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Development, testing, and certification of CALMAC Manufacturing Corporation solar collector and solar operated pump. Final report

Description: A summary is presented of the final results of the Calmac Manufacturing Corporation of Englewood, New Jersey, for the additional development work on their existing rubber tube solar collector and solar operated pump for use with solar heating and cooling systems. It discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. It is shown that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use, with limitations.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Parker, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water systems

Description: The performance of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water (PV-SDHW) systems has been studied. The direct PV- SDHW system employs a photovoltaic array, a separately excited DC- motor, a centrifugal pump, a thermal collector, and a storage tank. A search methodology for an optimum PV-SDHW system configuration has been proposed. A comparison is made between the long-term performance of a PV-SDHW system and a conventional SDHW system operating under three control schemes. The three schemes are: an ON-OFF flow controlled SDHW system operating at the manufacturer-recommended constant flow rate, and a linear proportional flow controlled SDHW system with the flow proportional to the solar radiation operating under an optimum proportionality. 13 refs., 6 figs.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W. & Beckman, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceptance for Beneficial Use for the 100K Service Water Pumps Auto Start Modifications Project 1K-97-3466M

Description: This Acceptance for Beneficial Use checklist covers the modifications to the K Basins service water pumps that added an auto-start function for reliability of the fire suppression system. The following information is to document the Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) with a checklist and supporting information. The service water pumps have been modified so that on low system pressure after a time delay, the standby pump will automatically start. This ABU checklist matrix indicates the organizations that are responsible for the preparation of --or for the provision of input to--the identified documentation required by K Basins Operations. Looking at the items in the matrix, it can be seen that the subproject does not bear the sole responsibility for the generation of all these items. Rather, many items are outside of the subproject's scope such that other Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) organizations are needed to prepare or perform them (e.g., Training, Procedures, Facility Engineering, Startup, etc.). This supporting document, by virtue of all signatures approving it on the Engineering Data Transmittal, documents an agreement among the various represented disciplines and organizations within the SNF Project as to what is required in terms of documentation to transfer custody to Operations.
Date: March 27, 2000
Creator: MULLER, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part I. Olympic Peninsula Project

Description: This report describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-of-use, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types.
Date: January 9, 2008
Creator: Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Ambrosio, Ron; Carlon, Teresa A.; DeSteese, John G.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial energy conservation-center-pivot site specific irrigation. Final report, January 1995--December 1996

Description: This project was to aid in the development and commercial transfer of site specific technology to industry and farmers. This report contains the results of data collected during the fall of 1996 on a site near Aberdeen, Idaho. This site was equipped to apply water at variable rates predetermined by a digital control map that resided in a computer controller. The flow rates were then adjusted to maintain desired pressure with an Adjustable Speed Drive. Energy consumption was monitored during implementation of site specific irrigation practices and normal irrigation practices. This final report covers the impact that site specific irrigation has on energy use on a irrigated small grain crop near Aberdeen, Idaho. 3 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 27, 1996
Creator: McCann, I.R.; King, B.A. & Brady, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

Description: Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems

Description: Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.
Date: September 15, 1998
Creator: Davidson, J. & Liu, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ permeability measurements with direct push techniques: Phase II topical report

Description: This effort designed, fabricated, and field tested the engineering prototype of the Cone Permeameter{trademark} system. The integrated system includes the instrumented penetrometer probe, air and water pumps, flowrate controls, flow sensors, and a laptop-controlled data system. All of the equipment is portable and can be transported as luggage on airlines. The data system acquired and displays the process measurements (pressures, flows, and downhole temperature) in real time and calculates the resulting permeability. The measurement probe is a 2 inch diameter CPT rod section, incorporating a screened injection zone near the lower end of the rod and multiple sensitive absolute pressure sensors embedded in the probe at varying distances from the injection zone. Laboratory tests in a large test cell demonstrated the system's ability to measure nominally 1 Darcy permeability soil (30 to 40 Darcy material had been successfully measured in the Phase 1 effort). These tests also provided a shakedown of the system and identified minor instrument problems, which were resolved. Supplemental numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the effects of layered permeability (heterogeneity) and anisotropy on the measurement system's performance. The general results of the analysis were that the Cone Permeameter could measure accurately, in heterogeneous media, the volume represented by the sample port radii if the outer pressure ports were used. Anisotropic permeability, while readily analyzed numerically, is more complicated to resolve with the simple analytical approach of the 1-D model, and will need further work to quantify. This phase culminated in field demonstrations at the DOE Savannah River Site. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements were completed at the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin, and air permeability measurements were conducted at the M Area Integrated Demonstration Site and the 321 M area. The saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements were the most successful and compared well to relevant existing data. Air ...
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Lowry, W.; Mason, N.; Chipman, V.; Kisiel, K. & Stockton, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

