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Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

Description: This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.
Date: March 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

Description: The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Pond 2 selenium volatilization study: A synthesis of five years of experimental results, 1990--1995

Description: Microbial volatilization is a potential remedial measure to decrease the selenium inventory in Kesterson Reservoir soils. Past studies in both the field and the laboratory suggest that a significant percentage of the selenium inventory may be removed in this fashion. The objectives of this study include the quantification of selenium losses and a test of a pilot-scale design which in the future may be used in other parts of the Reservoir.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Zawislanski, P. T.; Jayaweera, G. R.; Biggar, J. W.; Wu, L. & Frankenberger, W. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

Description: The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early ...
Date: January 5, 2000
Creator: Nelson, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restoration of Lost Lake, recovery of an impacted Carolina Bay

Description: Lost Lake is one of approximately 200 Carolina bays found on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Until 1984 Lost Lake was contaminated by heavy metals and solvents overflowing from a nearby settling basin. Up to 12 inches of surface soil and all vegetation was removed from the bay as part of a RCRA removal action. A plan for restoration was initiated in 1989 and implemented in 1990 and 1991. Extensive planning led to defined objectives, strategies, treatments, and monitoring programs allowing successful restoration of Lost Lake. The primary goal of the project was to restore the wetland ecosystem after a hazardous waste clean up operation. An additional goal was to study the progress of the project and the success of the restoration activity. Several strategy considerations were necessary in the restoration plan. The removal of existing organic soils had to have compensation, a treatment scheme for planting and the extent of manipulation of the substrate had to be considered, monitoring decisions had to be made, and the decision whether or not to actively control the hydrology of the restored system.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Wike, L.D.; Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr. & Rogers, V.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

Description: Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.
Date: April 25, 2008
Creator: Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: New technologies are needed that neutralize contaminant toxicity and control physical transport mechanisms that mobilize sediment contaminants. The last 12 months of this comprehensive project investigated the use of combinations of sequestering agents to develop in situ active sediment caps that stabilize mixtures of contaminants and act as a barrier to mechanical disturbance under a broad range of environmental conditions. Efforts focused on the selection of effective sequestering agents for use in active caps, the composition of active caps, and the effects of active cap components on contaminant bioavailability and retention. Results from this project showed that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective at removing metals from both fresh and salt water. These amendments also exhibited high retention (80% or more) of most metals indicating reduced potential for remobilization to the water column. Experiments on metal speciation and retention in contaminated sediment showed that apatite and organoclay can immobilize a broad range of metals under both reduced and oxidized conditions. These studies were followed by sequential extractions to evaluate the bioavailability and retention of metals in treated sediments. Metal fractions recovered in early extraction steps are more likely to be bioavailable and were termed the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF). Less bioavailable fractions collected in later extraction steps were termed the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). Apatite and organoclay reduced the PMF and increased the RF for several elements, especially Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd. Empirically determined partitioning coefficients and modeling studies were used to assess the retention of organic contaminants on selected sequestering agents. Organoclays exhibited exceptionally high sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicated by a comparison of K{sub d} values among 12 amendments. These results suggested that organoclays have high potential for controlling organic contaminants. Measured partitioning coefficients were used to model the time ...
Date: November 28, 2007
Creator: Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D & Ioana G. Petrisor, I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

List of currently classified documents relative to Hanford Operations and of potential use in the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment, January 1, 1973--June 20, 1994

Description: The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project seeks to estimate the current risk from the Columbia River resulting from past and present Hanford activities. To resolve the question of the current risk, it is necessary for the CRCIA Project to have access to any classified information that may be relevant to this study. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the search for relevant classified information. There are two classified matter control centers operated by two prime contractors at the Hanford Site. One is operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the other is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Only the WHC collection contained information relevant to a study of the Columbia River in the time frame of interest: January 1, 1973 through June 20, 1994. A list of the classified documents in the WHC collection is maintained in the WHC Classified Document Control database. The WHC Classified Document Control database was searched. The search criteria were the dates of interest and the basic keywords used for the CRCIA Project`s data compendium (Eslinger et al. 1994). All Hanford-generated, Hanford-related entries that were applicable to the CRCIA Project and the dates of interest were provided. The resulting list of 477 titles comprises the Appendix of this report. The information give for each title is exactly as it appears in the database. Any inconsistencies are the result of duplicating the database.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Miley, T.B. & Huesties, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant`s QA programs that are necessary for this project.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. They then address the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.
Date: April 30, 1997
Creator: Davis, E. James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of this research is to apply electrokinetics to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal washing ponds without the addition of chemical additives. Colloidal particles do not settle gravitationally, but because their surfaces are charged one can produce settling by applying an external electric field. Of specific interest is a lake near Centralia, Washington used to wash coal prior to combustion in an electrical power generation facility. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that electrokinetic treatment is feasible, so this project is examining how to scale up laboratory results to an industrial level. Electrode configurations, power requirements, and system properties are being studied.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Davis, E. James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

Description: The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.
Date: May 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Umtra Project Water Sampling and Analysis Plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

Description: This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.
Date: November 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment

Description: This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.
Date: July 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Year-End Report 2001.

