all CIBR techniques) and surface reflectance. Here we use data recently acquired with the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager spacecraft (MTI) to compare these four methods of determining columnar water vapor content.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: HIRSCH, K. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

Description: The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.
Date: May 4, 2012
Creator: Cadeddu, MP
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

Description: The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.
Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N & Johnson, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

Description: The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Cook, DR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

Description: The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Morris, VR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

Description: The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the ...
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Westwater, E. R.; Leuskiy, V. V.; Klein, M.; Gasiewski, A. J. & Shaw, and J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Refurbishment and Upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman Lidar

Description: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Raman lidar (CARL) is an autonomous, turn-key system that profiles water vapor, aerosols, and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle for days without attention (Goldsmith et al. 1998). CARL was first deployed to the Southern Great Plains CRF during the summer of 1996 and participated in the 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive operational periods (IOPs). Since February 1998, the system has collected over 38,000 hrs of data (equivalent of almost 4.4 years), with an average monthly uptime of 62% during this time period. This unprecedented performance by CARL makes it the premier operational Raman lidar in the world. Unfortunately, CARL began degrading in early 2002. This loss of sensitivity, which affected all observed variables, was very gradual and thus was not identified until the autumn of 2003. Analysis of the data suggested the problem was not associated with the laser or transmit portion of the system, but rather in the detection subsystem, as both the background values and the peak signals showed a marked decreases over this time period. The loss of sensitivity of a factor of 2-4, depending on the channel, resulted in higher random error in the retrieved products, such as the aerosol backscatter coefficient and water vapor mixing ratio. Figure 1 shows the random error at 2 km for aerosol backscatter coefficient (top) and water vapor mixing ratio (middle), in terms of percent of the signal for both average daytime (red) and nighttime (blue) data from 1998 to 2005. The seasonal variation of water vapor is easily seen in the random error in the water vapor mixing ratio data. The loss of sensitivity also affected the maximum range of the usable data, as illustrated by the dramatic decrease in the maximum height seen in the water vapor ...
Date: March 18, 2005
Creator: Turner, D.D. & Goldsmith, J.E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

Description: Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.
Date: November 9, 2006
Creator: Pazmany, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements

Description: This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.
Date: November 25, 2013
Creator: Law, Bev
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

Description: Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the ...
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov & Julie, Howe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of cloud radiative forcing and feedback in a climate GCM. Final report

Description: The principal objectives of the research supported at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for a three year period commencing September 1990, were: (1) to improve and validate the radiation parameterizations in the GISS GCM through model intercomparisons with line-by-line calculations and through comparisons with ARM observations; (2) to improve the GISS GCM diagnostic output to enable more effective comparisons to global cloud/radiation data sets; and (3) to use ARM data to develop improved parameterization of clouds in the GCM and to study the interaction of dynamics and radiation. The ARM Program support has made it possible to establish and support an active and productive research group at GISS specializing in radiative transfer and cloud process modeling in support of improving the performance of a climate GCM.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lacis, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iron Aluminide Composites

Description: Iron aluminides with the B2 structure are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant. They are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as TiC, WC, TiB{sub 2}, and ZrB{sub 2}. In addition, liquid iron aluminides wet these ceramics very well. Therefore, FeAl/ceramic composites may be produced by techniques such as liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures, or pressureless melt infiltration of ceramic powders with liquid FeAl. These techniques, the resulting microstructure, and their advantages as well as limitations are described. Iron aluminide composites can be very strong. Room temperature flexure strengths as high as 1.8 GPa have been observed for FeAl/WC. Substantial gains in strength at elevated temperatures (1073 K) have also been demonstrated. Above 40 vol.% WC the room temperature flexure strength becomes flaw-limited. This is thought to be due to processing flaws and limited interfacial strength. The fracture toughness of FeAl/WC is unexpectedly high and follows a mile of mixtures. Interestingly, sufficiently thin (< 1 {micro}m) FeAl ligaments between adjacent WC particles fracture not by cleavage, but in a ductile manner. For these thin ligaments the dislocation pile-ups formed during deformation are not long enough to nucleate cleavage fracture, and their fracture mode is therefore ductile. For several reasons, this brittle-to-ductile size transition does not improve the fracture toughness of the composites significantly. However, since no cleavage cracks are nucleated in sufficiently thin FeAl ligaments, slow crack growth due to ambient water vapor does not occur. Therefore, as compared to monolithic iron aluminizes, environmental embrittlement is dramatically reduced in iron aluminide composites.
Date: November 20, 1998
Creator: Schneibel, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) retrievals of total column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone during the Arm Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE)

Description: The ARESE provided an opportunity to compare MFRSR retrievals of total column aerosol optical depth, total column water vapor, and total column ozone with independent measurements of the same quantities during this campaign in the fall of 1995. MFRSR ozone was compared to ozonesondes that reached altitudes of at least 30 km. MFRSR water vapor was compared to microwave radiometer water vapor on several clear days during the campaign. Aerosol was measured by the ARM MFRSR and the Penn State Reagan sun photometer at high time resolution on a few days of the experiment. Only total column measurements of these constituents were compared. These comparisons were part of an effort to validate MFRSR retrievals that date from 1992. The daily total column aerosol optical depth record since that year illustrates the archival data and the variability of aerosol seasonally and during the decay of the Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Michalsky, J.J.; Min, Qilong & Harrison, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets

Description: The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All ...
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Boyle, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department