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Measurements of the total CO[sub 2] concentration and partial pressure of CO[sub 2] in seawater during WOCE expeditions in the South Pacific Ocean

Description: During the first year of the grant, we participated in three WOCE expeditions (a total of 152 days at sea) in the South Pacific Ocean, and the field phase of the proposed investigation has been successfully completed. The total CO[sub 2] concentration and pCO[sub 2] were determined at sea in 4419 water samples collected at 422 stations. On the basis of the shipboard analyses of SIO Reference Solutions for CO, and a comparison with the results of previous expeditions, the overall precision of our total CO[sub 2] determinations is estimated to be about [plus minus]2 uM/kg. The deep water data indicate that there is a CO[sub 2] maximum centered about 2600 meters deep. This appears to represent a southward return flow from the North Pacific. The magnitude and distribution of the CO, maximum observed along the 135.0[degrees]W meridian differ from those observed along the 150.5[degrees]W meridian due to Tuamotu Archipelago, a topographic high which interferes with the southward return flow. The surface water pCO[sub 2] data indicate that the South Pacific sub-tropical gyre water located between about 15[degrees]S and 50[degrees]S is a sink for atmospheric CO[sub 2].
Date: June 29, 1993
Creator: Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J. G.; Chipman, D. W. & Rubin, S. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stochastic analysis of contaminant transport: One-dimensional non-reactive and reactive cases

Description: A reliability approach for probabilistic modeling of one-dimensional non-reactive and reactive transport in porous media provides two important quantitative results: (1) an estimate of the probability that dimensionless concentration equals or exceeds some specified level and, (2) the sensitivity of the probabilistic outcome to likely changes in each uncertain variable. The reliability approach is particularly attractive because it can incorporate various marginal probability density functions (PDF) for any of the uncertain variables. In this work uncertain variables include: groundwater flow velocity, diffusion coefficient, dispersivity, distribution coefficient, porosity and bulk density. The primary objective is to examine how the probabilistic outcome is influenced by choice of marginal PDF, correlation and magnitude of uncertainty for the variables. Because little information exists concerning the statistical characteristics of these uncertain variables, the investigation assumes a wide range of PDF types and statistical values in order to identify and isolate the most critical issues for further study. Results indicate that, even for very slow mean velocity, the probability estimate for non-reactive transport is most sensitive to uncertain flow velocity. For practical analysis, it appears acceptable to treat dispersivity as a deterministic constant. For non-reactive transport, correlation between flow velocity and diffusion coefficient has a slight impact, but correlation among other combinations of uncertain variables is not important. 34 refs., 10 tabs.
Date: December 3, 1990
Creator: Cawlfield, J.D. & Wu, Ming-Chee.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of gas chromatographic system for dissolved organic carbon analysis in seawater

Description: During the first six months of this two-year grant, we have completed the construction of the analytical portion of a prototype gas chromatograph-based system for the analysis of dissolved organic carbon in seawater. We also have begun testing the procedures to be used to cryogenically concentrate and transfer carbon dioxide from the oxidizing atmosphere of the high-temperature furnace into the reducing hydrogen carrier gas of the gas chromatograph. During the second half of the first year, we will construct the high-temperature catalytic oxidation furnace and test the entire system on laboratory-prepared aqueous solutions of various organic compounds. Also during this period, we will take part in an initial scoping study within the Cape Hatteras field area on board the R/V Gyre. This study will involve both the collection of samples of seawater for organic and inorganic carbon analysis and the measurement of surface-water pCO[sub 2].
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Chipman, D.W. & Takahashi, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE]

Description: This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO[sub 2]. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO[sub 2] on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO[sub 2] in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

Description: This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Korte, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater quality assessment plan for the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility

Description: The Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (MLHWMF) will be closed under interim status regulation and permitted as a hazardous waste management facility by a Post Closure Part B Permit under 40 CFR 264. This report discusses the ground water quality assessment plan for the MLHWMF. The Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility consists of the process sewer line leading to the Metallurgical Laboratory basin from the fence, the Metallurgical Laboratory basin, the drainage outfall to the Carolina bay, and the Carolina bay itself. The Metallurgical Laboratory HWMF received F001, F003, F007, and D011 waste. F001 waste includes spent halogenated solvents used in degreasing (trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride). F003 waste includes spent nonhalogenated solvents (acetone), and F007 waste is spent cyanide plating bath solution. At present forty-three constituents are analyzed per sample. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and total radium are the only constituents that were reported above Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) during the second quarter of 1990. Listed in this report are the constituents that are being analyzed at present. Appendix A presents the trends for the analyzed constituents from the fourth quarter of 1988 to the second quarter of 1990. 5 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Jerome, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A proposed strategy for assessing compliance with the RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring regulations

