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Problem in Estimating Self-Supplied Industrial Water Use by Indirect Methods -- The California Example

Description: From introduction: The intent of this study was to develop a method of estimating overall self-supplied industrial water requirements using coefficients of water use for production and employment from five major-use industrial categories. Those categories included food and kindred products, lumber, pulp and paper, chemical and allied products, and petroleum industries.
Date: 1983
Creator: Burt, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Source, Use, and Disposition of Water in Florida, 1980

Description: From introduction: This report documents the results of the 1980 Florida water assessment made by personnel of the five Water Management Districts in a joint effort with U.S. Geological Survey personnel. The study was made as part of a statewide cooperative program with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Northwest Florida Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, South Florida Water Management District, Southwest Florida Water Management District, and the Suwannee River Management District.
Date: 1983
Creator: Leach, Stanley D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Benchmark Farm Program - A Method for Estimating Irrigation Water Use in Southwest Florida

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this report is to present irrigation water-use data for selected farms and to show how these data are used to estimate total water use for irrigating various crops in southwest Florida. The study area includes all of the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is about 10,000 miles in size (figure 1). The initial emphasis on benchmark farm locations was in Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk Counties. As the program continues, new farms are being added in surrounding counties (figure 2).
Date: March 1982
Creator: Duerr, A. D. & Trommer, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALFED Bay-Delta Program: Overview of Institutional and Water Use Issues

Description: The California Bay-Delta Program (CALFED) was initiated in 1995 to resolve water resources conflicts in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers Delta and San Francisco Bay (Bay-Delta) in California. The program planning effort focused on developing a plan to address three main problem areas in the Bay-Delta: ecosystem health, water quality, and water supply reliability. CALFED was authorized to receive federal funding from FY1998 to FY2000, and is now being considered for reauthorization.
Date: July 26, 2004
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Cody, Betsy A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

Description: This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M. & Vammen, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Saving Water in Restaurants

Description: A paper which promotes water-efficient techniques that can be applied across a wide range of facilities with varying water needs.
Date: November 2012
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Use in Wisconsin, 1979

Description: From abstract: This report summarizes the uses of water in Wisconsin for 1979, except aesthetics, navigation, and recreational use.
Date: July 1982
Creator: Lawrence, C. L. & Ellefson, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Great Lakes Water Withdrawal: Legal and Policy Issues

Description: Report discussing the legal and policy issues regarding the Great Lakes region of the United States. According to the Summary: "This report describes the characteristics of the Great Lakes, the interests they support, and possible threats to lake levels. It analyzes the current laws and policies that regulate the diversion, withdrawal, and consumptive use of water from the Great Lakes. Also included is a discussion of the draft Agreement and Compact and the various positions voiced by interest groups. This report concludes with a general discussion on the relationship between compacts, federal law, and the Congress."
Date: June 20, 2005
Creator: Viña, Stephen R. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production

Description: A study of power plants and their respective water consumption was completed to effectively analyze evaporative cooling systems. This technical paper will aid the High Performance Buildings Research Program by providing a metric in determining water efficiency in building cooling systems. Further analysis is planned to determine the overall water efficiency of evaporative cooling systems compared to conventional direct expansion systems and chiller systems with cooling towers.
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: Torcellini, P.; Long, N. & Judkoff, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

Description: For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies ...
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20)

Description: This 2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20) provides water use information (monthly annual average and total annual volume) for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2011. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and abandoned (decommissioned) wells and holes. One new well was drilled and completed and one well was modified in Calendar Year 2011. A total of 14 wells and boreholes were reported as decommissioned. Detailed construction information for the new and modified wells is provided. Details are provided for the wells and boreholes that have been decommissioned, and if available, construction diagrams. Location maps are included, provided survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Bowser, Renee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