Description: BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. The goal of the MWC is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY01 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.
Date: December 31, 2001
Creator: Thrailkil, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

Description: This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education--Objective 8: Promote watershed stewardship among students, the community, private landowners, and local governments. Progress towards six of eight of these objectives is described ...
Date: September 1, 2001
Creator: Connolly, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on isotope abundance measurements in groundwater samples from the Talbert Injection Barrier Area, Orange County Water District

Description: This report discusses isotope abundance measurements made on a collection of groundwater samples from the Orange County Water District. The water samples were collected in May, 1994 as part of a preliminary study conducted by LLNL to assess the feasibility of tracing and dating reclaimed water used in the Talbert Injection Barrier. A set of samples were collected both near to and far from the barrier and also at different depths in available monitoring wells. A variety of elements were selected for isotopic analysis; hydrogen (tritium), helium, neon, carbon, chlorine and strontium. The tritium abundance combined with the {sup 3}He and {sup 20}Ne abundance provides a method for age dating young (< 40 yr.) groundwater. The abundance of {sup 14}C provides an age dating technique for older (1,000--50,000 yr.) groundwater. The concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr give information on sea water mixing and water-rock chemical interactions.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hudson, G.B.; Davisson, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Niemeyer, S.; Esser, B. & Beiriger, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing the Effects of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on Zooplankton, Phytoplankton and Corbicula Flumina in a Constructed Wetland

Description: Wetland wastewater treatment offers low-cost, energy efficient alternatives to conventional wastewater technologies. In this study, an artificial wetland was constructed at the City of Denton, Texas Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant to facilitate diazinon removal from treated effluent.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Hymel, Stephanie Ramick
Partner: UNT Libraries

[News Clip: Village Creek]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6 P.M.
Date: November 18, 1980
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Fundamental quantitative analysis of microbial activity in aquifer bioreclamation

Description: Research continued on aquifer bioreclamation. The project has four primary areas: (1) biodegradation of poorly soluble organic contaminants, (2) dual-limitation kinetics of electron donors and acceptors, (3) two-dimensional modeling of biofilm reactions in nonhomogeneous porous media, and (4) biologically induced clogging in porous media. For each area, this report gives a brief summary of the first year`s progress, report this quarter`s progress in detail, and indicate plans for future work. 25 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration. Final report, March 1984--December 1993

Description: Over the past nine years of funding by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the authors have developed a whole family of methods under the umbrella of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration techniques. These methods can be used for removal of either dissolved organics or multivalent ions from water or both simultaneously. They have gone from very fundamental studies of the ultrafiltration process to a field test using actual polluted groundwater. The orientation of this research has been the ultimate development of a workable, economical process. To do this, the authors have tried to understand the underlying fundamental phenomena involved in the separation and in potential solutions to technological bottlenecks and developed new scientific knowledge in the process. However, the thrust of the investigations have been focused on bringing the technology to a successful adoption by industry. This report summarizes the following: micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration; polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration; ion-expulsion ultrafiltration; ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration; polyelectrolyte/surfactant-enhanced ultrafiltration, supporting research, and relation to energy. 61 refs.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Scamehorn, J. F. & Christian, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of a National Ecological Research Program and Institute

Description: Establishment of a national ecological research program and institute is discussed. The author says we need to establish a long-term ecological research program to develop a fuller understanding of basic ecosystem process so that scientists can evaluate the health of ecological systems and can predict quantitative and qualitative changes in these systems under foreseeable natural and man-made stress. This area is beginning to be addressed by the CEES, for example, but again with insufficient funding in comparison with other aspects of the US Global Change Program. The major elements of a long-term ecological research program should focus on providing support to develop the theories and hypotheses that dictate the required ecological measurements. EMAP is an excellent example of a large program that could benefit from new funding resources for the development of ecological theory and the study of ecological processes. These understandings are particularly important, and lacking, in system interfaces such as land/water interactions and atmosphere/canopy interactions. Funding stability for long-term ecological research can only be attained through a national commitment to the need. The commitment should be directed in a way that is sensitive to, but not controlled by, policy. Policy issues are particularly important as we attempt to deal with major environmental concerns, but long-term ecological research needs to be sufficiently independent of this process in order to maintain continuity and stability.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Van Hook, R. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department