Description: To satisfy the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring regulations, a hazardous waste management facility must have a ground-water monitoring system consisting of at least one upgradient and three downgradient wells and show that the downgradient wells are capable of immediately detecting a statistically significant amount of contamination at the water table. Because the regulations are subjective, it is often difficult for the owner/operator and the regulator to assess whether a monitor-well network satisfies the regulations. A probabilistic strategy is presented which satisfies the regulations and attempts to minimize subjectively in evaluating the performance of a monitor-well network. The proposed strategy is based on a determination of the likely ground-water flow paths through both the unsaturated and saturated zones and ground-water travel times. The approach involves three stages of analysis: (1) optimization of monitor well location, (2) evaluation of the sampling interval, and (3) assessing the monitoring well network performance through time. 11 refs., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Parsons, A.M. & Davis, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

Description: For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Narasimhan, T.N. & Apps, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary field demonstration of a fiber-optic TCE sensor. [Trichloroethylene (TCE)]

Description: We have developed a differential-absorption fiber-optic sensor for use in groundwater and vadose zone monitoring of certain volatile organochlorines. The principle of detection is a quantitative, irreversible chemical reaction that forms visible light-absorbing products. The sensor has been evaluated against gas chromatographic (GC) standard measurements and has demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity sufficient for the environmental monitoring of trace levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform. This sensor is currently under evaluation in monitoring well and vadose zone applications. In this paper, we describe the principles of the existing single measurement sensor technology and show preliminary field-test results. 3 refs., 8 figs.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Angel, S.M.; Langry, K.; Roe, J.; Colston, B.W. Jr.; Daley, P.F. & Milanovich, F.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategy for conducting environmental surveillance of groundwater to comply with DOE orders

Description: This document defines the strategy for conducting environmental surveillance of groundwater quality at Department of Energy (DOE) installations as it will be implemented by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The primary objectives of defining this generic strategy prior to developing site-specific plans are to: clearly differentiate between effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance as they apply to groundwater, describe the principles and concepts of groundwater flow that must be considered when establishing a groundwater surveillance program, and provide for a consistent approach to developing plant-specific groundwater surveillance plans. 18 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Forstrom, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of interfacial properties on two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater

Description: The purpose of this project is to investigate how changes in interfacial chemical properties affect two-phase transport relationships. Specifically, the objective is to develop a quantitative theory that will enable the prediction of changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationship, a fundamental constitutive relationship in multiphase flow modeling, from changes in interfacial properties through a knowledge of their effect on wettability. The information presented here summarizes the progress we have made in the first project period. Based on preliminary adsorption, surface charge and surface potential measurements, we have demonstrated that it is possible to change the wettability of silica in a controlled manner by adsorbing varying quantities of a strongly-binding, cationic surfactant like cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Adsorption, surface charge and surface potential measurements have been made on the silica-water-CTAB system to yield a relationship between the amount adsorbed and the interfacial potential. Our work on the ideal soil model has demonstrated that the incorporation of roughness effects in the ideal soil model improves the prediction of the operative contact angles for drainage and imbibition from the intrinsic contact angle. This leads to better estimates of the capillary pressure-saturation relationships. Preliminary capillary pressure experiments on the silica-water-air system have shown that adsorption of a surfactant at the solid surface changes the capillary pressure-saturation relationship significantly.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Hayes, K.F. & Demond, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

Description: In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.
Date: January 1, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Incorporation of an organic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using independent data sources]. [MAGIC Model]

Description: A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) incorporate a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC model of acidification response, and (2) test the revised model using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid modeling approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid model with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for model calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Sullivan, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved solvents for seawater desalination (the Puraq process)

Description: The Puraq process for desalinating seawater is based on solven extraction of fresh water from seawater using specially tailored liquid polymers with molecular weights of 3000 or less. This polymeric solvent insures that the solubility of solvent in the coexistent aqueous phases within the process will be essentially zero. Although it was indicated earlier that the upper limit of polymer content in recycle solvent stream could not exceed 92%, this restrictive upper limit could be exceeded by broadening the field of possible polymer compositions used in choosing a particular sample. This would further decrease the projected cost of product water from $2.03 to $1.08 per thousand gallons. Presence in the polymer of water-soluble components prevented the separation of water droplets when determining the cloud point with small amounts of water in the sample. A number of measurements of true'' phase points indicated that for most samples, the difference in temperatures of phase separation between compositions of 80 and 98% was 15 C or less.
Date: January 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