Description: Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.
Date: March 16, 2011
Creator: Smith, C A; Belles, R D & Simon, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wildlife use of NPDES outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: From July through October of 1991, the Biological Resources Evaluation Team (BRET) surveyed 133 of the 140 National Pollutant Discharge and Elimination System outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of the survey was to determine the use of these wastewater outfalls by wildlife. BRET observed wildlife or evidence of wildlife (scat, tracks, or bedding) by 35 vertebrate species in the vicinity of the outfalls, suggesting these animals could be using water from outfalls. Approximately 56% of the outfalls are probably used or are suitable for use by large mammals as sources of drinking water. Additionally, hydrophytic vegetation grows in association with approximately 40% of the outfalls-a characteristic that could make these areas eligible for wetland status. BRET recommends further study to accurately characterize the use of outfalls by small and medium-sized mammals and amphibians. The team also recommends systematic aquatic macroinvertebrate studies to provide information on resident communities and water quality. Wetland assessments may be necessary to ensure compliance with wetland regulations if LANL activities affect any of the outfalls supporting hydrophytic vegetation.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Foxx, T. & Blea-Edeskuty, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

Description: Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic ...
Date: March 23, 1998
Creator: Tao, W. C., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding the dynamics of water availability and use in China

Description: This report presents the preliminary results of an analysis of China`s water resources, part of an effort undertaken by the National Intelligence Council Medea scientists to improve the understanding of future food production and consumption in the People`s Republic of China. A dynamic water model was developed to simulate the hydrological budgetary processes in five river drainage basins located in northeastern, central, and southern China: the Chang Jiang (Yangtse River), Huanghe (Yellow River), Haihe, Huaihe, and Liaohe. The model was designed to assess the effects of changes in urban, industrial, and agricultural water use requirements on the availability of water in each basin and to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in China through the year 2025. The model imposes a sustainable yield constraint, that is, groundwater extraction is not allowed to exceed the sustainable yield; if the available water does not meet the total water use requirements, a deficit results. An agronomic model was also developed to generate projections of the water required to service China`s agricultural sector and compare China`s projected grain production with projected grain consumption requirements to estimate any grain surplus and/or deficit. In future refinements, the agronomic model will interface directly with the water model to provide for the exchange of information on projected water use requirements and available water. The preliminary results indicate that the Chang Jiang basin will have a substantial surplus of water through 2025 and that the Haihe basin is in an ongoing situation. The agricultural water use requirements based on grain production indicate that an agricultural water deficit in the Haihe basin begins before the onset of the modeling period (1980) and steadily worsens through 2025. This assumption is confirmed by reports that groundwater mining is already under way in the most intensely cultivated and populated areas of ...
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Thomas, R.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Jeppesen, D.M. & Engi, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The advantages of including professionals from different fields of study in the solution of today`s water-related problems

Description: This report presents the details of a meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers pertaining to water resources and quality. This report suggests an interdisciplinary approach to solving today`s problems dealing with water resources.
Date: May 9, 1995
Creator: Renshaw, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stock-Water Developments: Wells, Springs, and Ponds

Description: "The need for effective utilization of grazing areas and the scarcity of stock water have led to unprecedented activity in the development of water supplies during the last few years as a part of conservation practices in range and pasture areas. Economical construction, planned distribution, and adequacy of stock-watering centers are essential to profitable grazing enterprises. Inadequate coordination of stock-water developments with necessary conservation practices and the improper location or construction of these facilities have made many water supplies unsatisfactory. This bulletin deals with the requirements and development of stock-water supplies suitable for grazing areas." -- p. ii
Date: 1940
Creator: Hamilton, C. L. (Clifford Leslie), 1904- & Jepson, Hans G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling of bleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.

Description: Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills ...
Date: March 4, 2002
Creator: Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P. & Moon, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALFED Bay-Delta Program: Overview of Institutional and Water Use Issues

Description: The California Bay-Delta Program (CALFED) was initiated in 1995 to resolve water resources conflicts in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers Delta and San Francisco Bay (Bay-Delta) in California. The program planning effort focused on developing a plan to address three main problem areas in the Bay-Delta: ecosystem health, water quality, and water supply reliability. CALFED was authorized to receive federal funding from FY1998 to FY2000, and is now being considered for reauthorization.
Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Cody, Betsy A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Know Your Watersheds.

Description: Describes the necessity of water in everyday life, the water cycle, and provides suggestions for the management of watersheds.
Date: September 1957
Creator: United States. Forest Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-Related Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture in U.S. Arid/Semiarid Lands

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "assesses existing and emerging water-related technologies for their ability to support long-term productivity of arid/semiarid agricultural plants and animals in the context of institutional factors, water supply/use relationships, and the characteristics of the renewable natural resource base on which agriculture depends" (p. iii).
Date: October 1983
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department