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Development of the Flow Sheet for Incinerating Contaminated Combustible Waste: Engineering Research Final Report

Description: From introduction: This report serves as a recommendation that a full-scale incineration process be installed at Mound Laboratory and provides a complete flow sheet for this process and recommended designs for the critical parts of the processing equipment. It contains justification for the process, a history of the investigation including early work and pilot plant results, an explanation of the values and information given in the flow sheet, and the reasons for the recommended design features.
Date: May 15, 1951
Creator: McEwen, M.; Schauer, P. J. & Aponyi, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes nearback-filled and open-drift nuclear waste repositories in Task D of theInternational DECOVALEX Project

Description: As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, fourresearch teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal,hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground wasteemplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two genericrepository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repositorydrifts, under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. Inthe completed first model inception phase of the project, a goodagreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THMresponses for both repository types, although some disagreement inhydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement inthe basic thermal-mechanical responses was also achieved for bothrepository types, even though some teams used relatively simplifiedthermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-fieldthermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complexand simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanicalresponses can be predicted with a relatively high confidencelevel.
Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu,Quan-Sheng; Oda, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories

Description: As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.
Date: October 23, 2007
Creator: Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

Description: As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.
Date: August 2, 2006
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Simulation Syudy of Coupled THM Processes near Back-Filled and Open-Drift Nuclear Waste Repositories in Task D of International DECOVALEX Project

Description: As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was also achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.
Date: May 8, 2006
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.S.; Oda, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Tank Waste from the Past Production of Nuclear Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: How to safely dispose of wastes from producing nuclear weapons has been an ongoing issue. The most radioactive portion of these wastes is stored in underground tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Idaho, South Carolina, and Washington State. There have been concerns about soil and groundwater contamination from some of the tanks that have leaked. This report provides background information on the disposal of radioactive tank waste, analyzes waste disposal authority in P.L. 108-375, and examines potential implications for environmental cleanup.
Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization and Stabilization of Mineral Wastes

Description: From Abstract: "This report summarizes laboratory research conducted by the Bureau and cooperative field studies made with the mineral industry to reduce the environmental impacts of air and water pollution deriving from mineral wastes."
Date: unknown
Creator: Dean, K. C.; Frolsland, L. J. & Shirts, M. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks

Description: This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38, and 41.
Date: February 18, 2003
Creator: Jones (contact), R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

Description: The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).
Date: December 14, 1999
Creator: GREAGER, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

Description: The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.
Date: November 15, 1999
Creator: MACLEAN, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks

Description: This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38 and 41.
Date: July 9, 2002
Creator: Pike, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

Description: This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.
Date: December 6, 1999
Creator: WILLS, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Procedure for Determining Leachabilities of Radioactive Waste Forms

Description: Integrity and durability of solid radioactive wastes are related principally to rates at which waste constituents are leached into environmental water. This paper discusses a new and improved procedure which was developed for determining leachabilities of proposed radioactive waste forms. While no laboratory procedure can be expected to duplicate all possible environmental conditions, a single test is desirable to compare the leaching properties of solid waste forms produced in different laboratories.
Date: October 23, 2001
Creator: Kelley, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: An International Center of Excellence

Description: The United States Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is responsible for the successful management of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) in the United States. TRUW is a long-lived radioactive waste/material (LLRM). CBFO's responsibilities includes the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a deep geologic repository for the safe disposal of U.S. defense-related TRUW and is located 42 kilometers (km) east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP is the only deep-geological disposal site for LLRM that is operating in the world today. CBFO also manages the National Transuranic Waste Program (NTP), which oversees TRU waste management from generation to disposal. As of February 2003, approximately 1500 shipments of waste have been safely transported to the WIPP, which has been operating since March 1999.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Matthews, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-flow Ultrafiltration Scaling Considerations

Description: One legacy of the nuclear age is radioactive waste and it must be stabilized to be stored in a safe manner. An important part of the stabilization process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. The performance of this technology with the wastes to be treated was unknown and, therefore, had to be obtained. However, before beginning a filter study the question of experimental scale had to be addressed. Of course, carrying out experiments using full-size equipment is always ideal, but rarely practical when dealing with plant size processes. Flow loops that will handle millions of liters of slurries, which are either highly caustic or acidic, with flow rates of 10,000 lpm make full-scale tests prohibitively expensive. Moreover, when the slurries happen to be radioactive such work is also very dangerous. All of these considerations lend themselves to investigations at smaller scales and in many situations can be treated with computational analyses. Unfortunately, as scale is reduced it becomes harder to provide prototypic results and the two and three phase multi-component mixtures challenge accurate computational results. To obtain accurate and representative filter results the use of two scales were chosen: (1) Small-scale--would allow the testing with actual radioactive waste samples and compare results with simulated wastes that were not radioactive. For this scale the feed tank held 6 liters of waste and it had a single cross-flow filter tube 0.61 m long. (2) Pilot-scale--would be restricted to use simulated non-radioactive wastes. At this larger scale the feed tank held 120 liters of waste and the filter unit was prototypic to the planned plant facility in pore size (0.1 micron), length (2.29 m), diameter (0.0127 m inside and 0.0159 m outside diameter), and being multi-tubed. The small-scale apparatus is convenient, easy to use, and can ...
Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Duignan, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) Waste Management Project

Description: This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program.
Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: VOLKMAN, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Animal Waste and Hazardous Substances: Current Laws and Legislative Issues

Description: This report describes the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, the Superfund law) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), and enforcement actions under these laws that have increasingly been receiving attention. Congressional scrutiny in the form of legislative proposals and two House hearings are discussed. Bills intended to exempt animal manure from the requirements of Superfund and EPCRA were introduced in the 109th Congress. Similar bills were introduced in the 110th Congress (H.R. 1398 and S. 807), but no legislation has been enacted. Issues raised by the legislation are analyzed.
Date: January 21, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department