Description: The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practicefor Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Variable SpeedPumping

Description: Cleanroom energy benchmarking data shows that chiller plant designs and operating efficiencies varied significantly from cleanroom to cleanroom. While system optimization is critical to the overall energy efficiency of chiller plants, the operating efficiency of chilled water and condenser pumps, along with chiller efficiency and cooling tower efficiency, is a major factor in the overall system efficiency. The design and operating efficiency of water pumps directly affects energy use for such facilities. Figure 1 shows benchmarked HVAC energy end use in a semiconductor cleanroom facility. In this case, the water pumps collectively accounted for 17% of the total energy use. Figure 2 shows the electric power demand of the components in a chiller plant system. Pumps accounted for 18% of the total power demand for the whole chiller plant. It is important to design, select, operate, and control water-pumping systems to achieve high efficiency and to lower life-cycle costs for cleanrooms and their adjacent spaces.
Date: June 15, 2005
Creator: Xu, Tengfang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Center Energy Benchmarking: Part 3 - Case Study on an ITEquipment-testing Center (No. 20)

Description: The data center in this study had a total floor area of 3,024 square feet (ft{sup 2}) with one-foot raised-floors. It was a rack lab with 147 racks, and was located in a 96,000 ft{sup 2} multi-story office building in San Jose, California. Since the data center was used only for testing equipment, it was not configured as a critical facility in terms of electrical and cooling supply. It did not have a dedicated chiller system but was served by the main building chiller plant and make-up air system. Additionally it was served by only a single electrical supply with no provision for backup power in the event of a power outage. The Data Center operated on a 24 hour per day, year-round cycle, and users had full-hour access to the data center facility. The study found that data center computer load accounted for 15% of the overall building electrical load, while the total power consumption attributable to the data center including allocated cooling load and lighting was 22% of the total facility load. The density of installed computer loads (rack load) in the data center was 61 W/ft{sup 2}. Power consumption density for all data center allocated load (including cooling and lighting) was 88 W/ft{sup 2}, approximately eight times the average overall power density in rest of the building (non-data center portion). The building and its data center cooling system was provided with various energy optimizing systems that included the following: (1) Varying chilled water flow rate through variable speed drives on the primary pumps. (2) No energy losses due to nonexistence of UPS or standby generators. (3) Minimized under-floor obstruction that affects the delivery efficiency of supply air. (4) Elimination of dehumidification/humidification within the CRAH units. For the data center, 70% of the overall electric power was the ...
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Xu, Tengfang & Greenberg, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

Description: The Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor EHC was evaluated against DOE applications for compressing hydrogen at automobile filling stations, in future hydrogen pipelines and as a commercial replacement for conventional diaphragm hydrogen compressors. It was also evaluated as a modular replacement for the compressors used in petrochemical refineries. If the EHC can be made inexpensive, reliable and long lived then it can satisfy all these applications save pipelines where the requirements for platinum catalyst exceeds the annual world production. The research performed did not completely investigate Molybdenum as a hydrogen anode or cathode, it did show that photoetched 316 stainless steel is inadequate for an EHC. It also showed that: molybdenum bipolar plates, photochemical etching processes, and Gortex Teflon seals are too costly for a commercial EHC. The use of carbon paper in combination with a perforated thin metal electrode demonstrated adequate anode support strength, but is suspect in promoting galvanic corrosion. The nature of the corrosion mechanisms are not well understood, but locally high potentials within the unit cell package are probably involved. The program produced a design with an extraordinary high cell pitch, and a very low part count. This is one of the promising aspects of the redesigned EHC. The development and successful demonstration of the hydraulic cathode is also important. The problem of corrosion resistant metal bipolar plates is vital to the development of an inexpensive, commercial PEM fuel cell. Our research suggests that there is more to the corrosion process in fuel cells and electrochemical compressors than simple, steady state, galvanic stability. It is an important area for scientific investigation. The experiments and analysis conducted lead to several recommended future research directions. First, we need a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of experimental cells with titration to determine the loss of membrane active ...
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Bloomfield, David P. & MacKenzie, Brian S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibration control in accelerators