Description: Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: French, J.H. & Strunk, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oceanic CO sub 2 measurements for the WOCE hydrological survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992

Description: The DOE Carbon Dioxide Science Team is contributing measurements of the carbon system in sea water on transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey sponsored by the United States. This project is to provide measurements of titration alkalinity of sea water, an effort that is in addition to our collecting samples of sea water brought back to our shore laboratory and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity. Our original proposal called for approximately 1200 analyses at sea in 1991 and 4400 in 1992. In preparation for measurements at sea, the project budget called for the construction of a dual potentiometric sea-going titration system. The titration system is of novel design in order to achieve at sea as close as possible the same high precision that we have previously achieved in the laboratory using gravimetric procedures. Two motor driven precision syringes dispense sea water volumetrically to two titration cells, each separately connected to a Dosimat acid dispenser. Each system is driven by a notebook computer that analyzes the full titration curve of sea water and calculates the alkalinity.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Keeling, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1988

Description: This annual report of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) summarizes the activities of the Board and its subgroups during 1988, its sixth year of existence. Included are descriptions of current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1989, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is intended to provide an introduction to the WSTB and summary of its program for the year.
Date: January 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1989

Description: This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) and its subgroups during 1989, it seventh year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1990, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is an introduction to the WSTB and its program for the year. 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

Description: The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kilbane, J.J. II.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a field experiment for injection of natural colloids in a sandy coastal plain aquifer, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Georgetown, South Carolina

Description: This report summarizes the design of field injection experiments that constitute one task in the larger project described in the report Experiments Using Natural Organics.'' In the experiment, we plan to inject a large volume of colloidal organic matter (COM) into a sandy, unconsolidated coastal aquifer and observe the migration of COM into the groundwater flow system. The report provides a brief overview of the research project, including hypotheses to be tested; describes the purpose of the field injection experiments; summarizes the site characterization preliminary to the experiments; and explains the design of the experiments. 11 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Toran, L.E.; McCarthy, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)) & Williams, T.M. (Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (USA). Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Inst.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

Description: The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A. & Ditmars, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ detection of organic molecules: Optrodes for TCE (trichloroethylene) and CHCl sub 3

Description: We have developed new absorption-based chemical indicators for detecting chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). These indicators were used to make very sensitive optical chemical sensors (optrodes) for each of these two contaminants. Concentrations below 10 ppb can be accurately measured using these sensors. Furthermore, they are selective and do not response to similar contaminants commonly found with TCE and CHCl{sub 3} in contaminated groundwater. In addition, the sensor response is linearly proportional to the chemical concentration. In this report, we describe the details of this optrode and the putative reaction sequences of the indicator chemistries with CHCl{sub 3} and TCE and present an analysis of the spectral data obtained from the reaction products. A key part of the development of this optrode was designing a simple readout device. The readout is a dual-channel fiber-optic fluorimeter modified to measure transmission or absorption of light. The system is controlled by a lap-top microcomputer and is fully field portable. In addition to describing the final absorption optrode, details of the chemical indicator reactions are presented for both absorption- (colorimetric) and fluorescence-based optrodes. Finally, we report on the syntheses of several compounds used to evaluate the indicator chemical reactions that led to the development of the absorption optrode. 23 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Angel, S. M.; Langry, K. C. & Ridley, M. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Advanced Oxidation Process for the Treatment of Groundwater

Description: An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.
Date: 1990~
Creator: Garland, Sidney B., II; Peyton, Gary R. & Rice, Larry E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications: A brief review

Description: Understanding the flow a groundwater quality. This understanding is achieved by measurement of the appropriate chemical and physical subsurface parameters. The ideal measurement would accurately assess a parameter without affecting the parameter or its environment. Fiber optic spectroscopy offers some of the most promising techniques for accurate, non-invasive measurements of environmental parameters. Fiber optic sensors for subsurface applications are currently being developed by several Department of Energy laboratories. Some of these sensors have been successfully deployed in the field and are attaining the goals of accurate, noninvasive, real time measurements in the subsurface.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Rossabi, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department