Description: In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Montag, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of component failures in downhole geothermal pumping systems. Final report

Description: This study investigated component failures in electric, downhole submersible pumps which prevented the attainment of one year continuous downhole running times in geothermal wells at temperatures up to 375/sup 0/F. The feasibility of a pressurized motor to prevent brine intrusion was investigated, as well as improved pothead and packoff designs, and brine scale buildup on impeller sleeve bearings and thrust washers. (ACR)
Date: March 15, 1985
Creator: Werner, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of a mill tailings thickener installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s Smoky Canyon Mine under the Energy $avings Plan

Description: This report describes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the impact of an energy conservation project completed in the fall of 1992. The project (a mill tailings thickener) was installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s (Simplot`s) Smoky Canyon Mine in Caribou County, Idaho near Afton, Wyoming. The project at Simplot is one in a continuing series of industrial energy conservation projects to have its impact evaluated by PNL. All of the projects have received or will receive acquisition payments from the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) under the Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The E$P is being offered to reduce electricity consumption in the industrial sector of Bonneville`s service territory. For the Simplot project, the acquisition payment offered under the program was equal to the lesser of 10{cents}/kilowatt-hour (kWh) saved in the first year or 80% of eligible project costs, up to a limit of $250,000. The general objective of the impact evaluation was to determine how much electricity is saved by the project and at what cost to Bonneville and to the region.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Spanner, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

Description: This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J. & VanArsdale, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

Description: High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.
Date: April 11, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of methodology for seismic qualification of equipment, cable trays, and ducts in ALWR plants by use of experience data

Description: Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) has developed a methodology for seismic qualification of equipment, cable trays and ducts in Advanced Light Water Reactor plants. A Panel (members of which acted as individuals) supported by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has evaluated this methodology. The review approach and observations are included in this report. In general, the Panel supports the ARC methodology with some exceptions and provides recommendations for further improvements. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Date: July 1997
Creator: Bandyopadhyay, K. K.; Kana, D. D.; Kennedy, R. P. & Schiff, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the ...
Date: October 31, 2004
Creator: Withum, J. A.; Tseng, S. C. & Locke, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal pumping systems

Description: Improvements in electric submersible pumping systems have resulted in a demonstrated downhole running life of one year for low horsepower units operating in 180{sup 0}C brine. The implementation of a prototype pressurized lubrication system to prevent brine intrusion and loss of lubricating oil from the motor and protector sections has been successfully tested. Second generation pressurized lubrication systems have been designed and fabricated and will be utilized in downhole production pumping tests during FY 84. Pumping system lifetime is currently limited by available power cable designs that are degraded by high-temperature brine. A prototype metal-sheathed power cable has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing destructive and nondestructive laboratory testing. This cable design has the potential for eliminating brine intrusion into the power delivery system through the use of a hermetically sealed cable from the surface to the downhole motor.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Hanold, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Directly coupled solar thermal water pumping concepts for agriculture. Final report, October 1978-May 1979

Description: The directly coupled solar thermal water pumping system has been analyzed for both performance and cost. Performance estimates for a real operating system exceed 8% for the typical environmental conditions expected. The cost of such a system, using currently available flat-panel collectors, is highly competitive with alternative, remote location, water pumping systems. Although the system has a fairly low relative cost, there are areas such as valve and actuator cost that have a high potential for reducing system cost, especially for smaller systems. The performance of the system can be improved by high-performance, moderate-temperature collectors such as evacuated glass tubes. The advantages of the directly coupled solar thermal system are simplicity and limited failure modes. Results of the experimental phase indicate that the analytic models provide an accurate estimate of achievable system performance.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Scharlack, R S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department